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/6 '^fi''*'^^^^^^-^ " 



Unam qoandam ac certain et simplicem aententiam ubiqne 
qaeerendam esse. — Melanchthon. 







JOEL 89 

AMOS 125 


JONAH 199 

MICAH 221 

NAHUM 269 







Paob 6, after line S, rtad " And make her like i dry land." 
60, line 9, read '< Oibeab " fw <* Gilead." 
7a, — 3, read " with ue" for " with him." 
122, — 10, read " mountains " fur " mountain." 
150, — 81, read " Cyrus " fw " Cyprus." 
173, — 2, r«ki "line "/or "lot" 
192, — 8, read " Mount Esau" fw " Fsau." 
195, — 45, read " blbit" fw " libit." 
203, — 15, read " one of the most" for " the most" 
287, — IS, read " Cyrus" for " Cyprus," 
265, i^fler line 9, read ** Eren firom Egypt to the river." 
272, line 4, read " Nahum" for " Micah." 
334, — 14, read " (he day of anger " for " anger." 
S«, — 4, rearf "your "/or "their." 


The Minor Prophets are first mentioned as the Twelve by 
Jesus the Son of Sirach,* Under this designation, they also 
occur in the Talmudic tract, entitled Baba Bathra;' and 
Jerome specifies, as the eighth in the second division of the 
sacred books of the Jews, The Book of the Twelve Prophets, 
which, he says, they call Thereaaar.^ Mehto, who is the first 
of the Greek Fathers that has left us a catalogue of these 
books, uses precisely the same language.^ That they were 
regarded as forming one collective body of writings at a still 
earUer period, appears from the reference made by the proto- 
martyr Stephen to the Book of the Prophets,* when quoting 
Amos V. 27. The same style is employed by the Rabbins, 
who call Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve, the Four 
Latter Prophets/ They are also spoken of as one book by 

' Kal rHv d 'dtxa wpo<l>rfT»» ra oara dvaBakoi iic tov roirov avrcip, Ecclua« 
xlix. 10. 

» txf nn ; or, as it is generally contracted, "^Dnn. 

* r»v doftdfjca iv fiovo/3(/9Xi^. 

' Ka0<»t yiypairrat €v Bt/SX^ rcSy irpo<firjT»Vf Acts vii. 42. 

• crmM mm nniK. 


Gregory Nazianzen, in his poem, setting forth the component 
parts of the sacred volume,* 

At what time, and by whom they were collected, cannot be 
determined with certainty. According to Jewish tradition, 
the collection of the sacred books generally is attributed to the 
men of the Great Synagogue, a body of learned Scribes, said 
to have been formed by Ezra, and continuing in existence till 
the time of Simon the Just, who flourished early in the third 
century before Christ. In the opinion of many, Nehemiah 
completed this collection, by adding to those books which had 
abeady obtained a place in the canon, such as had been written 
in, or near his own times.^ If this actually was the case, it 
cannot be doubted that he must have availed himself of the 
authority of Malachi in determining what books were really 
entitled to this distinction ; and this Prophet, who was the last 
in the series of inspired writers under the ancient dispensation, 
may thus be considered to have given to the canon the 
sanction of Divine approbation. Within a. century and a half 
afterwards, they were translated into Greek, along with the 
rest of the sacred books, and have ever since obtained an 
undisputed place among the oracles of God. 

To these twelve prophetical books the epithet " Minor " has 
been appUed, simply on the ground of their size, compared 
with that of those which precede them, and not with any view 

' Mtav fiiv clfrip €S ypa<j>rjv ol AcodcKO' 
'Qa7j€ K *Afuof, Kol Mixaias 6 rpiros, 

Naovfi T€f 'AfijiaicovK re koI 2o<j>oviaf, 

'Ayyaiof, ctira Zaxopaias, MoXaxiar , 

Mia fj^v oJ^€, Carmen xxxiii. 

Kai (OS KaTafiaXK6fi€Vot pifiXaBi^icrfv, cTTKruv^yayc ra V€pi rav ffaa-ikiiap 

Koi irpoffifiT&v, Koi ra rov ^avXbi kclI cirtoroXcl; fiatriKttov ntpX avaBtpMTcav. 
2 Mace. ii. 13. 


of detractmg from their value, or of representing them as in 
any respect inferior in point of authority. 

The books are not arranged in the same order in the 
Hebrew and Septuagint texts, and in neither is the chronology 
exactly observed, as may be seen from the following table, 
in which the mean time is assiuned as the basis of the cal- 
culation : — 




1. Hosea. 

1. Hosea. 

1. Joel 

. about 865 b.c. 

2. JocL 

2. Amos. 

2. Jonah • . . 

. — 810 

3. Amos. 

3. Micah. 

3. Amos. . • . 

. — 790 

4. Obadiah. 

4. Joel. 

4. Hosea .... 

. — 750 

5. Jonah. 

5. Obadiah. 

5. Micah .... 

. — 730 

6. Micah. 

6. Jonab. 

6. Nahum . . . 

. — 710 

7. Nahuin. 

7. Nahum. 

7. Zephaniah . 


8. Habakkuk. 

8. Habakkuk. 

8. Habakkuk 


9. 2^pbamab. 

9. Zephaniah. 

9. Obadiah. . . 


10. Haggai. 

10. Haggai. 

10. Haggai . . . 

. — 520 

11. 2^chaTiah. 

11. Zecbariab. 

11. Zecbariab . 


12. Malachi. 

12. Malacbi. 

12. Malacbi. . . 

— 440 

Newcome, Boothroyd, and some other translators, have 
adopted the order which appeared to them to be chronologically 
correct; but in the present work that is retained which is 
found in the Hebrew Bible, and followed in the Vulgate, in 
all the authorized European versions, and in those of Michaelis, 
Dathe, De Wette, and others, simply on the ground of the 
facility of reference, which the other arrangement does not 
afford, but which is practically of greater importance than any 
advantage derivable from the change. 

The Minor Prophets have generally been considered more 
obscure and difficult of interpretation than any of the other 
prophetical books of the Old Testament. Besides the avoidance 
of a minute and particular style of description, and the 


exhibition of the more general aspects of events only, which 
are justly regarded as essentially characteristic of prophecy, and 
the exuberance of imagery, which was so admirably calculated 
to give eflTect to the oracles deUvered by the inspired Seers, 
but which to us does not possess the vividness and perspicuity 
which it did to those to whom it was originally exhibited, 
there are pecuUarities attaching more or less to each of the 
writers, arising either from his matter, or from the manner of 
its treatment, which present difficulties of no ordinary mag- 
nitude to common readers, and many that are calculated to 
exercise the ingenuity, and, in no small degree, to perplex the 
mind of the more experienced interpreter. We are frequently 
left to guess historical circumstances from what we otherwise 
know of the features of the times, and sometimes we have no 
other means of ascertaining their character than what are 
furnished by the descriptive terms employed in the predictions 
themselves. Though in such cases general ideas may be 
collected respecting the persons or things which are presented 
to view in the text, yet we want the- historical commentary 
which would elucidate and give point to its various particulars. 
The accounts contained in the books of Kings and Chronicles 
are frequently too brief to furnish us vdth a key to many of 
the prophecies which were fulfilled during the period which 
they embrace; while the pages of profane history only 
sUghtly touch, if they touch at all, upon events which the 
scope and bearing of the predictions determine to periods 
within the range of subjects professedly treated of by its 

Agamst none of these prophets has the charge of obscurity 
been brought vnth greater appearance of justice than against 
Hosea, whose prophecies are obviously, for the most part. 


mere compendia, or condensed notes of what he publicly 
delivered, though preserving, to a considerable extent, the 
logical and verbal forms which characterised his discourses. 
Besides a profusion of metaphors, many of which are derived 
from sources little accordant with the dictates of occidental 
taste, we find in his book a conciseness of expression, an 
abruptness of transition, a paucity of connecting particles, 
and changes in person, number, and gender, to which nothing 
equal occurs in any of the other prophets. The visions of 
Zechariah also are not without their difficulties; but these 
arise, not from the language, which is remarkably simple in 
its character, but from the symbols which represent certain 
historical scenes and events. 

The period of time within which the authors of the books 
flourished, includes the entire prophetic cycle of more than 
four hundred years — ^Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel, 
having also lived in it. It is unquestionably the most eventful 
in the history of the Hebrews. It embraces the introduction 
of image-worship, and that of Phoenicean idolatry, with all its 
attendant evils, among the Israehtes ; the regicidal murders 
and civil wars which shook their kingdom to its centre ; the 
corruptions of the Jewish state in consequence of its adoption 
of the idolatrous practices of the northern tribes ; the Assyrian 
and Egyptian alliances ; the irruption of the Syrian, Assyrian, 
and Chaldean armies into Palestine ; the Assyrian and Baby- 
lonian captivities; the Persian conquests; the release of the 
Jews, and their restoration to their own land ; and the state of 
affairs at Jerusalem during the governorship of Nehemiah. 
Upon all these various events and circumstances, the pre- 
dictions, warnings, threatenings, promises, and moral lessons, 
have, in a multiplicity of aspects, a more or less pointed and 


important bearing. Events subsequent to this period likewise 
form the subjects of prophetic announcement — such as the 
progress of Alexander the Great; the successes of the 
Maccabees ; the corruptions which prevailed in the last times 
of the Jewish state; the destruction of Jerusalem by the 
Romans ; the dispersion, future conversion, and restoration of 
the Jews ; and the universal establishment of true religion 
throughout the world. Intermingled with these topics, and 
giving to each a significance and interest which it could not 
otherwise have possessed, are some of the clearest and most 
illustrious predictions respecting the Messiah, in his divine 
and human, his sacerdotal . and suffering, and his regal and 
all-conquering character, that are to be found in the Old 

It is impossible seriously to peruse this collection of pro- 
phetical vmtings without discovering the Omniscient Eye to 
which aU future events, with the most minute of their 
attendant circumstances, are present ; the Omnipotent Arm, 
which, in the most difficult cases, secures the accomplishment 
of the Divine purposes ; the glorious attributes of Jehovah as 
the Moral Governor of the universe, and the special Friend 
and Protector of his people ; the deep depravity of the human 
heart; the multiform phases of moral evil; and the just 
retributions which befal mankind in the present state of exist- 
ence. These, and numerous subjects of a kindred nature, 
furnish abundance of matter " profitable for doctrine, for 
reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness," 
which, while it is able to make " men wise unto salvation, 
through faith which is in Christ Jesus," is also admirably fitted 
to " make the man of God perfect, throughly furnished unto 
all good works." 2 Tim. iii. 15 — 17. 


The principles on which the Author has proceeded in pre- 
paring the present work are the same by which he was guided 
in composing his Commentary on the Prophet Isaiah. It has 
been his great aim to present to the view of his readers the 
mind of the Spirit as expressed in the written dictates of 
inspiration. With the view of determining this, he has laid 
under contribution all the means within his reach, in order 
to ascertain the original state of the Hebrew text, and the 
true and unsophisticated meaning of that text. He has 
constantly had recourse to the collection of various readings 
made by Kennicott and De Rossi; he has compared the 
renderings of the LXX., the Targum, the Sjrriac, the Arabic, 
the Vulgate, and other ancient versions ; he has consulted the 
best critical commentaries ; he has availed himself of the 
results of modem philological research ; and he has conducted 
the whole under the influence of a disposition to place himself 
in the times of the sacred writers — surrounded by the scenery 
which they exhibit, and impressed by the different associations, 
both of a poUtical and a spiritual character, which they embody. 
In aU his investigations he has endeavoured to cherish a deep 
conviction of the inspired authority of the books which it has 
been his object to illustrate, and of the heavy responsibility 
which attaches to all who undertake the interpretation of the 
oracles of God. 

In no instance has the theory of a double sense been per- 
mitted to exert its influence on his expositions. The Author is 
firmly convinced, that the more this theory is impartially 
examined, the more it will be found that it goes to unsettle 
the foundations of Divine Truth, unhinge the mind of the 
biblical student, invite the sneer and ridicule of unbelievers, 
and open the door to the extravagant vagaries of a wild and 


unbridled imagination. Happily the number of those who 
adhere to the multiform method of interpretation is rapidly 
diminishing ; and there cannot be a doubt, that, in proportion 
as the principles of sacred hermeneutics come to be more 
severely studied, and perversions of the word of God, here- 
ditarily kept up under the specious garb of spirituality and a 
more profound understanding of Scripture, are discovered 
and exposed, the necessity of abandoning such slippery and 
untenable ground will be recognised, and the plain, simple, 
grammatical and natural species of interpretation, adopted and 



Respecting the origin of this prophet nothing is known beyond 
what is stated in the title, ver* 1. If, as is now generally agreed, 
Jeroboam II. died about the year B.C. 784, and Hezekiah began to 
reign about B.C. 728, it would appear from the same verse that 
the period of his ministry must have embraced, at the very lecu5t> 
fifty-six years. To some this has seemed incredible, chiefly on the 
groimd that his prophecies are comprised within the compass of 
fourteen brief chapters. It must be remembered, however, that 
the prophets were not uninterruptedly occupied with the delivery 
of oracular matter. Sometimes considerable intervals elapsed 
between their conmiunications, although there can be no doubt 
that, having once been called to the ofllce of public teachers, they 
devoted much of their time to the instruction of the people among 
whom they lived. Besides, there is no reason for believing that 
the contents of the book are a^ that he ever uttered. They con- 
stitute only such portions of his inspired communications respecting 
the Israelites, as the Holy Spirit saw fit to preserve for the benefit 
of the Jews, among whose sacred writings they were. incorporated. 

Hosea was cotemporary with Isaiah, Micah, and Amos, and, 
like the last-mentioned • prophet, directed his prophecies chiefly 
against the kingdom of the ten tribes. 



From the general tenor of his hook, and from the history of the 
times contained in the Books of Kings, he manifestly lived in a 
very corrupt age. Idolatry, a fondness for foreign alliances, civil 
distractions, and vice of every description abounded, the impending 
judgments on account of which he was commissioned to announce. 

Though he occasionally mentions Judah, yet the entire scene 
IS laid in the land of Israel, where, there can he little doubt, he 
lived and taught. 

With the exception of the first and third chapters, which are in 
prose, the book is rhythmical, and abounds in highly figurative and 
metaphorical language. The diction is exceedingly concise and 
laconic ; so much so, that Jerome justly describes him as " com- 
maticus et quasi per sententias loquens." The sentences axe in 
general brief and unconnected ; the unexpected change of person 
is of frequent occurrence ; number and gender are often neglected ; 
and the similes and metaphors axe frequently so intermixed, that 
no small degree of attention is required in order to discover their 
exact bearing and force. He is more scanty in his use of the 
particles than the other prophets, which adds not a little to the 
difficulty of interpreting his prophecies. In many instances he is 
highly animated, energetic, and sublime. Of all the prophets he 
is, in point of language, the most obscure and hard to be un- 


This chapter conUuns the inscriptioDi ver. 1 ; a representation of the idolatrous 
kingdom of Israel under the image of a female, whom the prophet was ordered 
to marry, hut who should prove false to him, 2, 3 ; and of the punishment with 
which it was to be visited, by the symbolical names of the prophet's children, 
together with a distinct intimation, that the kingdom of Judah should not he 
involved in the same destruction, 4 — 8. It concludes with a gracious promise 
of the joint restoration of all the tribes, and their flourishing condition in the 
land of their fathers, subsequent to the Babylonish captivity. 

1 The word of Jeliovali which was communicated to Hosea, the son of 

Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Heiekiah, kings 
of Judah ; and in the days of Jeroboam^ the son of Joasb, king 
of Israel* 

2 The beginning of the word of Jehovah by Hosea. Jehovah said to 
Hosea : Go^ take thee a lewd woman, and lewd children, for the 

]. The kin?8 here mentioned are those nification, only adding another verb, as 

specified in the inscription to the pro- communicated, imparted, Qt such like, to 

pnecies of Isaiah, with the addition of suit the English idiom. 

Jeroboam, the son of Joash, commonly 2. na? is equivalent to W, and is ren- 

called Jeroboam the Second, to distin- dered as a noun in the LXX., Targ., and 

guish him from the son of Nebat. This Syr. It occurs in the absolute form 

monarch carried on very successful wars "^tt, Jer. v. 13, with a similar reference 

with his northern neighbours, and reco- to inspired matter. Some have attempted 

vered out of iheir hands the territories to show from the words nj!T i|^ n^n 

.of which they had taken possession ; but |^ria that Hosea was the first of the 

though thus signally prospered, as an prophets employed to convey Jehovah's 

instrument in the hand of Jehovah, he messages to his ancient people ; but 

was a wicked character, and greatly pro* contrary to the import of the words, 

moted idolatry in Israel. See 2 Kmgs which merely refer to the commence- 

xiv. 23 — 28. ment of the prophecies of Hosea. For the 

^y *^?» ^ordj is meant the prophetic use of the preposition i in such con- 
matter contained in the book. Tlius the nexion, see Numb. xii. 2 ; 2 Sam. xxiii. 
Targ. n>W3 dstb. — rrrr is commonly ren- 2. Comp. €v 7rpo<^i}rai9, Heb. i. 1 . 
dered '' came" in such connexion, but it The transaction here described, and 
seems preferable to retain its usual sig- that narrated chap. iii. 1, aie clogged 

4 HOSEA. [chap. i. 

land hath committed great lewdness, in a state of separation from 

with almost insuperable difBculties ; and, ^al, and outward in the history of Hosea. 

as may be expected, have given rise to Those, however, who adopt this view, 

very different modes of interpretation, are not agreed on the subject of the 

By most commentators, the things spe- females specified : — some being of opi- 

cified are considered to have actually nion that only one is intended in both 

taken place in the outward history of the passages; others, two: some, that Gomer 

prophet Others, as Abarbanel, Kimchi, was not a lewd character before the 

Maimonides, Ruffinus, CEcolampadius, prophet took her, but became such after- 

Marckius, Pococke, and recently Heng- wards ; others, that she was originally 

stenberg, regard the whole in the light unchaste ; some, as Thomas Aquinas, 

of internal prophetic vision ; while that he did not marry her at all, bu^ 

Calvin, Luther, Osiander, Rivetus, Da- merely lived with her as a concubine ! 

nseus, Rosenm^ler, Hitzig, and others, Lyra and Newcome think that nothing 

treat it as a species of parabolical repre- more is meant by " a wife of lewdness," 

sentation, in which the prophet appropri- than an Israelitess— -one of those who 

ates to himself imaginary circumstances, had become guilty of spiritual fornication 

aptly fitted to impress the minds of those or idolatry. The position that Hosea 

whom he addressed with a sense of their was commanded to marry an impure 

wickedness, and the punishment to which female cannot be sustained, for two 

it exposed them. reasons. First, the children were clearly 

To the last of these opinions it may those afterwards described as bom to the 

justly be objected that the language, prophet, and are spoken of as lewd as 

" And Jehovah said to Hosea, Go," &c. well as their mother. Secondly, on the 

is identical with that used Is. vii. 3, viii. supposition that Gomer had been guilty 

1, XX. 2 ; Jer. xiii. I — 7, xviii. 1, 2, xix. ; of acts of impurity previous to her con- 

£zek. iv. v. xii. xxiv. ; and in many nexion with tne prophet, there would be 

other passages, which cannot without no congruity in constituting her a type 

violence be understood parabolically. of Israel, who is represented as lewd 

Not the slightest hint is given, in the because she had lapsed into idolatry, in 

present case, that the circumstances are violation of the marriage contract entered 

fictitious. Besides, it has been observed, into at Sinai. See Gesen. Lex. p. 306, 2. 

that there is no instance of any of the Consistency of interpretation absolutely 

prophets ever making himself the subject requires the adoption of this view of the 

of a parable. subject, as is admitted both by Heng- 

Tbe same objection lies with equal stenberg and Hitzig. The objections 

force against the assumption, that the otherwise produced by the former of 

things described were merely exhibited these authors against the literal character 

internally to the mind of the prophet, of the transactions are more specious 

The Divine mandate was doubtless in- than real. Besides being the most ob- 

ternal ; but there is no intimation that vious and natural, it has much to recom- 

what follows was in vision, any more mend it on the ground of the public 

than in the instances above quoted. On notoriety which infidelity on the part of 

the contrary, it is set forth as real the wife of a prophet must have created, 

matter of fact When internal scenic and its aptness to typify the conduct of 

representations were granted, the verbs the Israeutes towards Jehovah. It may 

n^TT or 7^, to see, ^re always employed indeed be said, that his marrjdng a no- 

to describe the experience of the person toriously lewd character must have pro- 

who viewed them, which is not the case duced a much greater sensation. True, 

here. See Is. vi. ; Jer. xxiv. 1 ; Ezek. but besides the encouragement which it 

ii. 9 — ^iii. 3 ; Zech. L 8, ii. iii. &c. Comp. must have been calculated to give to the 

also the phraseology of the Apocalypse, formation of unhallowed and irreligious 

We are, therefore, . shut up to the connexions, it would not, as was just 

literal interpretation, according to which observed, have been in accordance with 

the transactions, though symbolical, were the design of the transaction, which was. 


3 So he went and took Qomer, the daughter of Diblaim, and she 

4 conceived, and bare him a son. And Jehovah said unto him, Call 
his name Jezbeel ; for yet a little while, and I will avenge the 
blood of Jezreel upon the house of Jehu, and will cause the 

5 kingdom of the house of Israel to cease. And it shall come to 
pass in that day, that I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of 

not to represent the character of the to Hosea, proves that the child was not 

Hebrews before the period of their na- of spurious origin. The word is wanting, 

tional reception into alliance with Jeho- indeed, in three of Kennicott's MSS., 

yah, but their conduct as exhibited in the and one of De Rossi's, the Complut. 

pages of their subsequent history. The edition of the LXX., the Itala, and the 

phrases D*343i n^i D^u] m^, a 20«;af fffoman Arab.; but the omission in all proba- 

and lewd chtldreuy have the same import, bility originated in an attempt to render 

and are not to be interpreted as ii the the phraseology conformable to that of 

mother alone were guilty, and the chil- verses 6 and 8. 

dren merely the product of her guilty 4, 5. ^<ff7\!, Jezreel, i.e. God will scat- 
conduct, Comp. the phrase v^ ^, chil- ier, from v^, to scatter, disperse, as in 
dren of transgression, i. e. transgressors. Zech. x. 9 -, Targ. m*1[^9. It was other- 
Thus as to sense the Targ. ; and the Syr. wise the proper name of a city in the 
,2^*K l^'v^^Z J L'tjj jt J tribe of Issachar, on the brow of the 

mit lewdness. Thus also Rosenmiiller. same name, and the royal residence of 

Both are anticipative as to the relation Ahab and his successors. It was here 

of the prophet, though typical of what Jehu exercised acts of the greatest cru- 

had already taken place on the part of elty, 2 Kings x. 11, 14, 17. These acts 

the ten tribes. Viewed as a kingdom were speedily to be avenged in the ex- 

tbey are represented as a mother ; and tinction of the royal family, and the 

as individual subjects of that kingdom, entire cessation of the Israelitish state, 

they are spoken of as her children. The It had been announced to Jehu that his 

plural o*;^] is emphatic, as n*p^ in sons should occupy the throne till the 

D»Di «J»i, &c. Comp. tnpci\ rm, chap. iv. fourth generation, 2 Kings x. 30. Two 

12, and ii. 4. That they are otherwise of these generations had passed away by 

to be identified appears from the use of the time of the prophet* — Jeroboam being 

n^, take J which properly applies only to the great grand-son. In the following 

the female, but here governs both nouns, generation, the prediction received its 

as Jerome observes, ano koivov. The accomplishment. By the '* bow of 

reason of the symbolic action is assigned Israel is meant her military prowess, 

at the close oi the verse— the atrocious which was completely subdued by the 

conduct of the Israelites in renouncing Assyrian army. The valley here men- 

the pure worship of Jehovah, and ad- tioned, afterwards called Esdraelon, was 

dieting themselves to idolatry. Comp. famous for the battles fought there from 

Ley. xyii. 7; xx. 5, 6 ; Hos. iv. 12. the most ancient times. It consists of 

f^Mn, the land, is put, by metonomy, for the broad elevated plain which stretches 

its inhabitants. The preposition |P has from the Jordan to the Mediterranean, 

here the force of a negative, which near Mount Carroel, and is well adapted 

strongly expresses the state of separation for military operations. Accordingly, 

which had taken place. Dr. C. D. Clarke observes, ^* Jews, Gen- 

3. That the names Gomer aud Diblaim tiles, Saracens, Christian Crusaders, and 

are to bo taken symbolically, as Heng- Anti-Christian Frenchmen, Egyptians, 

stenberg interprets, does not appear. Persians, Druses, Turks, and Arabs, 

His exposition of them is fanciful, as is warriors out of every nation which is 

that of Jerome, who takes pretty much under heayen, have pitched their tents 

the same view. The use of V?, to him, i.e. upon the plains of Esdraelon, and have 


6 ' HOSE A • [chap. i. 

6 And she conceived again, and bare a daughter ; and He\iid to hi<h, 
Call her name Lo-Ruhamah; for I will no more have mercy 

7 upon the house, of Israel, but will utterly take them away. But 
I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, and will save them by 
Jehovah their God, and will not save them by bow, nor by sword, 
nor by battle, nor by horses, nor by horsemen. 

8 And she weaned Lo-Ruhamah, and conceived, and bare a son. 

9 And He said. Call his name Lo-Ammi ; for ye are not my people, 
10 and I will not be yours. Nevertheless the number of the children 

of Israel shall be as the sand of the sea, which can neither be 
measured nor numbered ; and it shall be, that instead of its having 

beheld the various banners of their 8. The mention here made of the 
nations wet with the dews of Tabor and weaning ofLo-Ruhamah, seems designed 
Hermon." It was, therefore, natural rather to fill up the narrative, than to 
that the Israelites should endeavour to describe figuratively any distinct treat- 
make a stand against the Assyrians in ment of the Israelites, 
this valley; but being overpowered by 9. V^^, LoAuMifLe. not my people^ 
numbers were obliged to succumb to the further sets forth the rejection of the ten 
enemy. Of this discomfiture, and the tribes by Jehovah. Nothing could have 
consequent dispersion of the ten tribe^, been better calculated to make an im- 
the name of the prophet's son was sym- pression upon the minds of his country* 
bolical. men, than for the prophet thus to give 
6,7. "^rn kib, Lo-RuHAMAH, i. e. tm- to one child after another a name strongly 
pitied. ) M^) elsewhere signifies to significant of the disastrous circumstances 
forgive ; and were the verb preceded by to which they should be reduced. Instead 
the copulative )j it might be so rendered of QpJ ^T^J^P^, I tvHl not be yours, 1. e. 
here, only supplying the negative >ft your God, Houbi»int and Newcome 
from the preceding clause; but as ^^, but, would read a3Ti^ m, /am not your Ood: 
excludes such repetition, the phrase must but though the antithesis is common, it 
be rendered as in the translation. LXX. admits of an ellipsis, just as in Ezek. 
dvrira<r<r6iitvos avrird^fiat avroU. Syr. xvi. 8, there is an ellipsis of «T|Mb. Comp. 

^o^ot:^ ]s\ %ai ^^.A^. vu,g. frsLaTi:.**''- "" ""'"•"■ 

oblivione oblivitcor eomm — reading H^, 10, 11. These verses contain a gra- 

which is found in De Rossi's MS. 596, at cious promise of the recovery of the 

first hand, instead of Mt|p3. The kingdom descendants of the Israelites, along with 

of Israel was never more to be restored, those of their brethren the Jews, at the 

though, in conjunction with the Jews, termination of the Babylonish captivity, 

the scattered Israelites were to return to Though entirely and for ever broken up 

Canaan after the Babylonish captivity, as a distinct kingdom, yet, during the 

ver. 11. It was to be very different period of their residence in the regions 

with the Jewish power. Though like- of the East, whither they were to be 

wise attacked, and threatened with utter transported, thevshould greatly multiply, 

extinction by Sennacherib, they were and afterwards be re-instated in the pri- 

mercifully delivered by a divine inter- vileges of adoption, as members of the 

position, without all human aid. And theocrasy. The eleventh verse teaches 

though they were afterwards carried the reunion of all the tribes, and their 

away to Babylon, their civil polity was return under Zerubbabel to their own 

restored, which was not the case with. land. . That this prince is meant by the 

the Israelites, ^ri^y u^ar, stands elllp- inH«M~, one head, must be maintained, 

tically for ni^n^ ^^, warriors. since the Messiah, who is by many sup- 


CHAP. II.] . HOSE A. * 1 

been said to them, Ye are noi my people, it shall be said to 

11 them^ Ye are the children of the living God. Thfen shall the 
children of Judah, and the children of Israel^ be gathered together, 
and they shall appoint for themselves one head, and shall come up 

12 out of the land. For great shall be the day of Jczreel. Say ye 
unto your brethren, Ammi ; and to your sisters, Ruhamah. 

posed to be intended, is nowhere spoken country. Comp. chap. ii. 22, 23 ; Jer. 

of as appointed by men, but always as xxxi. 27. 

the choice and appointment of God. The principle on which part of ver. 

f^, /ond^ signifies, m this connexion, the 10, and chap. ii. 23, are quoted, Rom. 

country of Babylon, not excluding those ix. 25, 26, and 1 Pet. ii. 10, seems to be 

other regions of the East in which the that of analogy. As God had taken 

descendants of the different tribes were pity upon the ten tribes, who had become 

found. ^^TTTt Jexreel, is obviously used neathens, as it respects idolatrous and 

here in a different acceptation from that other practices, so he had pitied the 

in which it is taken ver. 4. That of Gentiles who had been in the same cir- 

scwing is alone appropriate. Illustrious cumstances. What was said of the one 

should be the perioa when the tribes class was equally descriptive of the 

should again be sown in their own other. 



The prophet proceeds in this chapter to apply the symbolical relation described in 
the preceding. He calls the Israelites to reform their wicked conduct, 1,2; 
threatens them with a series of calamities, the effect of which should be their 
repentance and return to the service of Jehovah, 3 — 15; and promises a 
gracious restoration to his favour, and the enjpyment of security and prosperity 
in their own land, 16 — 23. 

1 Contend with your mother, contend ; 

2 For she is not my wife. 
Neither am I her husband : 

That she may remove her lewdness from her face, 
And her adulteries from between her breasts* 

1, 2. Tlie individual members of the that, and interpret : Argue the point 

Israelitisb state are here summoned to with your nation, and show her that in 

urge upon their nation the consideration consequence of her wicked conduct all 

of its wickedness in having departed relations between us have ceased. The 

from God, Of these the nation of the -causal signification of the conjunction, 

ten tribes was the W, mother, Cocceius, however, seems preferable. The words 

Dathe, Kuinoel, and Ruckert, render % which it introduces form a parenthesis ; 

HOSE A. [chap. II, 


3 Lest I strip her naked, 

And set her as in the day \?hen she was born. 
And make her as the desert, 
/^ And eause her to die with thirst. 

4 Upon her children I will have no mercy, 
For they are lewd children. 

5 Because their mother hath committed lewdness, 
Their parent hath acted shamefully ; 

For she said : I will follow my lovers. 
That give me my bread and my water, 
My wool and my flax, my oil and my wine. 

and iDrn,which, though future, is to be ren- 5. ^, since or because, and pi, there' 

dered potentially : that she may remove, fore, ver. 8, correspond to each other, 

connects with u^, contend ye. The ) is, the former marking the protasis, the 

as frequently, to be taken rcXiicttf . The latter the apodosis. The second ^ in- 

repetition of on is emphatic, as ducite troduces parenthetically an illustration 

in Virgil : — of the statement made at the beginning 

n Fk.,^:*^ -u ,,-v* ^^».»»« .«-« ^««.vt;»o of the verse, nn^ri is the feminrae par- 

ducte Daphnin. ^ ^ TrtnV Song ui. 4. Acceding to 

By DtneifS'} D^3>3}, fornications and adul- the Jewish exegesis, ^, Gen. xlix. 26, 

teries, are meant the tokens or indications is used of male progenitors. The Targ. 

of lewd character : — ^boldness of counte- and Jarchi suppose teachers to be here 

nance, and an immodest exposure of the meant ; but the term is merely a syno- 

breasts. Both forma are reduj^licate, to nyme of Q^, mother, in the preceding 

express the enormity of the evil. What hemistich. Interpreters are not agreed 

the prophet has in view is the reckless respecting the rendering of rrtjnlvi. In 

and unblushing manner in which the most instances in which the word occurs 

IsraeHtish nation practised idolatry. The it certainly has the transitive significa- 

LXX. have read '^, ** from mu face ;" tion ; but here the intransitive seems 

improperly in -this connexion, though a more appropriate. Comp. Jer. vi. 15, 

similar plirase occurs elsewhere. where it is explained by its^ rxff^ % 

3. A striking accumulation of syno- Comp. also vtp^, 777, yvcin, as Hiph. in- 
nymous denunciations for the purpose of transitives. The paragogic n in n3b^ 
describing the state of complete desti- elongating the future, is expressive of a 
tution to which the idolatrous Israelites decided purpose, desire, or bent of mind ; 
would be reduced by the infliction of it is my settled determination to follow 
divine judgments. They should be those who richly supply my wants in 
placed in circumstances analogous to return for my reliflious services, d^^^m^, 
those in which they had originally been lovers, which is nere employed meta- 
in Egypt Comp. Ezek. xvi. 4 ; xxiii. phoricaUy to denote idois, is seldom used 
25, 26, 28, 29. For "^^ comp. Jer. ii. 6. except in a bad sense. This interpretation, 

4. Individuals might expect that they which is that of Joseph Kimchi and 
would escape, and not be treated as the Abarbanel, is more in Keeping with the 
nation in its collective capacity; but symbolical character of the prophecy, 
Jehovah here declares, that he would than that suggested by the Targ. f3^ 
treat them according to the demerits of p3^ l^"?, which takes the word in the 
their individual wickedness. For \l^ sense of idolaters, or idolatrous nations, 
D*a^3i comp. D*?u] n^, ch. i. 2. The such as Assyria, &c. Comp. as strictly 
second noun is, as frequently, used ad- parallel, Jer. xliv. 17 — 19. The lan- 
jectively. guage indicates complete alienation of 


6 Therefore, behold ! I will hedge up thy way with thoms, 
And will raise a wall^ that she may not find her paths. 

7 And she shall eagerly pursue her lovers, but she shall not overtake 

them ; 
And shall seek them, but shall not find them : 
Then shall she say : I will go and return to my first husband, 
For it was better with me then than now. 

8 Because she knew not that it was I that gave her 
The com, and the new wine, and the oil ; 

And furnished her abundantly with silver and gold, 
Which they made into images of Baal : 

9 Therefore I will take back my corn in its time, 

heart from Jehovah, the only giver of and this punctuation Hengstenherg at- 

all good, and a blind confidence in, and tempts, without success, to defend. The 

devotion to the service of idols. The wall means the external hindrances which 

articles specified comprehend both the the captivity interposed between the ten 

necessaries and the luxuries of ancient tribes and the objects of their idolatrous 

Hebrew life, "{o^, ot/, is much in use attachment. 

among the Orientals, both in its simple 7. Convinced by bitter experience of 

state, and as compounded with other m- the folly of idolatry, the Israelites would 

gredients. It is specially applied as renounce it, and return to the service of 

ointment to the body after oathing. Jehovah, hdt^ is intensive, and expresses 

Comp. Psalm xxiiL 5 ; Pro v. xxi. 17. the ardour of the pursuit. The Vau in 

"y^ denotes here all kinds of artificial rnoK], marking the apodosis, points out 

drink, being used in distinction from the consequence or result of the failure 

water. The Aldine edition of the LXX. — a resolution to turn from idols to serve 

reads o oJyos ftov ; but the usual reading the living God. It might be rendered 

is ndvra 6<ra fioi KaBi^Kti, with which to that, but not in order that, as Manger 

the Tar^. and Syr. agree. The word proposes, w, then, designates the period 

occurs, rs. cii. 10; Prov. iii. 8 ; and is evi- previous to the apostasy of the ten tribes, 

, , , . , r .»^ A L when in reward for external obedience, 

dently derived from n^ ; Arab, ^y^ ; tj^^y enjoyed temporal blessings. Thus 

« . A .^ •« , ... the Tare. TWO Tfoip wf» >rPTT la 'b aia nw 

Eth. rt«fP: to make to drink, to „r^/r^-;^. ' ^-' -^ ' - " * ' ^ 

water, 8, 9. 1 and |$ at the beginning of 
6. For ^ in 'tfrn the LXX. Arab, and these verses stand in the same relation 
Syr. read ^, but most likely in order to to each other as ^ and pj, verses 5th 
produce uniformity in the use of the and 6th. Before ^ supply t^. By 
affix. The metaphor here employed is ^a, Baal, the prophet means *' images 
borrowed from the condition of a tra- of Baal," the singular being used col- 
Teller whose progpress is interrupted by a lectively for the plural. Comp. ch. viii. 
hedge thrown across his path, or who 4, where 0^?^, tdois, correspond to V^| 
can no longer pass through the e;ap of in the present case. Hitzig would re- 
an enclosure wnich used to be m his strict t^, understood, to 3n|, gold, sup- 
way ; and who is consequently reduced posing the golden calves set up at 
to straits and difficulties. Turned out Bethel and Dan to be meant ; but, as it 
of his accustomed course, he is bewil- does not appear that the name of Baal 
dered, and strives in vain to extricate was ever applied to them, his interpre- 
himself. Comp. Job six. 8 ; Lam. iii. tation is groundless. See chap. viii. 4 ; 
7, 9. rni^, a wall, is pointed this, in which also clearly proves that by ^rofi im 
the editions of J . H. Michaelis, and J ahn, we are not to understand the consecration 

10 ROSEA. [chap. II. 

And my new wine in its season ; 

And I will recover my wool and my flax, 
Designed to cover her nakedness. 
10 And now I will expose her vileness before her lovers, 
And none shall deliver her out of my hand. 

of the silver and gold to the service of take back, i. e. deprive of. The meaning 

Baal, but the actual conversion of these is, that instead of reaping the fruits of 

precious metals into images of that idol, the earth, &c. as they expected at the 

or at least into plating with which to usual season, they should be trodden 

cover such as were made of wood, down, consumed, or taken away by the 

2 Chron.xxiv. 7, to which Seeker appeals Assyrian army under Shalmaneser. 

in favour of the former meaning of the Jehovah vindicates his right to the 

phrase, is also to be so understood. The various articles specified, because they 

rendering of Gesenius, " which they had been bestowed by his providence; 

offered to Baal," is equally objectionable; calling them his, with obvious reference 

the phrase ) n^, when thus used, being to ver. 5, in which Israel had called 

referred to sacrificial victims. Targ. them hers. The land and all it con- 

Mn^^ ^13S^ ?r3tp. Hengstenberg attempts tained were specially his. ^j ; Arab, 
to support the position that consecration i • ,., . ^ .. .i .i 

is meant; but his reasons are altogether <>^» hberatus fuit, expresses the idea. 

futile. The very passage which he quotes of reacuing or recovering what was Un- 
as parallel (Ezek. xvi. 17, 18,) is directly justly held. The ^ in nfea^ denotes end 
opposed to his exegesis of the phrase, or purpose, and is quite in its place ; so 
Baal was perhaps the most ancient of that there is no necessity, with Houbigant, 
all the gods worshipped in the East. He Dathe, Horsley, Newcome, Boothroyd, 
was, according to Dr. Miinter, the re- and others, to change it into ta, out of 
presentative of the sun, the generative deference to the LXX. who render rou 
power in the eastern mythology, and ya^ Kcikvirrav, 

had associated with him Astarte, the 10. rpfri^ occurs only in this place, 

female power, which was viewed as re- but is obviously equivalent to 7^?, alro" 

presenting the moon. Gesenius, how- cious, shameful, detestable wickedness, 

ever, is of opinion, that under these Targ. rnjj?, her shame, LXX. rijtf aKaB- 
names the planets Jupiter and Venus , , ^ ^ 'pa.^ j ^. 

were worshfpped. See on Isaiah xvii. '*^^*«'' "''^^^ ^yr. cv^^Q3, niidatio 

8. From the frequency with which his in malum, pudenda. Castel. ; Arab, 

name occurs in compoimd Phoenician (.• ^^ nakedness. Occurring in 

names, as Hannibal, Hasdrubal, &c., the \jj ° 

worship of Baal appears to have been immediate connexion with the preceding 

common amons that people ; and from nrp^, nudity, it conveys the superadded 

them, especially the Tyrians, it was idea of obscenity, t.e. by metonomy, Uie 

borrowed by the Israelites. Mention is results or consequences of idolatrous 

made of this idolatry in the time of the conduct, a complete destitution of all 

Judges, see chap. ii. 11, 13; iii. 7; the necessaries of life. G)mp. Jer. xiii. 

vi. 25 ; it became prevalent even in 26 ; Nah. iii. 5. This exposure was to 

Judah in the days of Ahaz ; and, though be made in the very presence of the 

abolished by the pious king Josiah, was idols which Israel had served, none of 

revived by Manasseh. In Israel it ra- which should be able to afford deliver- 

Sidly gained ground after the intro- ance. By a prosopopoeia, the idols are 

uction of the worship of the golden first endowed with the facultv of vision, 

calves by Jeroboam, and reached its and then their utter imbecility is stri- 

height in the reigns of Ahab and Hoshea. kingly set forth, vhi, not only signifies 

The verb l^t), to return, turn back, is man, but any one, and is frequently used 

frequently used adverbially. So here of inanimate objects. In connexion 

^2?n^, 3^^ / will again take away, or with fe^, it signifies none. 

CHAP. II.] HOSEA. 1 1 

11 And I will cause all her joy to cease ; 

Her festivals, her new moons, and her sabbaths, 
And all her appointed assemblies. 

12 I will also lay waste her vines and her fig-trees, 
Of which she said : They are my hire 
Which my lovers have given me : 

I will turn them into a forest. 

And the beasts of the field shall devour them. 

13 I will avenge upon her the days of the Baals, 
On which she burned incense to them ; 

And decked herself with nose-rings and trinkets. 
And followed her lovers, 
And forgat me, saith Jehovah. 

11, 12, explain the denouncement 13. D'^ri, the BaaU, i. e. the idols 

made rer. 10. The country was to he which they had set up to Baal in the 

desolated hy the invading armies, and cities and different parts of the country, 

all the festiyities and seasons of religious as well as in their private houses. Hence 

observance were to cease. The different the names Baal-Gad, Baat-Hermon, 

terms here employed are those hy which Baal-meoriy &c. By D^an *p^Ti^, are 

the seasons of worship, &c. appointed meant the days specially devoted to the 

by Jehovah in the Mosaic law, are de- celebration of idolatrous rites. To cause 

signated ; but it is not hence to he in- grateful odours to ascend from the altars, 

ferred that such were observed according was considered peculiarly acceptable to 

to his appointment. The Israelites pro* the objects of worship. It appears to 

fessed to worship him, but, at the same have originated partly in the gratification 

time, served other gods. While from afforded by agreeable smells, and partly 

habit they continued to keep them as in the custom of burning perfumes in 

portions of time unappropriated to the rooms, &c. with a view to purify them 

ordinary occupations oif lue, they were from noxious vapours. DT3 and n^ 

doubtless converted into seasons of carnal appear to be employed here to denote 

indulgence. The nouns are those of female ornaments generally ; though 

multitude, and must be rendered in the strictly taken, the former commonly sig- 

pltval. f^, and n:^, are likewise to be nifies such rings as the oriental females 

taken as collectives, or rather, as Horsley wear in the nostril. See on Is. iii. 21. 

suggests, plantations of vines and fig- rrjn, from njn, to be tmoothy polished; 

trees. These should be left uncultivated a t. \ 

on the removal of the inhabitants into ^^^^' ^J^' ^^^^ monMna mundove 

S ^°Uke%- JU o.;iy1f - ^-«--.J ^ '""""o o^'^"' 

the hire of a harlot, and is peculiarly denotes a trinket, necklace, or the like, 
appropriate in this connexion. Thus 

According to Firuzabad: A> JV Lc 

Tanchum on chap viii. 9 : — (JdM U yt ' ^^'* 

J«l| ^ hM. Comp.I..xxiii. 'J^^ j' "^^^ b^ ^ 

quodcunque omamentum vel e metaUie 
17, 18. The wild beast is here to be conflatum, vel e lapidibiu pretiosis con- 
taken literally, and not figuratively, as fectum, Rosenm. ; the Syr. and Targ. 
Abarbanel does, — supposing the heathen have pearls. That courtezans decked 
invaders to be meant. themselves with the most costly orna- 

12 HOSEA. [chap. n. 

14 Nevertheless, behold ! I will allure her, 
And, though I lead her into the desert, 
Yet I will speak soothingly to her. 

15 And I will grant her her vineyards from thence, 
And the valley of Achor for a door of hope : 

And she shall sing there, as in the days of her youth. 

Even as in the day when she came up from the land of Egypt. 

mentfl they could command is mentioned singular want of propriety in a88ifi:ning 

by Juvenal, Sat. vi.: — to >, in rrn^bri}, its usual copulative 

« Mcechus foliata parantur ; P^^^w. It is obviously to be understood 

Emitur his quicquid gracilis hue mit- exceptively, or as mtroducmg a kmd of 

titis Indi. parenthetical sentence, expressive of 

rrti 1. i. 1. • - ^1. what was to take place in the history 

The prophet ha. in view the gay onia- ^^ ^^ ^„ ^^^ previously to their con- 

ments in which the Israelites decked — '^ -■' 


forward at the condition of this de- ^nr^thyinsUn'^jrs'in No^^^^^ 

scnption of their conduct m order to ^^^^^ ^^^.^^^ ^y^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

heighten the aggravation of their guilt, ^^^ j^^^^ .^ ^ ^^ ^^ which Uie 

anJ render the announcement of the Israelites were to be conducted on their 

kindly disDosition of Jehov^^^ release: Doderlein, TheoL Biblioth. 

them, at the beginmng of the followmg ,^„^ .^ ^^ j^^^^ \^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ 

ve«e, the more surprising. ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ j i j„^ ^^^ 

^t' P],^°"oV^» ^.*»^P^^P"^*y ^ country of Babylon is intendld. Je- 

rendered "therefore m this connexion ^ovah is here^aid to do what he 

If the following words are to be regarded ^^^j^ ^ . ^^ Assyrians in doing, 

as promissory of good and not as con- p^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^ j^ ^j ^ 

taming a further ihreatemng of punish- ^j^^^ ^/^^^^^ ^^ circumstances of af- 

*"''"l:i A^l^ if* ^""l '''\ . «"•'' fliction in the countries of the East, 
regarded, the subsequent context suffici- ^^.^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^.^^ ^^^^^^^ 

enUy shows. This particle must therefore ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^j^ administer con- 

possess the force of the Arab. jO, ^oU^^^n to them; holding out to them 

U/ the cheering prospect of restoration, on 

verumtamenf but yet, notwithstanding y their repentance, to their native land. 
nevertheless. It thus marks the unex- 15. The Israelites had altogether for- 

pectedtransitionfrom threats to promises, feited their possessions; nor could they 

as Is. vii. 14; x. 24; xxvii. 9; xxx. 18, acquire a new right to them except in 

ei freq, — nnB, of which n^iBip is the the way of a fresh grant from the Lord. 

Piei participle, signifies to open, he open, This grant he here promises them, as 

easUt/ persuasible ; hence in Piel, both he had of old promised Canaan to their 

in a good and a bad sense, to persuade, fathers when in the wilderness. D^, 

allure, prevail upon by suitable induce- thence, means, returning from the wilder- 

ments. It is here necessarily to be taken ness ; just as n^ in£cates the home* 

in the sense of inducing or gaining over ward direction of the exiles. To take 

to that which is goo^ by the use of D^ as a particle of time, which Gesenius 

soothing and persuasive means, as the proposes, is less suitable. " The valley 

concluding words of the verse ^rniT) of Achor" lay in the vicinity of Jericho, 

"^tf^ abundantly prove. As the Israelites and was noted in the sacred history for 

were to be forcibly removed from their the judgment inflicted upon Achaii. 

land by the king of Assyria, there is a From Is.lxv.lO, it appears to have been 


16 And it shall be in that day, saith Jehovah, 
That thou shalt call me^ Ishi ; 

And shalt no more call me^ Baalt. 

17 For I will take away the names of the Baals from her mouth. 
And they shall no more be remembered by their name. 

18 And I will make a covenant for them in that day 

"With the beasts of the field, and with the fowls of heaven, 

a fertile and pleasant region ; and on which they had worshipped, and besides, 

this account alone it is thought by Calvin, conveyed the idea of possession and rule, 

Zanchius, Rivetus, and others, to be re- rather than that of affection, God here 

ferred to by our prophet. Most of the declares that in future he would be 

Rabbins, however, and, after them, many called vh<, hh, the name more usually 

christian interpreters, consider aJIusion employed to express the relation of 

to be made to the name, which signifies husband, and which was not liable to 

trouble or molestation, and to this \ the same objections : — 

incline. This valley had proved very .. o* •!.• •.• ^j j • 

inauspicious to the Hebrews on their " Sic mihi ser^itium video, dominamque 

former entrance into Canaan. They had ▼ ^*'^*-?™»V x mi x i » 

been forced to turn their backs before ^^"^ ™*^ ^^""^^ '}}^ P,?^«™*^ J *^«- ^ 
the native inhabitants, and their hearts libuUus, hb. n. Eleg. 4. 

melted, and became as water, Josh. vii. Before ^i^, two MSS. the LXX. Aq. 
5, 8, 12, 24, 26. But on their return Syr. insert ^; while two MSS., and ori- 
from the captivity, the exiles would pass gmally seven more, and four printed 
through it with the undisturbed expec- editions, omit it after V)*?n. — D^a, is not 
tation of a peaceable and joyful occu- here to be taken as a plural of excel- 
pation of the country. By rn^? nn^, a lency, but is used, according to its strict 
door of hope, is meant a hopeful entrance import, to denote the different images of 
into the holy land. — n^3^, the LXX. Baal worshipped by the Israelites, such 
Syr. Arab, and Symm. take in the sig- as Bcud- Gad, Baal-Ammon, &c. Comp. 
m^csAioti to he humbled or afflicted ; zxidi £xod. xxiii. 13; Zech. xiii. 2. The 
this idea is adhered to by Grotius, who prophecy was fully accomplished at the 
combines it with that of singing : *^ In- return from the Babylonisn captivity, 
tellige autem carmen flettis et precum ;" 18. Such should be the security of the 
but that of celebrating the Divine good- returned exiles under the immediate 
ness in songs of gratitude and joy better care and protection of Jehovah, that 
suits the connexion. The n in n^^, as every thing capable of injuring them 
before observed, indicates the homeward should be rendered perfectly harmless, 
direction of the exiles — ^yet not without The irrational animals should be re- 
special reference to their approach to strained, as if under the bond of an 
the valley of Achor. The point of inviolable compact; and the Assyrian 
comparison, as it respects the singing, armies should no more attack them, 
seems to be the Song of Moses at the Some understand the former part of the 
Red Sea. As the people then united in verse figuratively — ^the different creatures 
celebrating the goodness of Jehovah there specified denoting men correspond- 
displayed in their deliverance, so should ing to them in disposition ; but the 
the returning Israelites do, on again language is rather to be regarded as 
taking possession of their native land. hyperbolical, being merely intended to 
16, 17. The word V;?^, Baal, had ori- heighten the effect. Comp. Job v. 23; 
ginally been used in its unexceptionable £zek. xxxiv. 25. Before ^n^, supply 
acceptation of husband, and is thus ap- ^?, or "^pM. as in chap. i. 7. Tare. ^1X0 
plied to Jehovah, Is. liv. 5; but as it virp^, — ^p "ViSfb^ is a pregnant phrase, 
tiad become common in its application meaning, / wiU break ana remove away 
by the Israelites to the heathen deities from, 33^ is here expressive of the 

14 HOSE A. [chap. ii. 

And with the reptiles of the ground ; 

The bow, and the sword, and the battle, I will break and remove 

from the land. 
And will cause them to recline securely. 

19 I will also betroth thee to myself for ever ; 

I will even betroth thee to myself with righteousness and with 

And with kindness, and with tender compassion. 

20 Yea, I will betroth thee to myself with faithfulness : 
And thou shalt know Jehovah. 

21 And it shall be in that day, 

reclining poature in which the orientals the new conjagal relation — ^all that the 
indulge whenever they are released from Israelites could possibly expect in the 
active exertion. At the time predicted way of supplv froiti their Divine pro- 
there would be no enemy or danger to tector. To these, however, are added 
break in upon their repose. " kindness," and " tender compassion," 
- - *. j« * A which express the strong internal affec- 
" Ip»e lacte domum referunt distenta ^^^ fromSrhich the fonSer should pro- 

capellae . ^ * ceed, and the high degree of interest 

Ubera, nee magnos metuent armenta ^j^j^^^ ^^^ would take in his recovered 

leones. /. j ^ i. i people. To remove every doubt from 

Ipsa tibi blandos fundent cunabula g^^^^ ^.^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^y^^^^ ^^ ^ 

nores. ^ ^ n i «.u- gracious assurance that his eneagements 

Occaet et serpeng, et fallax berba Should be « faithfully-pcrformeS cthtj, 

veneni _ _.„„»,.. rd <nrX<{yY»o, lit the bonelt, but com- 

Occidet, A8.ynum vulgo nwcetar ^^^ ^^.ployed figuratively to denote 

amomum. VtrgU, Eclog. iv. ^^^y^ ^^.H^^ ^<|^^^ rfonley'. in- 

19, 20. ^D^ signifies to contract a terpretation of the terms in application 

matrimonial alliance, and is here spe- to our Saviour, is, like most of his 

cially selected in order to impress the exegesis, in the highest degree fanciful, 

minds of the Israelites with a sense of being totally unsupported by the sc^e 

the distinguished character of the Divine and connexion of the passage. The 

benignity. Though they had rendered knowledge of Jehovah here predicated 

themselves totally unworthy of his re* is not speculative, or a bare intellectual 

gard, he declares that he would treat acquaintance with his character, but ex- 

them as if they had never apostatised to perimental, or that which results from 

idolatry. He would form a new con- the actual enjoyment of his love. Instead 

jugal relation, as with » female in her of sijrn^, twenty-six MSS., originally 

virgin state. The triple repetition of thirteen more, now two, and perhaps 

the verb expresses intensity of desire, other two, two editions, supportea by the 

and gives the strongest assurance to the Vulg., read r^rr ^3M % t. e. they shall 

party to which the promise is made, know that I am Jehovah, 

pjirb, for ever, is to be taken as Gen. 21, 22. One of the most beautiful 

xiii. 16; Exod. xxxii. 13; Is. xxxv. 10. instances of prosopopoeia to be found in 

The several particulars here enumerated Scripture. Comp. the address to the Nile 

further discover, by the amplification in TibuUus, lib. i. Eleg. vii. ver. 25 : — 

which they form, the great kmdness of .. ,-, ^ n a n * x. i ^ 

Jehovah to his people. By "righteous- Te propter nuUos tellus tua postulat 

ness" and "justice," is meant every . imbres, v ^-u i. t •!» 

equitable obligation which God could Andanecpluviosupplicatherba Jovw 

be expected to place himself under in While second causes have here their 


I will respond, saith Jehovah, 
I will respond to the heayens. 
And they shall respond to the earth, 

22 And the earth shall respond to the com, and the new wine, and 

the oil, 
And they shall respond to Jezreel. 

23 For I will sow her for myself in the land. 
And will have mercy upon Lo-Ruhamah, 
And will say to Lo-Ammi, Thou art my people ; 
And they shall say. My God ! 

appropriate place allotted to them, as bo second Tt^ originally. — ^<r?lt» Jezreel, 

many connected links in the chain of here means that which Qod hath sown, 

Divine Providence, the sovereign in- i. e. his people whom he had scattered, 

fluence of the Great First Cause is hut whom he would again restore to 

strongly asserted by the emphatic repe- their native soil. Comp. chap. i. ver. 4, 

tition of nx^, I will respond to, or answer, and 1 1 . 

It must, however, be observed, that this 23. ^ is causal, introducing a decla- 

verb does not occur the first time in one ration which is designed to account for 

of RennicoU*s MSS.; it has originally the appropriation of the name Jezreel at 

been wanting in another of De BLossi's ; the end of the preceding verse. The 

and is omitted in the LXX. Syr. and metaphor is agricultural. The rest of 

Arab. One of De Rossi's MSS. omits the verse contains a repetition of what 

r^, cm rm^ entirely; and another, the is promised, chap. i. 10. 


This chapter contains a new symbolical representation of the regard of Jehovah 
for his people, and of their condition at a period subsequent to their re-establish- 
ment in Canaan at the return fVom Babylon* The prophet is commanded to 
become reconciled to Gomer, though she had proved unfaithful to him, as 
predicted chap. L 2, ver. 1. He obeys the command, and purchases her from 
the individual with whom she was living in adultery, but stipulates that she was 
to wait for a lengthened period before she could be restored to the enjoyment of 
her conjugal rights, 2, 3. In the two last verses, the symbolical proceeding is 
esLplained of a long period during which the Hebrews were to live without the 
celebration of their ancient rites, and at the same time be free from all idolatrous 
practices. The direct prediction respecting their conversion to the Messiah, 
ver. 6, clearly proves, that their condition during the present dispersion is 

16 HOSEA. [chap. hi. 

1 And Jehovah said unto me : Go again, love a woman beloved by 
a friend, yet an adulteress, according as Jehovah loveth the children 
of Israel, though they have turned to other gods, and love grape 

2 cakes* So I bought her to myself for fifteen pieces of silver, and 

1. 1^, again, obviously refers back to on the same terms as formerly. Comp. 

chap. i. 2. The transaction here com- for this acceptation of v% Jer. iii. 26. 

manded, bearing so near a resemblance The LXX. mistaking the word for vi, 

to what is enjoined in that chapter, has evil, and taking nriMfor theBenon. rorAi, 

occasioned nearly the same diversity of render dyanSaav novrjpcL ; for which the 
interpretation. To me there appears no ^^ ^ \'* '* i^i? 

consistent method of explaining it but ^yr. has (iia^i, Kt*^ U^l 
that which assumes an identity of the o o ^^ 

female here specified with Gomer, whom | A a*:^ . an adtdierova woman who 

the prophet had previously married, j A w ^f mi j ««-.-. 

For, first, such cnstfiiction is absolutely ^j* "^ '^'T' ^\ T !l^, ^ 

reqiired by the analogy. It was Israel ^ '^i' "f '?>,i?'"*^'i.-'*i f ^ 

th2t stood in the relation of wife to n and not with ip». The kind feeling 

Jehovah from first to last. No other °' *« P™?''*' '"'"^ }^ ^"'"«" 
nation was admitted to the same relation. ^ ~"^»P°™«^> "/ '. *yPf5 ,*° ** 
Secondly, the female is one already *?'«, ."Z God towards the idolatrous 
married, but who had proved unfaithful; Israelites. The sentence lustquotedm 
which was precisely the case with Israel! f^ '^ ""'" f V"* words Dniy»} zf» 
Thirdly, except she had been the pro- ?^' ^""^ "l'^.'"^ °"* °^ numerous 
phefs own wife, who had become un- 'O'tanccs in which Hosea uses he Ian- 
faithful to him, there would be no point P'S! "^ '''.« f '"^'^''l''' f H»'e;w«k 
in comparing his love to her with that ''" '^?"".,"'. •"? ^'^^''t ^-/"^"^iT 
borne fiy Jelovah to idolatrous Israel. T ^ ^^no"" '^^'12 ^^ V*" 
Fourthly, a command to love the wife of '*"^- P; ^\- °?K '^ J"*^' •"*« 
another man, who, notwithstanding her variously interpreted. LXX. »r«M/««ro 
infidelity was still attached to her, would '*^ <rra^'«or or <rra4>a«>v, baked meaU 
be totafly repugnant to every idea of •^. r,"^- Aq. renders the former 
moral justice ^ propriety. LasUy, the Y<"^ ^ v<iKa^ evidenfly readme '«^. 
command is not ng, uL. as in the According to the Hexap. Syr. Theod. 

former instance, chap. i. 2, the usual adopU the same rendering : ""^v^^V 

formula by which marriage IS expressed; '^ ^ 

but 1% lor^, i. e. renew thy kindness to U^^ ^^^^ gymm. dKApnovsi Vulg. 
her; receive her back into thy house ^ r o 

and make kind provision for her. This vinacia uvarum ; Syr. IJl^U UooI 

view of the passage 18 decidedly adopted !**•-* >^ IT*""^. 

by Ewald in his Propheten des Alien placenta uvis passis condita, Junius, 

BundeSf recently published. TremeUius, and others, have flagons of 

The words TW^pyi yj ranM n^ apy "i|5, winej as in our common version. The 

are equivalent to, " Go, love thy wife, to word pJnaSM is employed by Jonathan in 

whom, though an adultress, thoii art his Targ. on Exod. xvi. 31, to express 

attached ;" but the indefinite form Ttp^ the meaning of htt^v, afleU cake. The 

a wife, is purposely selected, instead of most probable derivation is from Mk, (o 

?|ri^, thy wife, in order to intimate the press, compress ; and the meaning Vill 

state of separation in which they lived, be, pressed cakes of dried grapes. Such 

For the same purpose T^ a friend or cakes are highly esteemed in the East, 

companion, is used, and not rr^, her on account of their sweet taste, and 

husband; it being here employed not so doubtless formed part of the offerings 

much as a term of endearment, as indi- presented to idols, and afterwards eaten 

eating that, whatever might be his dis- at idolatrous feasts, 

position towards her, they were not living 2. Because the purchase of wives was 


3 for an homer and an half of barley. And I said unto her : Thou 
shalt remain for me many days ; thou shalt not commit lewdness, 

4 nor become any man"*s : and I also will remain for thee. For the 
children of Israel shall remain many days without a king, and 

not uncommon, as it still is, in eastern false ^ods or JeLovah ; wbile, on his 
countries, (See Michaelis on the Laws of part, he would enter into no national 

Moses, Art. LXXXV.; Grant's Nesto- relationship to any other people. This 

rians, p. 214 ; Perkins's Eight Years in application of the symbol is distinctly 

Persia, p. 236,) most expositors have marked by % and by the resumption of 

supposea that such a transaction is in- y&, ver. 4. The cnoice of the fuller 

tended in this place. The fact, however, preposition ^, in T|!^, in preference to ), 

that the price here specified, one half in seems designed to express the strength 

money, and the other half in grain, was of affection with which the symbolical 

the exact amount of what was allowed female was still to be regarded ; conse- 

for a female slave, Exod.xxi. 32, induces quently the powerful inclination of the 

the belief that the payment was made Lord towards his unfaithful people, 

by the prophet for tne liberation of his 4. This verse describes a period of 

own wife, who had become the property great length, during which the Israelites 

of the person with whom she had been were to have no civil polity, either under 

living in adultery. The sum was too regal or princely rule ; no sacred sacri- 

Sarsimonious to have been given as a fice ; no idolatrous statue ; no mediating 

owry. The signification of buying as priest ; and no images or tutelary deities, 

attaching to rro, is sufficiently esta- This period cannot be that of their dis- 

blished by Deut ii. 6, and Job xl. 30, persion previous to the return from 

. Babylon ,* for the restoration of the wife 

and the use of the Arab. Li , Conj. vi. of the prophet prefigured the restoration 

which tooK place on that return, agree- 

and viii., conduxit rem, LXX. €/4i- ably to chap. ii. 19, 20, 23. It is true 

a-SwrdiAfjp, Uengstenberg's attempt to that when they were brought back 

explain it here oi digging^ in the sense along with the Jewish exiles, the Is- 

of boring the ear in token of a state of raelites had no more any civil or eccle- 

slavery, is unsuccessful. A "^S, lethek^ siastical polity of their own ; neither did 

according to the Rabbins, contained they relapse into idolatry : but still, as 

fifteen seahs, or half an homer. Theod, in common with their brethren, they 

yoiiop dikffiir&v'y Symm. QvKclkos KptBcip; were subject to the same political rule, 

out the other Greek versions, tjfUKopov, and offered their sacrifices to Jehovah at 

half a cor, which was equal to an Jerusalem, it follows that the days here 

homer. The LXX. unaccountably have predicted must be those which have suc- 

ycjSfX oXyov. The repetition of 0^1^, is ceeded to the times of the Asmonean 

not unusual in Hebrew, but the abbre- dynasty, or the dispersion consequent 

viated form of expression is better upon the final destruction of Jerusalem. 

English. During the protracted period of more 

3. 1^ properly signifies to sU, but than eighteen centuries, {p*y\ crp;) they 

likewise to dwell, remain, &c. *5in »ft have been precisely in the circumstances 

explains its meaning here to be a re- here predicted — separated from idolaters, 

fraining from all cohabitation with others, and professedly belonging to Jehovah, 

''), and ^1?^ are correlates; and '»} UV) yet never acknowledged by him in a 

forms an antithesis ; " while I, on the church relationship. They have neither 

other hand," &c. As the wife of the had a civil ruler, nor any of the con- 

prophet was to continue for a long time secrated offices and rites of their ancient 

in a state of separation equally from economy. Tlius Kimchi on the passage, 

paramours and from her husband, and *]^ vh ^i \w Dvn 13 unsMO nibrr ns' on mm 

he was likewise to form no connexion irnanai lanaw onan irmrQ ^ Vnrraro to vh 

with any other woman, so the Israelites Drrrcn orra^ — <* And these are the days 

should long live without serving either of our present captivity, for we have 

18 HOSE A. [chap. hi. 

without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without a statue, and 

6 without an ephod, and without images. Afterwards the children of 

Israel shall return, and shall seek Jehovah their God, and David 

neither king nor prince of Israel, but a very early period, as appears frdm the 

are under the rule of the nations, even history of Rachel, Gen. xxzi. 19, 30, 

under the rule of their kings and their 32, 34, 35. Comp. 1 Sam. j\x, 13 ; 

princes." This interpretation, Trhich 2 Kings xxiii. 24 ; £zek. zxi. 21 ; Zech. 

alone suits the views furnished of the x. 2. That they were not only kept as 

subject by the prophet, overturns the tutelary deities^ but also consulted for 

hypothesis of Dr. Grant, that the Nesto- the purpose of obtaining a knowledge of 

nan Christians are the remains of the future events, appears from several of 

ten tribes. It cannot properly be said of the passages just quoted. Hence the 

them that they have continued cr^l Dny, rendering of the LXX. bi^\»p, llie 

in a state of separation from God, for they etymology of the word is altogether 

received the gospel in the earliest ages uncertain. 

of Christianity. Some explain rot, both 5. At a period still subsequent to that 
of legitimate sacrifices and of such as of their existence in the state just de- 
were offered to false gods ; but the scribed, the Israelites (now amalgamated 
grouping of this term with t^sd, a statue, with the Jews,) are to be converted to 
as liM, ephod, following, is with crp^, the true worship and service of Jehovah, 
teraphim, clearly shows that the prophet under the spiritual reign of our Saviour, 
meant the former restrictively. Kimchi the promised Messiah. To him they 
brieflv explains : ^^ rasm |*m ^ mi |*k, will then submit themselves, and richly 
'* without sacrifice to God, and without enjoy the blessings of divine grace, 
an imaffe for idolatrous worship." From communicated through his mediation, 
the prohibition Lev. xxvi. 1 ; Deut. xvi. That Til, David, here means neither the 
22, and the history, 2 Kings iii. 2 ; xvii. royal house of David, nor any human 
10 ; X. 26, 27, it is manifest that rQ^ monarch of that name who is yet to 
does not stand for altar, as the ancient reign over the Jews, as some have ima- 
versions render it, but denotes a statue gined, but the great Messiah himself, 
or image of some false deity. Comp. appears evident from Scripture usage. 
Micah V. 13. i^, the ephod, was that See Is. Iv. 3, 4 ; Jer. xxx. 9 ; Ezek. 
part of the high priest's dress which was xxxiv. 23, 24; xxxvii. 24, 25. As the 
worn above the tunic and robe. It con- name properly signifies The Beloved, it 
sisted of two pieces which hung down, quite accords with o ayamjr^s, Matt. iii. 
the one in front over the breast, and 17, and o rfyairfiyihos, Eph. i. 6. Thus 
the other covering the back, and both the Targ. tt; •>? wr^ r^p^flftji " And 
reaching to the middle of the thigh, they shall obev Messiah the Son of 
They were joined together on the shoul- David." The following is the Rabbinical 
ders by golden clasps, set in precious interpretation : — dm Mrr«» vchQ jtm pDM 
stones, and fastened round the waist by rvcm tii mti iTryaii p t>n rroo Tii M«*n p. 
a girdle. In the breast part was the " The Rabbins say, that He is the king 
]^, or pectoral, containing the Urim Messiah ; whether he be of the living, 
and Thummim, by which divine responses his name is David, and whether he be 
were vouchsafed to the Hebrews. Ac- of the slain, his name is David." Re- 
cording to the Jews, the ephod in its rachoth Jerus. in Raym. Martini Pugio 
complete state ceased with the captivity : Fidei, fol. 277. See also the Rabbinical 
for tney specify the Urim and Thummim Commentaries on the above passages in 
among the five things with respect to Ezekiel. The use of ^, in the phrase 
which the first temple differed from the 5 ij i; '** ^"in^, and not p, or '3BO| the 
second. LXX. Upartia, prietthood, usual form, is intended to show that the 
which I doubt not the Hebrew term was fear here specified is not of the kind 
intended metonymically to denote in this which " hath torment," and which causes 
place, ttvi^, the terapnm, were penates, those who are under its influence to 
or household gods. They were used at recede from its object, but such fear as 


their king; and tbey shall tremblingly Iiasten to Jehovah and to 
his goodness in the latter day. 

attracts or induces them <o approach /o zu seinem Gute, u.8.w. ; and Hitzig 

it. Tbb the addition ^i^ ^, '' and to explains, bebend in freudiger Erwartung 

his goodness," clearly shows. Comp. toerden iie herbeieUen. While on the 

Miciw vii. 17. As, however, the idea one hand the Jews, under the influence 

of fleeing or hastening from danger is of alarm, shall he excited to flee from 

also impued in verhs signifying to fear, the wrath to come, they shall he attracted 

I have rendered the words so as to by the display of the divine goodness in 

include both. In this way Rabbi Tan- the mediation of Christ, to confide in 

Him for all the blessings of salvation. 

chum : cJIai U Ji' ,.ro **ll . i^i^i ^'^ "^» ^*« ^' ¥ ^* ^^^^ '^' ^' *^® 

w- Lr- * ijrj-^J ^yg ^f ^Ije Messiah, as the Rabbins 

" they shall flee to him for help from all interpret the phrase. See on Is. il. 2, 

that may he feared." Comp. Jer. xzzL where Kimchi says expressly, C3VO Vs 

12. LXX. iiuTTTfaovTai. hri r^ Yivp'ua rpwon ma» wn xra^ rmnHi tdww 

Koi in\ r«(( dyaBots avrov, Ewala " wherever it is said, ' In the last of the 

renders, und toerden beben zu Jahve und days,' it means the days of the Messiah." 


The prophet now addresses himself more directly to the castigation of the flagrant 
evils which abounded in the kingdom of Israel during the interregnum which 
followed upon the death of Jeroboam, and the reigns of Zechariah, Shalluro, 
Menahem, and Pekahiah. He calls the attention of his countrymen to the 
divine indignation, and the causes of it, 1, 2 ; denounces the judgments which 
were about to be executed upon them, 3 ; describes their incorrigible character, 
especiaDy that of the priests, 4 — 11 ; and expatiates on the grossness of their 
idolatrous practices, 12 — 14. A solemn warning is then given to the members 
of the Jewish kingdom not to allow themselves to be influenced by their wicked 
example, 15 — 19. 

1 Hear the word of Jehovah, ye children of Israel ! 

For Jehovah hath a controversy v^ith the inhabitants of the land ; 
Because there is no truth , nor kindness, nor knowledge of God in 
the land. 

1, 2. The initiatory words are those and frequently to ^fent?; and onijM; and 

of Hosea, summoning attention to the all these different epithets are used of 

divine message which he was commis- the kingdom of the ten tribes in con- 

sioned to deliver, ^nh^ ^^ is equivalent tradistinction to rn«T and nirp rn^, 

to binip^ n*i, ch. v. 1 ; ^Kitp^ ^V^, ch. v. 9; which designate the tribes of Judah 

80 HOSEA. [chap- iv. 

2 There is nothing but swearing and lying, 
And murder, and theft, and adultery ; 
They have burst forth, 

And blood reacheth to blood. 

3 Therefore shall the land mourn, 

And every one that dwelleth in it shall languish ; 
With the beasts of the field and the fowls of heaven ; 
The fishes of the sea also shall be removed, 

4 Yet let no man contend with, nor reprove another ; 

For thy people are like those that contend with the priest* 

5 Therefore thou shalt fall by day. 

And the prophet also shall fall with thee by night ; 
And I will destroy thy mother. 

and Benjamin, y) signifies here ground what follows in the general predicate, 

o/" complaint^ or judicial proceeding, Comp. Gen. vii. 21. ^^ is cognate 

LXX. KouTis, The wickedness which with ^v, and signifies to gather up, 

abounded is first set forth negatively, away, hack, take away, as well as simply 

and then positively, under certain items ; to collect together, Zeph. i. 2, 3. LXX. 

and the infinitive absolute is employed »,-x ' rf> • Svr ngsnm^ • Tare 

with great effect, as expressing more * ^i<pova-ip , yr. ^ , g. 

emphatically, by its abstract form, the pw. — d;, signifies not only what we 

heinousness of the evils described. The call the sea, but any lesser collection of 

force of this I have given in a free water, as pools, and even rivers. See 

translation. Ewald improperly limits Is. xix. 5. 

the signification of the verb p§ in Jhis . 4. >J is here prohibitory, and not 

place to the act of breaking into houses ; simply negative, as some have rendered 

but the metaphor seems rather to be it The introduction of the sentence by 

taken from the bursting forth of a torrent, m yet, nevertheless, is designed to show 

which, in ite progress, spreads wider and the hopeless character of the persons 

wider, and sweeps all before it. The spoken of. All reproof on the part of 

plural form Dn?^, blood, has also a degree their friends or neighbours generally 

of emphasis, signifying much bloodshed, would prove fruitless, seeing they had 

What the prophet means is, that murder reached a degree of hardihood, which 

was so common, tliat no space was left was only equalled by the contumacy of 

as it were between its acts. LXX. those wno refused to obey the priest, 

aifutra i<b' Mfiaoi fiioyovai, Coverdale, when he gave judgment in the name of 

one bhudgiltynes foloweth another. And the Lord, Deut. xvii. 12. The passage 

Ritterhusius powerfully in his poetical is thus quite plain, and requires no 

metaphrase : — transposition or emendation of the words 

« sic sanguine sanguis as adopted bv Houbigant, Newcome, 

Truditur, et scelerum nuUus finisve f.'*^,'^^^*^^^; J^l^ V^^ '*'™^ 

modusve est." £ ** ^^^'^ ^^"^ ?^^: Comp.^TDpa 

7^13, chap. V. 10. All the ancient ver- 

See 2 Kings xv.; Micah vii. 2. sions, except the LXX. and Aq. read 

3. Comp. Is. xix. 8 ; xxiv. 4; Joel i. «,, „ « i i. . 

10, 12. b^. in the Pulal Conj.. is *P??- The Hexap. Syr. has ^j (ifiii 

usually employed after !a«, in order more V^^ , 

forcibly to describe the calamitous state / •' 

of a countr}'. a here signifies with, ex- 5. By a sudden transition to the 

tending to, accompanied by, and includes second person^ the prophet addresses 


CHAP. IV.] HOSE A. 21 

6 My people is destroyed for lack of knowledge : 
Because thou hast rejected knowledge, 

I will also reject thee, so that thou shalt not be a priest to ine ; 

Because thou hast forgotten the law of thy God, 
I also will forget thy children. 

7 According to their increase, so they sinned against me ; 
I will change their glory into shame. 

8 They devour the sin-offering of my people. 
And long for their iniquity. 

himself directly to his guilty people, Jehovah, tliough they tauglit the people 

and predicts their utter destruction, to combine with his worship that of 

Di«rr, Kimchi, Drusius, CEcolamp. Gro- pagan deities, or at least that of the 

tius, and Ewald, improperly render golden calves, which, no doubt, paved 

" to-day." As contrasted here with the way for the universal spread of 

n^, niffht, it is equivalent to ^% hy idolatry in Israel. The position adopted 

day. Comp. Neh. iv. 16. That the by Horsley, that the Jewish high-priest 

article is not repeated before n^, may is intended, does not suit the connexion, 

be owing to the common adverbial use The third m in «{hdkqh, is not found in a 

of this noun without it. The false pro- great number of Kennicott's and De 

pfaets by whom the Israelites had been Rossi's MSS., nor in some of the earlier 

encouraged in wicked practices should printed editions ; in others it is marked 

render them no assistance in the season as redundant, and some few have *]Dmdm 

of calamity, but should be themselves ^. The antitheses in this verse are 

involved in the same common ruin, pointed and forcible. ^3 is understood 

wen, the LXX. renders o/xo/oxra ; and as repeated in nat^, and ^ before nav^, 
several translate, *' I have reduced to 7. As the priests are obviously the 

silence;" but the verb is obviously used nominative to the verbs in the three 

in the sense of destroying, as ^7? is, following verses, and form the sulgect 

▼er. 6. Comp. Zeph. i. 11. By ^f^, of discourse in that which precedes, 

thy mother, the Israelitish state is meant, they must likewise be the persons spoken 

of which 'the citizens were the children, of in this. It has been queried whether 

See chap. ii. 1. Thus Kimchi, Jerome, the increase was in number or in wealth, 

Grotius, Michaelis, Rosenmiiller, and power, &c. Michaelis thinks the latter 

Maurer. Others, as Cornelius k Lapide, is meant ; still the former may be in- 

Houbigant, Capellus, Pococke, Bauer, eluded, in harmony with the mention 

and Newcome, suppose the metropolis made of their children, ver. 6. In pro- 

to be intended. portion as they multiplied in numbers 

6. rom^p, having here the article and grew in mfluence, they promoted 

before the noun, and occurring in con- the increase of idolatry : but the wealth 

nexion with n^iin, immediately following, and dignity C"^) which they acquired, 

is not to be taken in the sense of unex- and which they dius prostituted, should 

pededly, as T! ^r? is, Is. v. 13, but be destroyed by foreigners, by whom 

strictly means that destitution of the they would be carried into captivity, 

true knowledge of God which was the 01*^3, and D^^^ form a slight parono- 

source of the sins now about to be masia. 

pvniahed. This ignorance is principally 8. nMi^n here signifies sin-offering, as 

charged upon the religious teachers of it frequently does in the Levitical code, 

the nation, each of whom is directly So Kimchi ; and it is thus rendered in 

addressed in ^«^ nrn nnw. Thus _, , . a t. »*« •• n * 

Pagninus, O sacerdos ; which Dathe Pococke s Arab. MS. ^^y i\h^ ^ 
also inserts in his text. The persons .^ . ? on. 

addressed pretended to be priests of jjf^li' *"^ Castalio, piaculo. The 

22 H08EA. [chap. iv. 

9 Therefore it shall be, like people^ like priest ; 

I will punish them according to their ways, 
And requite them for their deeds, 

10 For they shall eat, but shall not be satisfied ; 
They shall commit lewdness, but shall not increase : 
Because they have ceased to regard Jehovah. 

11 Lewdness and wine and new wine take away the heart. 

12 My people consult their stock; 
Their staff announceth to them : 

priests greedily devoured what the people observe fomicatiotij and urine, and new 

Drought for tne expiation of their sins ; wine, that it is altogether inadmissible, 

and instead of endeavouring to ^ut a Though the verb toi^ may in no other 

stop to abounding iniquity, only wished passage take njrr for its objectj yet it 

it to increase, in order that they might takes viTt( ^7, lying vamties, i. e. idols, 

profit by the multitude of the victims Ps. xxxi. 7 ; Jonah ii. 9 ; in which latter 

presented for sacrifice. ^ vp^, to Ufi passage it is connected with ^t^, as in 

up the animal soul for any Uiing, means tlie present case. The division of the 

to lust after it, long, or have a strong words found in our common version is that 
desire for it, Deut xziv. 15; Jer. xxii. - ,, tt c ^ I r^V. 

27. S in W93, is used distributively to "^^ *^« Hexap. Syr. oAiiA Ur^C^! 

express the fact that juch was the cha- j^^^ and the Slavonic ; and is ap- 
racter of each of the pnests. The • '^ ^ 

reading n^l, found in ten MSS., origi- proved by Michaelis, Tinfi^stedius, New- 

nally in seven more, and perhaps in one, come, Dathe, Boothroyd, De Wette, 

and supported by the LXX. Syr. Tarff. Hitzig, and Ewald. 
Vulg. and Arab., most probably origi- H. This verse has the appearance of 

nated in emendation. Not unfrequently a moral adage. The influence of habits 

a proposition commences with the plural, of impurity and intoxication in blunting 

and ends with the singular, and vice the moral feelings, and weakening the 

versd. intellectual powers, is a well-established 

9. Comp. Is. xxiv. 2. The rank and fact in the history of man. 

wealth of the priests would not exempt „ ^^^^ . ^^^^ «;«„«««„« «:vn ^«4™ 

''lo'T'J^ t^TZ^H^ of ^. ver. ™« ?«<»- '-'. «»>« -orque met." 

8. — npTTi is here used intransitively, as „ ^^^^ „:,»„«, ««„i;«.. «:i,;i «-« ,;«^^-:.,- 

:-. Vo o J • i. u J * J " Wox, vmum, mulier: nmupcmiciosius 
in ver. 18, v. 3, and is to be understood „i«i««««„»„i« »» vi^.,4 

i*i. 11 r ai. 1 • j 1 ^ aaolescentulo. Jrtaut. 

literally of the sensual indulgences of 

the Israelitish teachers, as the verb rrv There can be little doubt that the pro- 
shows. For the signification to abound phet has specially in view the impure 
in children, ta attaching to this verb, and bacchanalian orgies which were 
see Gen. xxviii. 14. Saadius, Arnold, connected with the Syrian idolatry. For 
(Blumen althebraiach. Dichtk.) and the prevalence of drunkenness in Ephram, 
Horsley, disjoin "^ts^ from the preceding see Is. xxviii. 1 ; Amos iv. 1. 
verb, and connect it with the following 12. The LXX., and most versions 
nouns, thus :— ^ which follow them, connect ^ with ^% 

Gmng heed to fomicaUon, &c. ^^,., ^^ j,^,,,^^ ^^^ otherwii di^ 

But, notwithstanding the apparent force approved by modern translators. The 

of the bishop's remarks, there is some- Syr. Targ. and Vulg. divide properly, 

thing so repugnant to Hebrew usace in Hosea here adduces proofs of the mental 

the combination xffrm tt!!) ms] ifinft, to hebetude to which the stnfiil practices of 

CHAP, IV.] H08EA. 23 

For a lewd spirit faatb caused tliem to err ; 
They have lewdly departed from under their God. 

13 They sacrifice on the tops of the mountains, 
And offer incense upon the hills ; 

Under the oak, and the poplar, and the terebinth, 
Because their shade is pleasant : 
Therefore your daughters commit lewdness, 
And your daughters-in-law adultery. 

14 I will not punish your daughters when they commit lewdness. 
Nor your daughters-in-law when they commit adultery ; 
For they themselves go aside with harlots, 

the Israeliiish people had reduced them Q*?^3|> lit a §pirti of whoredoms^ i. e. a 

— ^their application to their wooden idols powerful impetus to commit acts of idol- 

and images for oracular counsel, and atry. Instead of the simnle form nmi, 

their use of rhabdomancy or divination some few MSS. the Babyl. Talmud, the 

by rods. Leo Juda : " ligno suo oracula Syr. Vul^. and Targ. read csvrn ; Trhile 

quarit." That by y?, wood, is here the LXX. and Arab, read «r«i. For 

meant an idol made of such material, orrjV^ rnnp, comp. Numb. ▼. 19, 20 ; 

the connexion shows. Comp. Jer. ii. Ezek. zxiii. 5 ; and vvav^pos, Rom. 

27; X. 8; Hab. ii. 19. ^ is properly vii. 2. 

a shoot or Ueig, then a rod, toalhng »tqf, 13. Mountains and hills were se- 
&c. Occurring as it does here, in refer- lected by idolaters on which to erect 
ence to an idolatrous or superstitious their altars, and offer their sacrifices, on 
practice, it denotes such a staff employed account of their supposed proximity to 
for purposes of diyination. Some have the host of hearen, whicn they wor^ 
been of opinion that it is to be taken as shipped. That this custom was very 
strictly parallel to f1?, and that a staff is ancient, appears from the prohibition, 
meant which had the image of some Deut. xii. 2. For imitating it, the 
god carved upon it ; but the use of the Hebrews are frequently reproved, Is. 
phrase ^ Tr, emnotmceth, pomletk otU, Ixv. 7; Jer. iii. 6; £zek. xviii. 11. 
shows that a divining rod is meant vr^, being in Piel, expresses the eager- 
Rhabdomancy {pafffiofuufrtia) was very ness and frequency with which the 
common among the ancient idolaters, as Israelites offered their idolatrous sacri- 
it has been in later times in different fices. They also selected groves of oak, 
countries of the East The ancient terebinth, &c. for purposes of superstition 
Arabs consulted their gods in this way, and idolatry, under whose umbraceous 
taking two rods, on one of which was cover they might at once be screened 
inscribed Qod bids, and on the other from the heat of the sun, and indulge in 
God forbids, and drawing them out of lascivious practices. The sacrifice of 
the case into which they were put, acted female virtue which was required in the 
agreeably to the direction which first religious service of the Phoenician god- 
came forth. See Pococke, Specimen, desa Astarte, seems clearlv to be re- 
Hist Arab. p. 327. Maimonides quotes ferred to in this and the following verse. 
an ancient book entitled Siphri, in rrsi>^ IjXX, \ojKny the while poplar, from 
which a diviner is defined to be one who ]2^, to be white. 

takes his staff, and inquires, Shall I go? 14. Kuinoel, and others, taking ^, as 

or, Shall I not go? The Runic wands standing for »*n, read the first part of 

of the Scandinavian nations, on which the verse interrogatively, which is not 

were inscribed mysterious characters, unsupported by examples in Hebrew 

and which were used for magical pur- usage. It seems better, however, to 

poses, appear to have originated in the understand it here as a simple negative, 

more ancient divination of Asia, nrt and the meaning to be that, as the 

24 HOSEA. [chap. iv. 

And sacrifice with prostitutes : 

And as for the undisceming people, they shall be overthrown. 
15 Though thou, O Israel, art lewd. 
Yet let not Judah be found guilty ; 
Come ye not to Gilgal, 
Neither go ye up to Beth-aven, 
Nor use the oath, " Jehovah liveth." 

parents and husbands indulged in the word rerikea-fUvoiv, initiated. Its den- 
flagitious practices here described, Je- vation from ^^l)?, to be sacred, consecrated, 
hovah would not make examples of the or destined to the service of the temple, 
females, or suffer them to be punished, confirms our interpretation. — IC3^ ; Syr. 
as if they alone were guilty ; but would 

visit with condign punishment their »,^n\, condtavU; Arab. tjJ, conjecit 
natural protectors, who not only aban- * *' 

doned them to seduction, but themselves in terram aliquem, in Niph. to he cast 

rioted in the same wickedness. Thus doum, overthrown^ or the like. The verb 

Munster: " Durissimd animadvertam in occurs only here, and Prov. x. 8, 10, 

parentes et sponsos, ut filise et sponsas where see Schultens. 
eorum punitee videantur esse extra 15. A solemn warning to the Jewish 

pcenam/' The transition from the second kingdom to beware of mixing itself up 

to the third person, for the purpose of with that of Israel in the practice of 

more graphically exhibiting tne subject idolatry. Here np^, to commit lewdness, 

of discourse, is not without examples, is again used figuratively. O^, properly 

See Is. xxii. 16. The use of the sepa- signifies to contract guilt, or become 

rate pronoun on, also adds to the em- subject to its consequences. ^1% Gilgal, 

phasis of the language. t>b, in Piel, was a town situated between the Jordan 

stronglymarks the studied withdrawment and Jericho, near the confines of the 

of the Israelites from the assembled kingdom of Samaria. It was regarded 

throngs, to such places as were devoted as a holy place as early as the days of 

to scenes of impurity ; while niT, in the Joshua, chap. v. 15; and sacrifices were 

same conjugation, signifies in this con- offered there to Jehovah in those of 

nexion, to commit lewdness as an act of Samuel, 1 Sam. x. 8, 13 ; xv. 21, 33. 

idolatrous devotion. Between ^^:^, and In process of time, however, it came to 

n^^!?i?7 there seems to be this difference, be converted into a place of idolatrous 

that the former were ordinary females, worship, Amos iv. 4, 5 ; Hos. ix. 1.5 ; 

who prostituted themselves for gain, but xii. 11. J3*:? n*3, Beth-aven, i.e. the 

the latter those who devoted themselves house of vanity or idols, a name given 

to the service of Astarte, by offering by the minor prophets, by way of con- 

their persons to be violated in her tem- tempt, to Bethel, i. e. the house of God, 

Sles at the sacred festivals. See Selden a place sacred to true religion in the 

e Diis Syris, Syut. ii. cap. 2 ; Herodot. time of the patriarchs, and the judges ; 

lib. i. cap. 199; Euseb. Vit. Constantin. but afterwards selected by Jeroboam as 

lib. iii. cap. 35 ; Spencer de Leg. Heb. the principal seat of the worship of the 

lib. ii. cap. 22 and 23; Lucian de Dea golden calves, 1 Kings xii. 29, 32, 33; 

Syra. Of this latter term, the mas. xiii. 1 ; Amos iii. 14 ; vii. 10, 13 ; Jer. 

XJ!*tirrp^, catamites, occurs, 1 Kings xiv. xlviii. 13. It originally belonged to the 

24 ; XV. 12 ; xxii. 47 ; and in the ancient tribe of Benjamin, but was taken by that 

book of Job, chap, xxxvi. 14, which of Ephraim, Judges i. 22 — 25. That 

shows at how very early a period such there was a city of the name of Beth- 

abominations obtained. It likewise occurs aven near to Bethel, appears from Josh, 

in both genders in the prohibition, Deut. vii. 2, which may have suggested the 

xxiii. 18. To these practices the LXX. appropriation of the name to the latter, 

doubtless had respect in rendering the LXX. oIkov ''Qv, reading fiA, the native 

CHAP. IV.] HOSE A. 25 

16 Since Israel is refractory, like a refractory heifer ; 
Jehovah will now feed them, like a lamb in a large place* 

17 Ephraim is joined to idols ; 
Leave him to himself. 

18 When their carousal is over they indulge in lewdness ; 
Her shields are enamoured of infamy. 

name of Heliopolis. Aq. and Symm. tarilv addicted themselyes to the service 

oUop dvm<l>€\fj ; Theod. oLcov adiKias ; of idols, and thus identified themselves 

• 1. !-• 1- * i_ "^'^ ^^^^^^ interests. While the word 

and with this the Arab, agrees \j:^ q,^^ ,-^^^^ suggests the idea of their 

,,.,1 _ _ ^ . . . ^ being merely the fabrication of human 

JM, the house of mtquUy, Comp. kbour, it also intimates the pain or soi- 

. r 1? \. ^^^ resulting from idolatry. The root 

Amos IV. 4; v. 5. From the warnmg \^^ bojjj significations. '^rr\r\ strongly 

here given to the Jews not to participate implies the obstinacy and incorrigible 

with the Israelites m theiridolatry it is character of the ten tribes, and indig- 

evident the prophecy was delivered at a nanUy abandons them to their fate, 

time when they were comparatively free jhey are irreclaimably devoted to the 

from that evil. The prohibition not to gods of the heathen: let them take 

swear by the formula :^ 'n. respects the ^heir own way, and reap the consequences 

combmaUon of the divme name with of their perverse choice. Their case is 

those of idols, or the profession of at- desperate. Comp. Jer. vii. 16 ; Ezek. 

tochment to Jehovah, if the persons ad- ^x. 39. Thus Tanchum, Jarchi, Kimchi, 

dressed were ffuilty of idolatry. Comp. Calvm, Taniovius, Zanchius, Coverdale, 

Zeph.1.5. That It was otherwise lawful Drusius, Lively, Leo Juda, Pococke, 

to use It, appears from Jer. iv. 2. Comp. Ruinoel, Michaelis, Tingstadius, New- 

"'• ^2^- , . , , come, Stuck, and Ewald. Others, as 

16. The metaphor 18 here taken from the Targ. Jerome, Mercer, Diodau, 
a heifer that obstmately refuses to be Orotius, Rosenmiiller, Maurer, &c., re- 
yoked. Thus the Syr. ^ iV^^^y gard the words as shnply containing a 
^ -^ N^ •T~r ' warning to the inhabitants of Judah to 

\%^. For Uie force of -r*. comp. !'e«P.'4«»f /"">•/ v^ —!"*' TJ' IVv 

'^*^ '^ idolatnesof the£phraimites. IheLXX. 

Deut. xxi. 18. .The latter hemistich %6tik€V eavr^ aKavbakaf reading nsn in 

contains the language of irony. As the preterite, and supplying the idea of 

lambs are fond of ranging at large, but idols from the preceding part of the 

are in danger of being lost or devoured, verse. 

so God threatens to remove the Is- 18. Before "^^ the particle dm taherif 

raelites into a distant and large country, is to be supplied, which in poetry, for 

where they would be separated from the sake of conciseness and energy, is 

those with whom they associated in frequently omitted. For the acceptation 

idolatrous worship, and thus be left past^ passed away^ over^ &c. comp. 1 Sam. 

solitary and exposed as in a wilderness, xv. 32, niorrio no. Horsley, Ewald, and 

The phrase smi^i rc^, to feed hi a large some others, are of opinion that no means 

fJace^ is elsewhere used in a good sense, vapid, degenerated^ sour, &c., but less 

s. XXX. 23. aptly. The meaning is, that no sooner 

17. 0!3^ Ephraim, as the most nu- were their coinpotations over than they 
merous and powerful of the tribes, and indulged in excessive lewdness. Instead 
that in which the kingdom was esta- of dki^, their drink., drinking bout, one 
blished, is put for all the ten. "ion, from of De Rossi's MSS. has originally read 
yon, to he joined, closely united, ctdhere to, D^iD, drunkards; another DHl^, their 
to be allied to by voluntary choice, Gen. host.; and one of Kennicott's D^^D, 
xiv. 3. In this last sense the term is Sabeans ; but none of tliese variations 
here used. The Israelites had volun- suits the entire construction of the verse. 

26 ROSEA. [chap. v. 

19 The wind hath bound her up in its wings, 
That they may be ashamed of their sacrifices, 

TheLXX.strangelyj^pcrio-cxai^avaiovr, Maurer; mirifice amani ignominiam : 
which the Arah., as usual, follows. The Ewald ; es lieben lichen schmach seine 
impurity in which, when inflamed with Schilde. Kuinoel very uniustifiahly 
liquor, they indulged, was most probably omits vn in his Heb. Text, p^, shame, 
that connected with the worship of a collective abstract noun, expressive of 
Venus. To express the excess to which the infamous acts connected with idol- 
it was carried, the verb is first put in atrous worship. D^?9, thieldsf are tropi- 
tbe infinitive absolute, and then repeated cally used for princes, as the natural 
in the finite form, ^osrf is not separately protectors of their people, here and Ps. 
expressed in the LXX. the Arab, or in xlvii. 10. llie feminine suffix n, refers 
eitner of the Syriac versions; though it to y^, understood; the inhabitants being 
cannot hence be inferred that it was not meant. 

in the Hebrew text. It is wanting, 19. By an expressive figure, borrowed 
however, in three of Kennicott's MSS. from the sudden force with which any 
If it did not originate in some copyist thing is carried off by the wind, the 
having written the two last syllables of propnet announces the suddenness and 
the preceding word over again, it must violence with which the ton tribes should 
be regarded as having originally formed be removed from their land. The com- 
part of that word in the reduplicate form bination rm ^33, wings of the wind, is too 
ttrm*^; in which, not only is the second firmly established in Hebrew usage, 
syllable of the verb repeated (ornnM), see Fs. xviii. 11 ; civ. 3, to allow either 
but the pronominal sunormative is re- of the acceptations spirit or tfanity being 
tained in the middle of the word, and given to iyr\ or that of borders to 0^ 
the first radical (w) rejected on that in this place, nn being of both g^enders, 
account in the reduplication. Such form accounts for the masculine of the verb, 
is of extremely rare occurrence : *^vintp^, and the feminine pron. afiix. For s^iQ^, 
lit. they destroy, destroy me, Ps. Ixxxviii. two of De Rossi's MSS., and the Vat. 
17, being the only other instance of the and Alex, copies of the LXX. read n^, 
kind with which I am acquainted. In which gives no suitable sense. In the 
this way the form is partly accounted distant countries of the Medes, by whom 
for by the ancient Jewish grammarian all image-worship was held in abomi- 
Abuwalid Ibn Jannahi, as quoted by nation, uie exiles would be brought to a 
Pococke. What confirms this view of due sense of the wickedness and ab- 
the reduplicate form is the use of 0^1^?, surdity of their conduct. \ in ^vb^, is 
a gemination somewhat resembling it, used t^Xikw, Jer. xlviii. 13. Sacrificee 
by our prophet, chap. viii. 13. The are here put by synecdoche for the whole 
rendering give yet as if it were the im- system of idolatry in which they in- 
perative of ^ proposed by Abenezra dulged. For the reading D^h^i^, of 
and Kimchi, and adopted by our trans- their altars, adopted by Newcome, tliere 
lators, is not so suitable to the connexion, is no authority except the Targ. and Syr. 


This chapter commences with an objurgation of the priests and the royal family, 
as the principal seducers of the nation to idolatry, 1, 2. Then follows a de- 
scription of the unbloahing wickedness of the people, interspersed with denun- 
ciations of impending punishment, 3 — 7. The approach of the divine judgments 

CHAP, v.] HOSE A. 27 

is ordered to be proclaimed, and their certainty declared, 8, 9. The prophet 
then abruptly turns to the two tribes and a half whose guilt and punishment he 
denounces ; yet so as to show that his predictions were chiefly directed against 
the northern kingdom, the rulers of which, like those of Judah, instead of 
looking to Jehovah for delirerance from civil calamities, applied in vain for 
foreign assistance, 10 — 14. The 15th verse sets forth the certainty and the 
beneficial effects of the divine judgments. 

Heak this, O ye priests ! 

And hearken, O house of Israel ! 

Give ear, O house of the king ! 

For the sentence is against you, 

Because ye are a snare at Mispah, 

And a net spread upon Tabor. 

The apostates slaughter to excess, 

But I will inflict chastisement on them all. 

1. ^tJH!^ n% house of Israel^ i. e. the just as he specifies mount Tabor to the 

ten tribes. Tfy^ rr^, house of the king, west of that river. See Judges x. 17 ; 

i. e. the king and his court. From the zi. 29. On both of these elevated posi- 

references made to the idolatry and tions false worship had been established 

punishment of Judah in this and the for the purpose of ensnaring the inhabi- 

following chapter, it would appear that tants of the adjacent regions. Tlie 

the king whom Hosea had specifically means employed to bring them over to 

in view was Pekah, the son of Remaliah ; it are compared to the snares and nets 

since it was in the reign of Ahaz, who used for catching birds and wild beasts 

was cotemporary with him, that idol upon the mountains. By metonymy, 

worship was carried to such a height in the leaders of the people are spoken of 

that kingdom as to call for the calamities as such nets and snares, because of their 

inflicted upon it by the confederate forces bad example, and the influence which 

of Israel and Syria, as well as by the they otherwise exerted for evil, 
king of Assyria. By w^*i D3b is not 2. rrcrjttJ, slaughtering, the infinitive 

meant, as the Targ. interprets, followed absolute, with n paragogic, of wtb^ to 

by Abenezra, Kimchi, Abarbanel, Pag- kiU, for food or sacrifice. Here, from 

ninus, Junius, Tremellius, and others, its close connexion with the preceding 

that it belonged to them to know and verse, it has the latter signification, 

execute justice, but that the judgment Some think murder is meant ; but this 

or punishment was directed against is less likely, though the verb is also 

them. They had merited it, and it was used in this sense in other places, nr^rr^ 

now coming upon them. LXX. irftos V^v?> lit. they deepen to slaughter, i. e. 

vjULs iari r6 Kpiyia, Thus most Christian by a peculiar idiom, they slaughter to 

expositors. ^^9^, Mispah, As there excess, kill an immense number of sa- 

were several places of this name, some crificial victims. Comp. rn^ V^tpa^ ; 

degree of uncertainty attaches to it as Is. xxxi. 6. D^^, apostates, the Benoni 

oocunring here ; but as the object of the participle of B^tD, to turn aside, decline 

prophet seems to be to set forth the from the right way, apostatise ; as u^ 

means employed for seducing the whole scoffers, from ^, to scoff. Comp. Ps. 

of the ten tribes to idolatry, it is more xl. 5, in ng^, those that turn aside to 

probable that he had in his eye Mispah falsehood ; and onpp • iti», Ps. ci. 3. Two 

of Gilead, on the east of the Jordan, or three MSS., the edit of Soncin., and 

28 HOSEA. [cHAP.v. 

3 I know Ephraim, 

Israel is not hid from me ; 

Surely now thou committest lewdnesSi O Ephraira ! 

Israel is defiled. 

4 They frame not their deeds 
To return to their God ; 

For a lewd spirit is within them, 
And they regard not Jehovah. 

5 The pride of Israel testifieth to his face ; 

Therefore Israel and Ephraim shall fall through their iniquity ; 
Judah also shall fall with them. 

a few others, have D instead of tD, in our plural, to express the character of the 

p «. 7 people generally. By some orr^t^ is 

text. Syr. «.iA.^lfiD|i seduxit^ JZoImaAcQ^ construed as the nominative to w, and 

rendered, their deeds do not permit them^ 

decUnatio, apostasia. The idolatrous &c. Thus the Syr. Ahenezra, Drusius, 

Israelites multiplied their sacrifices in &c. ; and among the modems, Horsley, 

order that they might enjoy prosperity Tingstadius, Manger, Kuinoel, Stuck, 

imder the protection of the deities to Maurer, and Ewald. But in order to 

\i'hom they offered them; but Jehovah establish this construction, we should 

here declares that none of them should have to read o^^rp, or Dnk4 ^31t, « per- 

escape the punishment which he was mitted them" the accusative of the 

about to inflict upon them. Before *^D^ person always following the verb in such 

supply rm^. The ancient versions are case. See Gen. xx. 6 ; Exod. iii. 19. 

here greatly at fault, from their authors In the present instance ]n3 is used in 

having supposed that the reference to the sense of placing, ordering, framing^ 

hunters is still continued in this verse. like 0^ and n^^, as it is given in the 

3. Ephraim, as distinguished from common version, and rendered by Tan- 
Israel, means the tribe of Ephraim, chum, Leo Juda, Mercer, Tamovius, 
from which most of the apostate kings Michaelis, Rosenmiiller, Noyes, and 
sprang, and in which idolatry most Hitzig. The meaning is, that the Is- 
abounded. By Israel the other nine raelites did not reform, did not so regard 
tribes are meant. As having incurred their wicked practices as to abandon 
the more aggravated guilt, the former them and return to the pure worship of 
is here addressed in the second person. Jehovah. 

Two of Kennicott's MSS. indeed, and , 5. That } 7m means to testify for or 
one of De Rossi's, originally read nn3]n ; ci^atM^ any person or thing, is obvious from 
and one of Kennicott's has npMpip^ for its use, Gen. xxx. 33 ; Job xvi. 8. It is 
M^9, but both are, in all probability, properly a judicial phrase, and refers to 
from the hand of correctors, rnirr is the testimony given by a witness, either 
here used figuratively. The polluting for or against anotner, according to 
influence of the Ephraimites was felt circumstances. The rendering to be 
through the whole nation. To ex- humbled, which is that of the LXX. 
press an assertion more strongly the Syr. Targ. Jarchi, and recently of Mi- 
Hebrews put it first in the form of an chaelis, Kewcome, Noyes, and Maurer, 
affirmative, and then in that of a nega- cannot be philologically sustained. The 
five, nn^, now, is not without emphasis; addition V3Da, to his face, gives emphasis 
pointing out the undeniable fact that to the phrase, openly, publicly, in such a 
£hey had been the cause of the spread manner that he himself may see it, 
idolatry. without the adduction of further evidence. 

4. The language now changes to the That fiK3 signifies pride, insolence, not- 


CHAP, v.] HOSEA. 29 

6 With their flocks and their herds, 
Thej may go to seek Jehovah, 
But they shall not find him : 

He hath withdrawn from them. 

7 They have proved felse to Jehovah ; 

For they have begotten strange children : 

Now shall a month destroy them and their portions. 

withstanding what Horeley asserts to propitiatorysacrifices to Jehovah in order 

the contrary, is sufficiently apparent to avert the punishment, it would be 

from Prov. xvi. 18, and Is. xvi. 6. 1 altogether in vain. V^ signifies to draw 

should ratlier think, however, that by or ptU off any person or thing, to 

the term as here used, we are to under- withdraw one's seff^. Comp. the Arab, 

stand the objects of which the ten tribes i • ? -^ 

were proud, their splendid or magnificent U'^' '''^'^ "'^"^ progressus est, 

idols, &c. As Jehovah is spoken of as ^„j j^ extraxit, exuit. Pococke's 

a^ ]%o, the excellency or boast of Jacob, Cr ' 

Amos viii. 7, so the idols might be Arab. MS. has ,,4^0 djSu^^ Jii^ M 

called VJ?! 1^, the excellency, or proud f^ -'^ C ' 

boast of Israel. They gloried in them God hath withdrawn his help from them. 

as the objects of their confidence and The Israelites and Jews could no longer 

attachment These very gods, by their reckon on the divine presence, and the 

utter impotence, bare open witness that effectual aid which that presence im- 

they could afford no help to those who plied. 

trusted in them ; so that their worship- 7. The prophet seems here to allude 
pers could not but have been convinced to the mention made of u^} ^, and 
of their folly, if their hearts had not D7^3J '3?, lewd children, chap. i. 2 ; ii. 4. 
become morally obscured by the practice Q^, strange, foreign, is selected in order 
of iniquity. The religion itself (D3^, to show that the idolatry was the result 
their iniquity,) from which they expected of intercourse with foreigners. The 
safety, would prove the cause of their verb 13|, to act unfaithfully, is also used 
ruin. The words are repeated with a of the breach of the matrimonial cove- 
similar reference chap. vii. 10. nant, Jer. iii. 20. This idea is expressed 

The concluding line of the y«»se con- . ^^ ^^ jjg ^ p^ ^ 

tarns an abrupt and unexpected appli- ' """v^ 

cation of the threatening to the Jews. ) ^ ^|^ ^^ i^^ ^oJt«i the covenant 

As they had suffered themselves to be -^ 

influenced by the example of the Israel- of God» ^ has here the signification of 
ites, they should also share in their itaque, and marks the consequence of 
punishment The respective captivities the conjugal infidelity just specified — 
of both are here threatened. On com- the production of a race of idolaters, 
paring this threatening with chap. iv. 15, The relation of the words is well ex- 
it appears to have been delivered at a pressed by Stuck : '* quoniam Deo infi- 
period considerably subseqiient to that deles sunt, propterea liberos peregrinos 
which is there spoken of, wnen the evils habent." r^, now, is here to be taken, 
of idolatry had made some progress in not as determining the exact point of 
the southern kingdom. To express more present time, but the speedy and certain 
strongly the certainty of the event, the arrival of the event. The term tiifr, 
verb 7^ is put in the preterite ; whereas month, has greatly, and, in my opinion, 
it had simply been used in the future very unnecessarily perplexed interpreters. 
^^^, in reference to the Israelites. Houbigant at once cuts the knot by an 

6. The idolaters are here told that arbitrary emendation : vrr zhatk Txre^^ 

though in the hour of calamity they omnino est legendum ^'onn VstP rjrm, nunc 

might bring their flocks and herds as igiiur absumet rubigo. He appeals to 

so HOSEA. [chap. v. 

8 Blow ye the horn in Gibeah, 
The trumpet in Ramah ; 
Raise a shout at Beth-aven ; 
He is behind thee, O Benjamin ! 

9 Ephraim shall become desolate 
In the day of punishment ; 
Among the tribes of Israel 

I have made known that which is sure. 

the ipvaiPf) of the LXX. as his autho- be taken for the commencement of a 

rity ; but cpvo-ijSi; signifies mildetOf with new prophecy, as Jerome, Abarbanel, 

which Vpn, a locust, the word he pro- Michaelis, Dathe, Manger, and others, 

poses to substitute for tiihy has no manner suppose. The difference between the 

of affinity. That the same word which *fV8) and the rn^ seems to be, that the 

is now in the Hebrew text was found in former was the same as the pg, horn, 

it in the time of Aquila, is evident from being made of the curved horn of 
his rendering it vtofirjvia. Symm. and 

Theod. have /xi/v. Michaelis, Dathe, animals, Josh. vi. 5, 6, 8. Arab, j,^, 

Kuinoel, and Staudlin, give to the word ,. ^ • .^ . ^ ^ i 

^ Mutu forammwu8 tnstntctus; whereas, 

the signification of the Arab. *^,\\\r- the latter was made of metal, such as 
what is new and unexpected, and explain *^*^ two silver trumpets which were em- 
it of a sudden calamily. Most moiems T^^'^y^^ ^*>^ convokmg the congregation, 
take it in the sense of netv-moon, i. e. Numb. x. 2 j from w, Arab. -,a&*, in 
either at the feast of the new moon, " -^ ~~ 
when the Israelites were assembled to angustiam redegit ; anguito pecfore pre- 
worship; or, at that time their calamities ditus fuit. Gesenius considers the word 
should commence. It seems most na- to be an onomatopoetic, imitating the 
tural to abide by the usual meaning of broken pulse-like sound of the trumpet, 
the term, and consider the prophet as (hdtzotzirahf) like the Latin taratantara, 
announcing, that within the space of and the Gennan trarara. Their shape 
one month they should be visited with and size may be seen in the representa- 
merited punishment The calamity pre- tions of the arch of Titus. Comp. Jer. 
dieted seems to have been that occasioned It. 5; Joel ii. 1; Hos. viii. 1. The 
by the invasion of Tiglath-pileser, who LXX. render roii, Gibeah, and vtm^ 
ravaged the country, and carried into Bamah, rovg fiowoi^s and t£v vyftrjkatff 
captivity the tribes of Reuben and Gad, as if heights or elevated places in ge- 
the half-tribe of Manasseh, and that of neral were meant ; but they are to be 
Naphtali, besides the inhabitants of taken as proper names, just as Beth-aven 
several cities in other parts of the and Benjamin are. They both lay in 
country, 2 Kings xv. 29; 1 Chron.Y. 26. the tribe of Benjamin, see on Is. x. 29, 
That Judah also suflTered on this occasion, as did also Bethel, here called Beth-aven, 
see 2 Chron. xxviii. 19 — 21. on^t??^. See on chap. iv. 15. Before fpn^, 
their portions, are commonly interpreted subaud. x!^, the enemy " is behind thee," 
to mean their possessions or property ; i. e. close upon thee. The fifth Greek 
but I should rather think the prophet version has Kard vorov trov, to the south 
has in view their idols, whom tney re- of thee; but if the local signification 
garded as the authors of their possessions were at all admissible, the west is the 
and enjoyments. See Is. Ivii. 6, and my only sense in which the word could be 
Comm. on that verse. understood. 

8. An alarm is ordered to be given to 9. Having apprised the Jews of the 

the southern kingdom of the approach danger with which they were tiireatened, 

of the enemy. The verse intimately the prophet returns to describe the ca- 

coheres with the foregoing, and is not to lamity which was to be inflicted upon 

CHAP, v.] HOSE A. 31 

10 The rulers of Judah are like those who remove the boundary ; 
I will pour out my wrath upon them like water. 

11 Ephraim is oppressed, 
He is crushed in judgment ; 
Because he consented, 

He followed the order. 

12 I am as a moth to Ephraim, 

And as rottenness to the house of Judah. 

13 And Ephraim saw his sickness, 
And Judah his wound ; 

the ten tribes ; and in the course of the any divine commandment, but to the 

following verses directs his discourse to oraer issued by Jeroboam to worship 

the two kingdoms alternately. The the golden calves, 1 Kings xii. 28 — 33. 

nominative to nrrn is y^M, implied in Such an order his subjects were bound 

D^GM. — nnjto, primarily means proof or by higher authority to have resisted ; 

demorutration, from Tty^ to be before one, but they readily complied with it, and 

be clear f obvious; in Hiph. to place thus became prepared to indulge in all 

before one in the way of evidence, con- the gross idolatries to which this worship 

vince, convict, and then rebuke, chastise, proved the introduction. From the cir- 

punish. The word is synonymous with cumstance that the LXX. have rendered 

nm, ver. 2. The latter hemistich of the passage oitiam rav fiaraiav, (ifter 

the verse shows that the ten tribes were vanities, it has been conjectured that 

the scene of the* prophet's ministry, they read mt^ instead of ^; but it is 

n^3, the feminine used for the neuter, more likely they intended to give the 

10. By the " princes" or ** rulers of sense of the whole, rather than the sig- 

Judah," king Ahaz and his courtiers nification of this particular word. They 

are intended. For V^ ^WQip, comp. are followed by both the Syriac versions, 

Deut. xxvii. 17 ; vi3?n Vtta tbo tt^, Prov. and in part by the Targ. Jerome, on 

xxii. 28 ; xxiii. 10 ; Job xxiv. 2. It was the other hand, has read the same letters 

reckoned a flagrant ofience to remove which now stand in the text; for he 

the marks by which the divisions of renders sordes, pointing the word ^ts^ and 

property were defined. The language regarding it as merely a contracted form 

seems to have become proverbial to of M^^ or hm^, fUthiness. 

designate unprincipled conduct. What m on. f • «a*% a i. 'v* 

the prophet We reprobates appear, to '2. The reference m tJ?, Arab. aoc. 

be the means adopted by Ahaz and his moth, is to the consumption of garments, 

supporters to introduce idolatry into Ps. xxxix. 12; Is. 1.9; in ^, rotten- 

Judah. See 2 Kings xvi. 10 — 18. If ness, to that of wood. See Job xiii. 28, 

the 3 be regarded as the Caph veritatis, where both words occur together as here, 

it will strongly express the fact, that The LXX. freely render the former by 

these princes had actually removed the Topaxrj, the latter by Ktvrpov, The 

boundaries which separated the true re- meaning is not that God was regarded 

ligion from the false. Divine judgments as the moth and rottenness, i.e. with 

are frequently compared to the over- disgust ; but that he was the author of 

flowing of water from a river. W^, to those judgments by which the idolaters 

pour out, expresses the fulness of their should be consumed, 

infliction. Comp. Zeph. ili. 8. rn:^, 13. n»n, to see, has here the sense of 

prop, effervescene, flowmg over, also de- feeling^ experiencing, as in the phrases 

notes the greatness of the punishment. to see life, death, good, evil, &c. "i^, lit. 

11. v^^ Y'or}, the genitive of cause, a bandage, from ini, to compress^ bind as 
broken m pieces by the judgment, or a wound, see Is. i. 6 ; hence, as here, a 
punishment inflicted. y$ refers not to bandaged wound, corresponding to ^, 

32 HOSE A. [cjHAi. V. 

Then Ephraim went to Assyria ; 
He sent to the hostile king ; 
But he could not cure you, 
Nor remove your wound from you. 

14 For I will be like a lion to Ephraim, 

And like a young lion to the house of Judah ; 

I, even I will tear the prey, and depart ; 

I will carry it away, and there shall be none to rescue. 

15 I will depart, I will return to my place, 
Till they suffer punishment ; 

iicknetSf diteoie, in the other member of the kingdom of Judah was that sent by 

the parallelism. For the use of such Ahaz to Tiglath-pileser, when attacked 

metaphors in application to the state of by the united kings of Syria and Israel, 

political affairs, comp. Is. i. 5, 6, iii. 7 ; 2 Kings xvi. 7, 8 ; 2 Chron. zxviii. 21. 

Hos. vi. 1, vii. 1. After n?i?5, supply nrra as a verb, occurs only in this place; 

as its nominative, rmr : Judcth^ from the but a noun derived from it is used Prov. 

preceding part of the verse, which forms vii. 22, in the sense of healing. If we 

an alternate quatrain ; the third line ^ 

connecting with the first, and the fourth may judge from the Syr. \^L^^recedere^ 

with the second. X^ is not a proper ^^ 

name, but an appellative, signifying one fugere, Aph. Uberare, it properly signi- 

who contends, u contentious, hostile; figs to remove, relieve, and so with 

from n to strive with, quarrel, contend, respect to a wound, to heal, LXX. ^i; 
The form is the apocopated future, and 

is contracted for a*v Tt{«, he that acU ^ biavavaji ; Syr. >Q^^ po, neque 

hostUely, Tanchum a^ls^. uJ^^ ^^^ sanabit. 

' 14. No effort to recover a state of 

king that contended, Com-p, yy^,Joiarib, prosperity while the anger of Jehovah 

Neh. xi. 5. Aq. biKaCofitvov ; Symm. was excited against them, could possibly 

€KbiKov, or iKBiKrjn^v ; Theod. Kpirrfv, succeed, ^n^, the black lion, and i^a, 

Jerome, ad regem ultorem, De Wette, the young lion, are frequently employed 

Der konig der rdchen soil. That the to convey the ideas of strength and 

king of Assyria is meant there can be ferocity, Fs, xci. 13. The reduplication 

no doubt See chap. x. 6. He was *?t! ''^ is, as usual, emphatic. Comp. Is. 

ever ready to mix himself up with the xliii. 25 ,* xlviii. 15. nciip, prey, is un- 

affairs of neighbouring states, in order derstood after ^ and vp^^. 

to extend or consolidate his gigantic 15. As God's coming to a people, and 

empire, and was justly regarded by the being with them, implies their expe- 

Hebrews as their most powerful adver- riencing efficient protection and aid, so 

sary. The application made by the his withdrawment of his presence im- 

northern kingdom was that which took plies the deprivation of these blessings, 

place in the reign of Menahem, when D^, like many other verbs, has a sensus 

that monarch sent to Pul a thousand pregnane ; conveying not only the idea 

talents of silver for the purpose of en- of contracting guUt, but of suffering its 

gaging him on his behalf, 2 Kings xv. consequences. The latter idea seems 

19. But this alliance proved of no real clearly to be conveyed in this passage, 

value; for the subsidy was raised by The Rabbins, indeed, and after them, 

oppression, and, in the course of the Glassius, and many others, attempt to 

following reign, Tiglath-pileser invaded attach to the verb the superadded signi- 

and depopuUited great part of the fication of acknowledging , which is that 

country, ver. 29. The embassy from adopted by our translators ; but it is by 


Then will they seek my face : 

When they are in trouble, they will seek me early. 

no means supported by Lev. iv. 22 ; v. zxix. 26. The phrase occurs very fre- 

5 ; Zech. xi. 5 ; the passages usually quently in the Psalms, in reference to 

adduced in proof, 'b *^ «3^^ to uek the application to Jehovah in prayer. Conip. 

face of any one, means to strive to obtain Dan. ix. 3. "tn^ is synonymous with 

his favour. See 1 Kings x. 24 ; Prov. vSga, but is only used in poetic diction. 


The nation, in both its divisions, is here introduced as taking up language suitable 
to the circumstances described in the concluding verses of the preceding 
chapter, 1 — 3 ; but however appropriate it was to the condition of the people, 
that it was not the result of sound and thorough conversion, appears from ver. 4 , 
in which they are expostulated vrith on the ground of their inconstancy. Notice 
is then taken of the means, both of a moral and a punitive nature, that had 
been employed for their recovery, 5, 6 ; their deceitful and wicked conduct, 
especially that of the Israelites, is placed in a strong light, 7 — 10; and a 
special denunciation of punishment is directed against the Jews, who flattered 
themselves with the hope that whatever might befal the northern tribes, no 
calamity would happen to them. 

1 Gome, let us return to Jehovah, 
For he hath torn, but he will heal us ; 
He hath smitten, but he will bind us up. 

2 He will restore us to life after two days ; 

1, 2. It has been disputed whe&er to the conclusion that the same subject 

these words be those of the prophet ex- is here continued, viz. the castigation of 

horting his countrymen to repent and the Hebrew kingdoms on account of 

turn to God, or whether they are to be idolatry, and the efiect produced by it. 

regparded as employed by themselves to This connexion the ancient versions have 

give expression to their feelings of peni- endeavoured to establish by inserting a 

tence, dieir confidence in God for de- word corresponding to "^h?; though it 

liverance from punishment, and their is not found in any Heb. MSS. From 

resolutions of amendment for the future, the apparent agreement of the language 

The latter appears, from the bearing of of ver. 2, with the circumstances of 

▼er. 5, to be the preferable interpretation, time connected with the death and re- 

The intimate connexion of the words surrection of our Saviour, many inter- 

wiih the preceding context, and the re- preters, as Lactantius, Tertullian, Origen, 

petition, in part, of its language, induces Jerome, Augustine, Luther, (Ecolam- 


34 HOSE A. [chap. vi. 

On the third day he will raise us up, 
And we shall live before him. 
3 Then we shall know, we shall strive to know Jehovah : 
Like the dawn, his going forth is 6xed, 

Yea, he will come to us like the rain. 
Like the latter rain, which watereth the earth. 

padius, Mercer, Riberus, Tarnovius, his presence and blessing. The phrase 

Hammond, &c., have maintained that it contrasts with that employed chap. v. 15, 

is to these respect is had in the prophecy, and indicates the result of *$ ^i, there 

I fully concur, however, in the juaicious predicted. 

remarks of Calvin on this interpretation, 3. In ronj njiri; n;?!?^, there is a rise 

** Sed sensus ille videtur mihi nimium from a resolution simply to acquire a 

argutus. £t semper hoc spectandum true knowledge of Jehovah, to a deter- 

est nobis, ne volitemus in aere : placent mination to make such knowledge the 

argutse speculationes primo intuitu, sed object of earnest and unwearied pursuit, 

postea evanescunt. Ergo quisquis volet The n of the elongated futures marks 

proficere in Scripturis, semper iianc re- this bent or inclination of mind. To 

gulam teneat, ut solidum sit quicquid separate the verbs, and connect the 

coUigit sive in prophetis, sive in Apo- former with the preceding verse, as 

stnlis." The exegesis of GrotiuB, Horsley, Horsley does, would quite destroy the 

and many others, who regard the words force of the prophet's language. At the 

as primarily applicable to the Jews, and same time the ^ at the beginning of the 

secondarily, or allusively, to the resur- verse is inferential, intimating that what 

rectionofChrist, is equally unsatisfactory, follows would be the result of the divine 

The simple meaning of the passage is, interposition on behalf of the Hebrew 

that on tneir conversion from the service people. Some few MSS. insert ^ before 

of idols to that of Jehovah, the Hebrews n^'TT?. ][^3, to be fixed^ etiabtisked^ 

should experience the removal of the certain. As certain and delightful as 

national calamities with which they had the dawn of the morning would be the 

been visited ; the nation which had been coming forth of the favour of Jehovah 

reduced to a state of political death afler the dark night of adversity. This 

would be resuscitated, and enjoy a re- beautiful metaphor is taken from the 

newal of its former prosperity. From sunrise. See, for such application of 

the metaphor of disease, ver. t, (here is H^^to, Ps. xix. 7. The other images were 

in ver. 2, an advance to that of actual peculiarly appropriate in Palestine, where 

death, and a consequent resurrection, in rain falls seldom, except in spring and 

order to place their present and also their autumn. At these seasons it is heavy, 

anticipated condition in a more striking and greatly contributes to the fertility of 

light. For the use of the latter metaphor the soil, on which account its bestowment 

in application to the national affairs of was regarded as among the most neces- 

the Jews, see Is. xxvi. 19; £zek. xxxvii. sary of temporal blessings, and its 

1 — 14. »a5^/\p;j rt»a, on the third day, is absence a source of awful calamity, 

expletive of D*P^, aper days, i.e. two The former, commonly called rn^* or 

days ; LXX. /xcrd dvo rjfiipas. That a rnto, the darting rain, from the root nr 


short period is meant, appears from two, to dart, catty &c. ; here Df |n, the rain, 

and two three being usied to denote a by way of eminence ; the heavy, violent 

few, or very few, 1 Kings xvii. 12; Is. rain, as the word properly signifies, 

vii. 21, xvii. 6. Comp. Luke xiii.32, 33. It falls from the middle of October till 

The afflicted Hebrews confidently hoped about the middle of December, and is 

that their punishment would be of brief called the early or former rain. LXX. 

duration, and that God would assuredly verog irpmXfios, because the Jews com- 

restore them to the enjoyment of his menced their year at that time. It 

favour. Such enjoyment is expressed prepares the ground for the reception of 

by living ^5^, hrfore him, expenencing the seed, ^lif^t the latter rain, LXX. 


4 What shall I do to thee, O Ephraim ! 
What shall I do to thee, O Judah ! 

For your goodness is like the momiug cloud, 
And like the dew which early departeth. 

5 For this cause I have hewed them by the prophets, 
I have slain them by the words of my mouth : 
Thy judgments went forth like the lightning. 

6 For I desired mercy and not sacrifice ; 

And the knowledge of God^ rather than burnt offerings. 

veros o^i/iof , falls in the latter half of burden, and beasts of burden are usually 

February and during the months of loaded in the morning, the Hebrew uy^ 

March and April, just before the bar- came in Hiphil to signify the doing of 

vest; from which circumstance it receives any thing at an early hour. Tfh is not 

ita name — v3|^ signifying to gather or to be construed with ^f^, but with Vp. 

collect, the late fruit. Comp. t^, to 5. The severity of the threatenings 

„ ^ « 1* . ^. T» ^ communicated through the instrumen- 

coUect, Syr. V*^ serottnue. Before ^^^^ ^f j^e prophetsis compared to the 

TTfc supply T^. incisions made in stone or wood with 

'4. That the declarations contained in *^« ft^«> ^^ ^^^^ "»«de in the human 

the preceding verses are not to be viewed ^^7 ^'^^ ^^ sword. Comp. Is. xL 4 ; 

aa divine promises, but express the Heb. iv. 12. After 'PQsrr supply D or 

hopes and resolutions of the afflicted °C**' To make the pronominal affixes 

Hebrews, appears from the affecting ex- H^^^f ^^e LXX. Syr. and Tarp. read 

postulations here addressed to them, and 'WpP* " wy judgments,*' and so likewise 

the description of the temporary and Dathe, Kumoel, Boeckel, Newcome, 

evanescent character of their boasted Boothroyd, and Ewald. instead of ^njD^, 

reformation. Like a tender parent who " % judgments." Vulg. judicia tua. 

" *»«<?»» >f possible, to reclaim a way- Hexap. Syr. -1^ U.^0. There is no 
ward child, Jehovah asks what other *^ ' ' • ' • 

means could possibly be employed for variety in the MSS., except that one of 

the recovery of his rebellious people. Kenmcott's, and originally one of De 

They had been tried both with mercies Rossi's, have TW^> " *^y judgment," 

and judgments, but without effect. Comp. >» the. singular. The reference of the 

Is. V. 4—7. 1^ properly means kind- affix is to 1^, ver. 4 ; and the meaning 

nea, bemgmty, mercy; here piety, re- »«. the judgments which belong to thee, 

^ ^ ^ which thou deservedst, and which were 

Ugion, as Is. xL 6. Syr. ^Qa^O^*(^> inflicted upon thee. The genitive is 

J x> 1 » A 1, nyfc t^*t of object. Comp. «|59^ 1 Kings 

your goodnese; Pocockes Arab. MS. ^^^q, nr^, Jer. lifg ;wid especially 

Jj^d, your religion, Theodoret not WP9, Zeph. iii. 15. Thus Lyranus : 
r - ^ ^ " poense tibi mferendse. W, though 

;..«««i.. ^^.^ A- ».^.«:»^ ♦v«- . jj ^ » future, is modified by the preceding pre- 
maptly gives the meaning thus : n nap ^ .^ j • ^ 1 "^ j j j- *^i 

t i ^ ^ f rx ° / ' '^ tente, and is to be rendered accordingly. 

other countries of the same latitude, the i^^ xxxvii. 3, 15. The LXX. Syr. 

dense clouds which cover the heavens ^^^^' ''^^ ^^^^' ^"PP^^ ^ ^, ^J® ?^- 
aense ciouas wnicn cover ine neavens gudden and awful as the 1 ightn mg 

during the morning are all gone by nine ^"""''" "."". ""*«* «» 6 s 

or ten o'clock • and the dews however "^^^^ ^^® inflictions of mented punish- 

or ten ociocx ana tue dews, nowever j^ idolatrous Hebrews, 

copious, early disappear. D»3«ta is here, ^ Z^ v j : 4 r™.k:«u 

£L. «*i i iT^* 1. 1 !-• n 6. Tcn means here /rtttf pie/ V, of which 

" ^HiJ' ° ^„ ^ *? adverbially ; • ' ^ . j^ , /branch, m 

ear^, in the morning. A. the cognate oTftB^corresponding to it ui the second 

Ethiop. rtTfl"" : signifies to carry a member of the verse, likewise means a 


6 HOSE A. [chap. vi. 

7 But they are like men that break a covenant : 
There they proved false to me. 

8 As for Gilead, it is a city of evil-doers ; 
Marked with footsteps of blood. 

practical knowledge of Oodf in opTpoeiiion (comp. on the other hand Tn^ ** my 

to that which is merely speculative, covenant," chap. viii. 1,) shows, that 

Comp. Jer. xxii. 16. The present is one both this noun and the preceding verb 

of several passages in the Old Testament, ri3[^, stand in immediate relation to D^ 

in which the comparative worthlessness which, as ver}' frequently, is a collective, 

of ceremonial observances is taught, and is thus used instead of a plural. 

Seels.!. 11 — 17; Ps. xl. 7 — 9,1.8 — 23; which it nowhere exhibits. It may 

Mic. vi. 6 — 8. Comp. Matt. ix. 13, also be objected to the first mentioned 

xii. 7. interpretation, that nowhere in Scripture 

7. Translators and commentators have is God said to have entered into a rr?^, 

been greatly divided respecting the pre- or covetiant with Adam. The obligations 

cise meaning of D't^ as occurring in this under which he was placed are repre- 

Sassage; Some, as Jarchi, Jerome, Leo sented as those of a ^V^, command or 
uda, Castalio, Grotius, Clarius, Manger, interdictj rather than any of a fcederal 
Tingstadius, Newcome, Rosenmtiller, nature. Q^, like Edom, the reading 
Boothroyd, and Stuck, regard it as a proposed by Michaelis, has found no 
proper name, and suppose the reference supporters. Before rijiv, supply in^, of 
to be to the conduct of Adam in trans- which there is frequently an ellipsis in 
pressing the divine commandment; while Hebrew poetry. See Moldius, p. 103. — 
Kimchi, Munster, Vatablus, Tremellius, D(, there, points graphically to the 
Beza, Drusius, Lively, Calvin, Rivetus, northern or Israelitish kingdom as the 
Piscator, Zanchius, (Ecolampadius, principal scene of idolatrous defection, 
Mercer, Lowth, De Wette, Maurer, and anticipates the regions more spe- 
ll itzig, Ewald, &c., take it to be an cifically referred to in the two following 
appellative, and interpret the passage of verses. 

the treacherous violation of contracts 8. "^i, Gilead^ is the nominative ab- 

among mankind. In favour of the former solute, and is here the designation of a 

view, it is alleged, that it places the city, in all probability Ramoth-GUead, 

guilt of the Israelites in a much more the metropolis of the mountainous region 

aggravated light ; and Job xxxi. 33, beyond Jordan, and south of the river 

Ps. Ixxxii. 7, are appealed to in proof of Jabbok, known by the name of Gilead, 

a similar allusion. It is, however, very Josh. xxi. 38; 1 Kines iv. 13. It was 

doubtful whether there be any such af- here that Jacob and Laban entered into 

lusion in these passages ; and as to the a solemn covenant with each other. Gen. 

force of the comparison, it seems suffi- xxxi. 21, 23, 25. Burckhardt found 

ciently supplied by supposing men in ruins of cities on two mountains in that 

general to oe understood, who break the region, still known by the names of 

engagements into which they have en- Diebel Djela&d, and Djelaftd, one or 

tered with each other. The Israelites other of which may have been that here 

had treated God as if he had been one mentioned. It was one of the cities of 

of themselves, and as if the sanctions of refuge, Deut. iv. 43 ; Josh. xx. 8 ; but 

his covenant were as little to be regarded appears from the present passage to have 

as those of ordinary contracts were by afterwards become notorious for idolatry 

men of unprincipled character. If we and bloodshed. Some would restrict 

except the three passages in question, it ^ ^e to idolaters, in imitation of the 

is universally admitted that there is no LXX. who render ipyaCofiimj uaraia ; 

other, after the first chapters of Genesis, but it seems better to take the pnrase in 

in which Di^ is used as a proper name, its more enlarged meaning, as mcluding 

or in which any reference is made to all manner of wickedness. Of this, 

our first parent. The absolute and in- indeed, idolatry has ever been found to 

definite form too in which rn^ occurs, be the fruitful parent. Various expla* 

CHAP. VI.] HOSE A. 37 

9 As troops of robbers lie in wait for a man, 
So is the association of priests : 
They commit murder in the way to Shechem ; 
Yea, they practise deliberate crime. 

10 In the hoose of Israel I have seen what is horrifying ; 
There is the lewdness of Ephraim ; 

Israel is polluted : 

1 1 Also for thee, O Judah ! a harvest is appointed. 

nations of ro;^, have been advanced ; then not ni^s^ as here, but 'V^ ^7V- 

bat the simplest is that which regards it Tf? is generally considered to be an imi- 

aa signifying traeedf from 3^9, the heely tation of the Chaldee form of the Iniin. 

step, print of the footy and describing in Piel,from Trsn, to taaity lie in wait for; 

the marks or traces of blood left by the but it seems more likely to be the ab- 

feet of the murderers who resided there, breviated form of the Pie! Participle 

._ V '^^^ ^^® ° being dropped, as in n^i^, 

Syr. pCj^ (IaJ^S^O, stained with Eccles. iv. 2, and in several instances of 

, , , . , „ , , the Pual Participles. See Gesen. Lehrgeb. 

blood. Jewish Span, mmunda de scmgre. p, 31^, tJv 'gn^ will thus form the ge- 

To what historical facts the prophet nitive of object. Three MSS. substitute 

refers we have no mformation, except n for '; and instead of the prepositive |», 

perhaps that contained in 2 Kings xv. ^^^^^ mSS. and three printed editions 

25, from which it appears that fifty of ^gad 4. Before rrxfe "W there is an 

the inhabitants of Gilead were impU- ellipsii of ]3, corresponding to ? in ^.— 

cated in the regicidal conspiracy against n^^ jg u,ed to denote presumptuous or 

Pekahiah. , . « deliberate wickedness, ttom DOi ; Arab. 

9. D^, Shechem, was another city of 

refuge, situated between Ebal and Ge- |^» proposuU nbi, to form a purpose, 

rizim. It stiU exists under the name of ' , ^ . 1 . ^ 

lay a deliberate plan of actum ; chiefly 

jjJbU, Naploos, and has, from very employed in a bad sense. LXX. dpofiia. 

^^ Uitzxg, Unthat. 

ancient times, been the seat of the 10. njHU^, LXX. (ppiKtodrf, occurs 
religious community of the Samaritans, under the forms nwD«^ and rryrafi, Jer. 
Having been for a time the residence v. 30, xxiii. 14, xviii. 13. It is explained 
of Jeroboam, 1 Kings xii. 25, its immediately after of the atrocious idol- 
inhabitants became so corrupted, that atry which, through the influence of the 
the priests resident there iMinded to- tribe of Ephraim, had spread itself over 
gether, waylaid, and murdered with the whole Kingdom of Israel, 
impunity the persons who were fleeing 11. For the various interpretations 
to the asylum for refuge. The n in which have been given of this verse see 
TfOyp is that of direction, and connects Tamovius or Pococke. Ewald is the 
in sense with '^. The interposition of only modern that adopts branch as the 
the verb vi^ between these two nouns rendering of t*^, as kimchi proposed^ 
tx:casious no di£Sculty, since we have and explains it of the introduction of 
instances of nuuns in construction being idolatry into Judah. How Horsley could 
separated. See Gen. vii. 6 ; Is. xix. 8 ; assert that harvest is used in a good 
Hos. xtv. 3. Our common version, and sense, as an image of the ingathering of 
many others, following the Targ. in r|n|, the people of Gc3, is inconceivable. See 
one shoulder, translate nopn^, with one Jer. li. 33; Joel iii. 13; Rev. xiv. 15 — 
consent, which well suits the connexion ; 20. Nowhere in prophecy does it appear 
but is not borne out by Hebrew usage — to be used in this sense. In all proba- 
the term occurring but once, Zeph. iii.9, bility, the punishment predicted is that 
in this metaphorical acceptation, and recorded, 2 Chron. xxviii. 6 — 8. rvvp is 



[chap. VII. 

here used impersonally. Instead of the Jewish kingdom. They must, there- 
by four MSS. originally two more, the fore, be transferred to the following 
Targ. and two old editions, read r6. The context, with which they will be found 
words npv rnsv) ^^ have no meaning, if to be in harmony. Thus Moerlius, Mi- 
connected with the preceding, which chaelis, Jahn, Eichhorn, Kuinoel, Stuck, 
form a concise apostrophical warning to De Wette, and Boothroyd, divide. 


The prophet continues his description of the wickedness of the ten tribes. 
Regardless of Jehovah, they persevered in falsehood and violence, 1, 2; 
flattered their rulers, and thereby obtained their sanction to their nefarious 
conduct, 3, 5 ; and indulged to the utmost in licentiousness, 4 — 7. The murder 
of their kings successively is predicted, and their hardihood and folly are further 
set forth, 7 — 10. The prophet next adverts to their fruitless application for 
assistance to Egypt and Assyria, and their equally fruitless, because false 
professions of return to the service of God, 11 — 16. 

1 When I reversed the captivity of my people, 
When I healed Israel, 
Then was the iniquity of Ephraim revealed, 
And the wicked deeds of Samaria ; 
For they practised deceit ; 
The thief entered, 
And the banditti plundered in the street. 

1. Some would render w na^ »^i«Ja, 
** when 1 again lead my people into 
captivity;*' but altogether contrary to 
the established usage of the language. 
See Deut. xxx. 3 ; Ps. xiv. 7 ; Jer. xxxi. 
23 ; Zeph. iii. 20. The words are ex- 
plained by the following ^*Jrt *W?i ^^en 
I heal Israel. ^ and f frequently alter- 
nate with each other, when used of the 
time at which any thing is done. The 
restoration here mentioned b in all pro- 
bability that of the two hundred thousand 
Jewish captives, to which reference is 
made 2 Chron. xxviii. 8 — 15. The con- 
duct of the Israelitbh rulers upon that 

occasion held out some hope of im- 
provement in the character of the nation, 
and a consequent change in the Divine 
conduct towards it; and this expectation 
was confirmed by a temporary cessation 
of the judgments of God, during which 
they might be said to have been Aeaied; 
but it was soon entirely frustrated by 
the open increase of wickedness among 
them. n^3)} has the force of theUf on 
the contrary, become more manifest, &c. 
For Samaria i see on Is. xxviii. 1. * Being 
the metropolis of the ten tribes, it was 
the head spring of that corruption of 
manners which overspread the kingdom. 


2 And they considered not in their heart, 
That I remembered all their wickedness : 
Now their deeds encompass them ; 
They are before my face. 

3 With their wickedness they cheer the king, 
And with their falsehoods the princes, 

4 They are all adalterers ; 

They are like an oven, heated by the baker ; 
Who resteth from heating it. 
From the time he kneadeth the dough, 
Until it be leavened. 

Mir and yvia ^Sft^ describe the acts of seem, from the ful'owing words, to be 

violence that were committed by break- the true meaning. 

ing into and plwidering private houses, 3. Their rulers, instead of repressing, 

and those which were perpetrated on took delight in the immoral and irreli- 

persons in the streets. The reference is gious conduct of the people. 

not to foreign enemies, as Horaley and 4. In this connexion, 0^39 is to be 

others expound, but to lawless Israelites, taken in its literal signification. Comp. 

2. For the phrase ^V^^>o^ comp. the Jer. ix. I, xxiii. 10. For the conjecture 

,-^ ., .|.. o^ Stuck, that the word was originally 

Arab. ^ ^ jjj, and JUwA) ^ (Jj ; trtifp, baked or cooked, there is no 

fouudation. To place the violent and 
and our, say to oneself, Ps. xiv. 1, et incontinent character of their lust in 
Jreg. Instead of D9?1^> ^^^ ^<>i^^ exhi- the strongest light, the prophet compares 
bited in the printed text, '* to their it to a baker's oven, which he raises to 
heart," ten MSS., originally seven more, such a degree of heat, that he only 
now one, perhaps another, and the requires to omit feeding it during the 
Complut Biole, read ^^h " <» their short period of the fermentation of the 
heart." One of De Rossi's MSS. states bread. Such was the libidinous cha- 
in the margin that the latter reading is racter of the Israelites, that their impure 
found in other copies. It is also sup- indulgences were subject to but slight 
ported by the Syr. Vulg. Targ. and interruptions. Comp. dKaratravarovs 
Arab, versions. Both forms describe in- dfiaprias, 2 Pet ii. 14. n^a, in the 
temal or mental conversation, only ^ feminine, agrees with "ran, which is of 
indicates an endeavour to persuade. So common gender. The latter word Ge- 
far were the persons spoken of from senius derives from the Aram, pn, to 
bringing themselves to act on the con- smoke, and to, Jire, €k>mp. the Arab, 
viction, that God was privy to their i^i^ * 
wicked deeds, that they evinced the .yJ, and Syr. ]9^l, fomax, dibanus, 
contrary disposition. Still, however, 

the phrase may best be rendered by The oven here referred to is not the 
think, consider, or the like. To the pitcher-oven of the Arabs, but the 
words Drr^vp xscqp, two interpretations larger kind, pretty much like our own, 
have been eiven. They either mean, which was, as it still is, used in public 
that the evil practices of the Israelites bake-houses, nchp m^ is elliptical for 
crowded round tliem as so many causes burning, having been kindled by the 
of punishment, as enemies surround and baker. Before rf^, supply injH. I'he 
shut up the object of their attack ; or, meaning is, who only ceaseth from heat- 
that they crowded about them as so ing, &c. Most interpreters take "n^ in 
many witnesses to reveal the wickedness the sense of stirring, rousing up, &c., 
of their character. The latter would and apply it to the stirring of the fire in 

40 HOSE A. [(HAP. %'ir. 

5 On the day of our king, 

The princes are sick with the fever of wine ; 
He stretcheth out his hand with the scoffers. 

6 For though the V approach with their heart warm as an oven, 
Yet it is in their plot ; 

Their baker sleepeth all the night ; 

In the morning it burning like a blazing fire. 

the oven ; but it is preferable to regard their scoffs. Because D^-^ occurs no- 
where else, Houbigant would have it 

it 88 the part, of tT, Arab. .U, to *« changed into the usual form ti^, most 

uncritically. Comp. yv and y?)^. Aq. 

hat, hurtling; hence in Hiph. to cause vXcvoorwr; LXX. less properly, Xo*/*«r. 

to bum, heat, &c. Thus the LXX. Xhe reduplicate form is in:ensive, and 

dir^ T^ff ^Xoydff. The interpretation expresses the awfully profligate character 

from the city, eiven in the Syr. Targ. of the persons described, 

and Vulg. is altogether inappropriate. g. j consider the prophet to be con- 

For the feminine form of the Infin. tinuing in this verse his description of 

^??N» comp. njofj, Ezek. xvi. 5. the abandoned courtiers, in imagery 

5. By tsV is meant a festal day ; borrowed from that introduced ver. 4. 

either that of the king's birth, or, as the in their intercourse with the monarch. 

they were scheming how to get 

ference is to the accession of a new king him. The ringleader waited till he could 

to the throne. Instead of «3^, our conveniently carry the plot into execu- 

king, twenty-two MSS. and the Syr. Uon; and speedily they effected the 

read la'pSo, our «w^« ; LXX. i^fi^pai nefarious purpose. Were it not that all 

r&p jSao-iXcfloy vu£y. ^"JPTT is used in- the ancient versions render trjB as a 

transitively. The LXX. Syr. Targ. ygrb, I should have been inclined to 

V^ulg. Abarbanel, Lee Juda, Newcome, poJnt it ^afig. and translate, " For their 

Michaelis, and Boothroyd, refer this mward part is like an oven ; their heart 

verb to the root ^ ; but, not to insist ig in their plot" Comp. ^ar1l5 o^ Si^\ 

on its requiring in such case to be read Jer. ix. 7. The rendering l'have'giv^n» 

»^, there is something so intolerably however, equally suiU the connexion, 

tame in the rendering, " The princes Though there is no word in the text 

began to be heated wuh wine," that it corresponding to " warm," its insertion 

cannot be admitted as the language of in the translation is fully justified by the 

the prophet. Besides, nory would like- comparison in -flare, like an oven, and 

wise require to be changed into nfcn, the intensive force of T^ in Piel. That 

which would produce an anomalous in- this verb ever signifies to make ready or 

finitive. non, bottle, less agrees with Q prepare, 1 do not find. All attempte to 

following than rron, heat. Comp. the justify the renderuig of the LXX^ and 

Arab. Xvfl^, Xjk^. r?? "^n " an »"" Syr. dy€Ka^Bfi<rap, yxL. by the conjee- 
stance of the construct state with a pre- . , , ^^ ,. ^^^^ ^_^ , ^„^ , 
position intervening between the nouns. ^'"^ 5^*^I"«?«. ^?7' ^^' ^f ^» ^»»7« 
Comp.DaV9n«?, Ezek. xiii. 2; rfn m50 P^^^^^ abortive. Accordmg to the 

IC^, Is. li, 21, and see Gesen. Lehrgeb. Hexapla, Symm. (l^. OOiiD), Aq. and 

p. 679. The words mean the heat or ^ ^ vt->^^*-'t-'>'» H 

fever produced by intoxication. While r^^ (^ ^^^JliC), read as we 

the courtiers thus indulged to excess, ^ •^- ^ " 

the monarch, forgetting his dignity, par* now do ; as did likewise the Targ. 

ticipated in their cups, and joinea in ^l!?nM. — oneh, their baker, (many MSS. 


7 They all glow as an oven, 
They devour their judges ; 
All their kings have fallen : 
None among them calleth unto me. 

8 Ephraim mixeth himself up with the nations ; 
Ephraim is a cake unturned. 

9 Strangers devour his strength^ 
But he knoweth it not ; 

Yea, grey hairs are sprinkled upon him. 
Yet he knoweth it not. 

and various printed editions have on^> which had reached such a height, that 

which may also be ree^arded as a sin- none implored the Divine aid even when 

gular form, ^ taking ue place of the in calamity. 

third radical n, as in other nouns or 8. Ewafdrenders^an!, v^ra/^/, "hath 

participles derived from verbs in '^j) become old," vhich might seem to de> 

the Targ. and Syr. render t'^W^s ^^^^ some support from the latter part 

* ^^ * . .J. Ai. J' p,^. of ver. 9 ; but the verb can, with no 

^Ocn>^,, as If the readmg were o»., ^^^^^•^^^;y^^ ,,f,„,a to any other root 

their anger. 'B^^pai/x, found in the than b^ Arab. Job, madefecit, com- 

LXX. shows that the former must have \ '^ V « 

been the reading of the MS. which they muttu fuU, Syr. N:> .7^»^I^, confudil, to 

used, as the latter could not have so ^' r„ „^.^^^ «;» ^^^^,,„a t yy 

.,' , . ^ , . ^. . mix 01/ pouring, mtx, conjouna, JLAA. 

easily been mistaken for this proper '' "^ ^ ^ 

name. orT^H, which Dathe proposes, <rvp€filywTo. Syr. ^.A^^}. Targ. 

and Kninoel adopts into his neb. text, ^ ^ 

nowhere occurs in the sense, w-a, furor ^onffrytf. Comp. Psalm cvi. 35, where 

eorum. By " their baker" seems to be p^ ^7S?! is similarly used of promis- 

meant the leader of the conspiracy, cuous intercourse with idolaters. That 

whom some suppose to be Menahem, such intercourse generally, including 

others Shallum, 2 Kings xv. 10 — 15; the adoption of their idolatrous prac- 

but I should rather infer from what is tices, and not specifically the entering 

stated ver. 7, that the prophet includes into leagues with them, is meant, appears 

all the conspiracies which took place in from the following clause, in which, to 

Israel. Having prepared the rest of the express the worthlessness of the Ephraim- 

conspirators, he, like the baker, abided itish character, the people are compared 

his Ume, when, of a sudden, the plot to a cake, which, from not having been 

burst forth like a flame. turned, is burnt, and ^ood for nothing. 

7. Comp. 2 Kings xv. oVa, ail of The Arabs bake their bread on the 

tkem, corresponds to Dj3, ver. 4. wn is ground or hearth, covering it with hot 

the future in Kal of Don, to he warm, embers, and turning it every ten minutes 

hot, &c. The prophet still continues the or quarter of an hour, to prevent its 

comparison. As the fire in the oven being burnt. When neglected it is 

devours the fuel, so the persons spoken unfit for food, and is thrown away, 

of destroyed those who were in autho- Such was the state of the apostate Is- 

rity. ^ is not to be taken in the sense raelites. They had conupted themselves, 

of falling off or apostatizing from God, and were only fit for rejection. LXX. 

as Jerome, Kibera, Menochius, Tirinius, cyxpv^iar, bread baked in hot ashe», 

and some others interpret, but in that of Cyril, rmv enl \i6019 onrofihav iprav. 

falling by the hands of murderers. This, 9. D*}^ strangers, foreigners, i. e. the 

tfM, they detour, in the preceding hemi- S3rrians, Assyrians, &c. See 2 Kings 

stich, shows. The source of the evil, xiii. 7; xv. 19, 20; xvii. 3—6. The 

however, lay in apostasy from Jehovah, state, drawing to its close, without the 


42 ROSEA. [chap, vii- 

10 The pride of Israel testifieth to his face. 
Yet they turn not to Jehovah their God, 
Nor seek him for all tliis. 

11 Ephraim is like a silly dove, without understanding; 
They call in Egypt, they go to Assyria. 

12 As they go, I will spread my net upon them, 

I will bring them down like the fowls of heaven ; 

I will chastise them, 

As it hath been heard in their assembly. 

13 Woe unto them ! for they have wandered from me; 
Destruction unto them ! for they have rebelled against me. 
Though it was I that redeemed them, 

Yet have they spoken lies against me. 

fact being observed by its citizens, is ground ; tbe bringing down, to tbose 

compared to a person on whose head that are in the air, by the use of missile 

grey hairs begin to make their appear- weapons. Instead of the Hiphil dtc^ 

ance, without his becoming sensible of which occurs only here, the Soncin. 

the approach of age. edit, of the Prophets, and some few 

*' Sparserit et nigras alba senecta co- MSS. read tr^l? in Piel, which may also 

mas." Properiius. ^« interpreted causatively. t^n^ws^, 

. . lit. according to the report fo their tts- 

10—12. A repetition of part of chap, ^emhly, i. e. the public congregations, to 
y. 5, which see. Though the apostate ^^ich the Divine messages were deli- 
Israelites had abundant proof of the ^^^ed. God had given them sufficient 
inefficiency of their idols, yet they re- earning by Moses and the prophets, 
turned not m the exercise of true re- xhe versions vary in rendering the last 
pentance to God, who alone could ^^^a ^j^i^Ij Ij„ gj^gn rise to the con- 
dehver them in the hour of trouble, but jectural readings xsrx^, cqIs^, and mash. 
formed alliances with foreign .powers in ^q., however, renderi, Karit aVo^/^f 
the delusive hope of protection. The oT;yay«vnff 

simplicity of the dove is proverbial. 13; ^^^at '^ is denunciative and not 

Thus the Arabs, , ^ ^Ll Ji 1 a*jJ plaintive, the following t^ plainly shows. 

aI^I, there is nothing more simple than that wander from their nest, see Prov. 

r xzvii. 8 ; Is. xvi. 2 ; Jer. iv. 25 ; and is 

the dove. The word nriVB is here, how- here employed with reference to the 

ever, used in a bad sense, as 3b )^, silly dove, ver. 12. The redemption from 

taithout heartf i. e. without understanding, Egypt, and that which, in numerous in- 

shows. The point of comparison is the stances, they afterwards experienced, 

inconsiderate flight of the dove from Jehovah adduces in aggravation of their 

one danger into another; from the guilt. Their preferring the service of 

alarm which makes her leave her abode idols to that of the true God, was not 

for the net of the fowler. Such would merely a practical denial of his all-suf- 

be the case with the Israelites. Jehovah ficiency, out a violation of the solemn 

had distinctly announced to them, that pledge which they had given of undi- 

foreign alliances would prove their ruin ; vided obedience to his law, when, aa 

yet uey heedlessly rushed into destruc- stated, chap. vi. 1 — 3, they professed to 

tion. ■«*« stands either for rn^ttJH or return to him. 

"vnSvh, The spreading of the net refers 14. When pressed down by the cala- 

to the taking of birds that are on the mi ties which tneir sins had brought upon 

CHAP. VII.] H08EA. 43 

14 They ciy not to me with their heart, 
But howl up<Mi their beds : 

For the sake of com and new wine they assemble ; 
They rebel against me. 

15 Thongh I instructed them, and strengthened their arms. 
Yet they devised evil against me. 

16 They may tum^ but it is not to the Most High ; 
They are like a deceit&I bow ; 

Their rulers shall &I1 by the sword, 

them, they cried to God for deliverance, instead of rendering the last words of 

but without any genuine repentance or the preceding verse, or rather, perhaps, 

sincere resolution to obey him in future, confounding both verbs, have incudev^ 

O^ftiffa^, upon their bedt, i. e. in the ^ ^ t » a v imoQ l'\ 

night-season; when their anxiety pre- ^^""^ Pocockes Arab. MSS. UI^ 

vented them from sleeping rrjtan:, the ^| Those whose character is here 

IiXX. readmg ^Tjw?!, render jcarerc/i- • 

rovro, thep cut thenuelpes, supposing described, had been instructed not only 

that in token of grief, or, like the mad- by words, but also in a more severe 

dened priests of Baal, 1 Kings zviii. 28, manner, by the judgments which had 

they inflicted wounds upon their bodies, been inflicted upon tnem ; but that the 

This is also, in all probability, what tlie former kind of instruction is meant, 

o « 1* •* jju .KlAt.^ seems clear from the phrase rw^npin, to 

Syr. translator intended by ^-AJoSip. ^trenglAen the am/i. e. to im^rt 

But though VTrtaiT is found in six MSS. strength or power for the performance 

has been in eight more originally, and of any undertaking. Comp. Ezek. xxx. 

is the reading of two early editions, one 24, 25, where both the impartation and 

of which is the Soncin. of 1486, it is the deprivation of such power are men- 

not sufficiently supported to warrant its tioned. What the V^, evil, or wickednett 

adoption into the text. The Targ. was, which they cogitated, is not speci- 

Abul-walid, Jarchi, Abenezra, Kimchi, fied; but it most likely consisted in 

Munster, Piscator, Leo Juda, Junius, some new idolatrous alliance, such as 

Tremellius, Boothroyd, Rosenmiiller, that with Egypt, referred to in the next 

Maurer, and Gesenius, support the tex- verse. LXX. irovi/pd ; Targ. pj?*?, evil 

tual reading, and render congregate, things. 

This decidedly agrees better with the 16. ^ >ft ««iij, " convertunt se ad non- 

following *a vpcr. Instead of returning summutn, i. e. ad non-deum, collect, non- 

to Jehovah, the Israelites assembled deos, i.e. ad deos ficios, vanos." Maurer. 

before their idols to propitiate them by Thus also Gesen. in voc. % Comp. for 

sacrifices, in order to obtain a fruitful the use of this idiom. Is. x. 15, note, 

harvest Lee renders, theg become with- Hosea, who is fond of brevity, uses 

drawn, withdraw themselves, i. e. for here and chap. xi. 7, "JV, instead of the 

idolatrous purposes. To mark more longer form fi*Vy, Most High. KametE 

strongly the atrociousness of their apo- is used instead of Patach, on accoimt of 

'^'a\ 'i^'Ti •""•" '" Ztl'^ ' *e accent. Arab. Ic. dim, exceUm 
instead of 1^, ^^ from me, the prepo- T^ 

aition that otherwise follows "W, which j^ ^^ y^^ ^^ j^ dignity. JL, alius. 

is frequently used of apostasy from God 

to idolatrous practices. The whole Pococke's Arab. MS. in chap. xi. 7, 

phrase is in this case best rendered by \ oKo^ 

rebel against, as in our common version. JUllj Syr. I^^l, God; one of De 

15. T^ does not signify to bind, but Sr 

to chastise or instruct. The LXX. Rossi's MSS. >?. What the apostate 

44 HOSE A. [chap. viii. 

On account of the insolence of their language : 
This shall be their derision in the land of Egjrpt. 

Israelites worshipped, so far from being and Ps. Ixxviii. 57 ; and the reference 

the Most High, was the direct opposite is to something faulty in the construction 

— wood or stone, the produce of the of the bow, which causes it to shoot or 

earth. The LXX. dn€aTpd(f>ri(ray us throw ont the arrow wide of tlie mark. 

ov6iy, and Syr. fj V^ aaaoiZ] "°°* "^' ^^: ^J' ^"^ ^'^"^' 

'^ to iJtrow, shootf &c. There seems no 

^^^, to the game effect, though giving ground for the opinion of Gesenius, 

that the phrase is used poetically for 
the sense rather than an exact trans- treacherous bowmen, who feie[n fight in 
lation. Tlie Latin translation of the order to deceive. The Israelites hypo- 
Syr, nulla de caiua, is quite erroneous, critically pretended to turn to Jehovah, 
Most moderns, less aptly, take V9 in its but their actions took a different di- 
adverbial acceptation, and render, they rection. Comp. rnjgn |it)^, a deceitful 
return not upwards ; which yields, how- tongue, Ps. cxx. 2, 3. The insolence 
ever, nearly the same meaning. Tlius (Aq. and S3rmm. €fiPplfuj<np,) of their 
Rosenmuller, Winer, Manger, Stuck, language doubtless consisted in their 
and others. Newcome's conjectural proud boast of Egypt as a source of 
emendation, M^ rib, that which cannot protection from the Assyrian invasion, 
profit^ has not been approved ; while which God was about to bring upon 
the translation of Dathe, Pcenitentiam them. D39b, their derision, i. e. the 
aguntt sed non sinceram, though approved subject of derision to the Egyptians, to 
by Kuinoel, Tingstadius, and others, is whom they should in vain apply for 
not borne out by Hebrew usage, nti^ help. Comp. 2 Kings xvii. 4 ; Is. xxx. 
rror} some render a slack bow, supposing 1 — 7, thougii the latter passage is im- 
that its hmtility, owing to the absence of mediately directed against a contempo- 
elasticity, is wnat is intended ; but false raneous application on the part of the 
or deceitful better suits the connexion, Jews. 


The prophet announces the sudden irruption of the Assyrians, 1 ; by whom the 
Israelites were to be punished, on account of their h3rpocri8y and apostasy, 2, 3 ; 
their illegitimate government, and their idolatry, 4. He then exposes the folly of 
their idolatrous confidence, and predicts their captivity, 5 — 10 ; remonstrates with 
them for their devotion to the worship of idols, in opposition to the express and 
numerous prohibitions of the evil contained in the divine law, 11, 12; and 
insists that their pretended service of Jehovah, while in reality they forgot him, 
60 far from being of any avail to them, would only bring destruction upon 
them, 13, 14. 


1 Put the trampet to thy mouth : 

** Like an eagle against the house of Jehovah ;" 
For they have transgressed my covenant, 
They have rebelled against my law. 

2 They may ciy to me : ** O my God ; 
We — Israel — acknowledge thee.'' 

3 Israel hath rejected what is good ; 
The enemy shall pursue him. 

4 They made kings, but it was not from me ; 

1. It is not unsual for the prophets, 41. c • * 1 1 ^ j ^ ^ 
without naming the invadin/ foe, t^ ^^^ ^3^*" translator to render, ^owS^ 
announce his approach. See Is. ziii. 2. our God, ^V^ Itrael, is in apjpo- 
The words yffi *|?IT^ to thy ptdtUe the sition with ^srp, we acknowledge thee, 
trumpet ! are singularly abrupt, and in- and not the nominative to ^i^, from 
dicate the suddenness of the threatened which it is too far removed. It is en- 
invasion. ^, palate, u here, as Job tirely omitted in the LXX. Syr. and 
zx3n.30, Proy.Tiii.7, putfor the mouth. Arab, as it is in one of Kennicott's 
Comp. chap. ▼. 8. The LXX. (tU MSS., and originally in one of De Rossi's. 
jcJXirov avr&v ds yrj) appear to have ^^f^, ^^* O God of Israel, the con- 
read "^ D^ ^ which makes no sense, jecture of Houbigant, is unnecessary, 
llie following words rfp^ n*ar^ 1^, The present ^sition of the word is more 
which contain the announcement, are in keeping with the style of Hosea, and 
equally abrupt. The point of compa- the use of it well agrees with the vain 
rison is the rapidity of flight for which confidence which the unbelieving Is- 
the eagle is celebrated, and which is raelities were ever prone to place in 
frequently employed to denote the speedy their relation to the patriarchs. 

approach of an enemy. Comp. DeuL 3, rm Arab. Jji, eorruptum fuU el 
xxviii. 49; Jer. iv. 13, xlviiL 40; Lam. "*' C-^ *'*''^^'"" ^^ " 
iv. 19. rrtrp n% the house of Jehovah, foetuU, to be corrupt, loathsome, and to 
cannot here mean the temple at Jeru- reject as such. To treat as loathsome 
salem, which is otherwise so designated, what was truly excellent, such as the 
since the threatenines are speciSly de- worship of Ood and the practice of re- 
nounced against the Kingdom of the ten ligion, aivued an awfully depraved state 
tribes. It must, therefore, be taken to of moral feeling. The use of Wjnji^., 
denote the people of Israel, the whole Israel, finely contrasts with that made 
nation viewed as the family or church of it in the preceding verse. 3te, good, 
of God. Comp. chap. ix. 15 ; Numb, is, by Jerome, Abenezra, Kimchi^ and 
xii. 7 ; Heb. iii. 2 ; iust as the christian others, taken for God himself, who is 
church is called the house of God, 1 Tim. described as 3^pn ifm, aood and domg 
iii. 15, and of Christ, Heb. iii. 6. For good, Ps. cxiz. 68. Deum summum 
Tn^ rqi, comp. chap. vi. 7. The nomi- bonum, (Ecolampadius. It seems, how- 
native to ^no^p, they have transgressed, is ever, to be used in a more general 
Tfcv IT^ the family, i. e. the members of acceptation. Before %Vm there is an 
the church, of Jehovah, The Israelites ellipsis of the illative pj. Forty-seven 
had violateid the obligations of the theo- of De Rossi's MSS. and two more by 
cracy. rn^ and nj\n are synonymous. correction ; eight of the most ancient, 

2. VZ'^ is the future used potentially, and sixty-two other editions ; the Syr. 
and not without irony, "vf^, '* O my Vulg. and Targ. read ^dtp instead of 
God," is construed as a distributive with Vf^^ exhibited in the Textus Receptus. 
the plural verb^each of the persons See De Rossi's Scholia Critica. 
spoken of being regarded as using the 4. Some think the kings and princes 
language. Inattention to this has led here referred to were Shallum, Menahem, 

46 HOSEA. [chap. viii. 

Thej set up princes, but I acknowledged them not : 

Of their silver and their gold they have made for themselves idols. 

In order that they may be cut off. 

5 Thy calf, O Samaria ! is abominable ; 
Mine anger bumeth against them : 

How long shall they be incapable of purity ? 

6 For it came from Israel, 

Pekahiah, Pekah, Hoshea, and such of 5. The calf of Samaria was not any 

their partizans as were invested with set up in that city, but that set up at 

authority ; but from the allusions made Bethel with another at Dan, or both, if 

in the following verses to the origination we teke the noun as a collective, which 

of image worship in Israel, it is more ite inhabitants, and those of the country 

probable that the entire series of Is- generally, worshipped. The metropolis 

raelitish kings and rulers is intended, appears to be used here by synecdoche 

Though in the providence of God, and for the whole land occupied by the ten 

agreeablv to the declaration of Ahiah tribes ; but, at the same time, there can 

the prophet, the ten tribes revolted from be little doubt that its inhabitants were 

the house of David, and set up a sepa- pre-eminent in their devotion to idolatry. 

rate and independent kingdom, yet they nsi is used in its primary acceptation, to 

were actuated merely by rebellious mo- he loat/isome, abominable. See on ver. 3. 

tives, and had no regard to a divine Such construction is preferable to that 

sanction, 1 Kings xi. 31 — 39, xii. 20. which would make 'spxo the accusative 

VT signifies not only to know, but also to nai, assuming njrr understood to be 

to approve of that which is known, the nominative, or that in our common 

regard, aUow, own. Job ix. 21, xxxiv. version, which makes it the nominative, 

4 ; Ps. i. 6, et freq, LXX. Koi ovk and Samaria in its pronominal reference 

» ' .- o..« \ % n ^ the accusative. The introduction of the 

eyvmpia-av /tot. Syr. .^mv^^r^i Ijo m^ avv«»«„Tc. xuc uiuuuuuuuu ui vue 

' '^ *— ^.-.^w| i-w, worship ofthe golden calves by Jeroboam, 

and did not aeguaint me, i. e. held no com- in imitation of that of Apis, at Memphis, 

munications with me upon the subject, and of Mnevis, at Heliopolis, which he 

The Heb. however, will not bear this must have seen during his residence in 

interpretation. ^ in both cases before £gypt, paved the way for the imitation 

i^, has the force of a relative, which and adoption of the gross idolatries 

must either be adopted in translation, or practised by the Phoenicians^ Syrians, 

the personal pronoun must be supplied, and Chaldeans, nirp F|m rm, the anger 

For their conversion of their silver and of Jehovah bumeth, is an anthropopathic 

gold into idols, comp. chap. ii. 8. Jffd) mode of expression of frequent occur- 

does not appear ever to be taken in a re- rence in the Hebrew Scriptures, denoting 

trospective sense, and so to be referred the unconquerable opposition of God to 

to what goes before, but is always used all moral evil, and the severity of the 

with direct reference to what follows, punishment with which it is visited. 

f^ ^^ ifl» therefore, to be rendered, D^, against them, i. e. the Israelites who 

in order that they may he cut off; not worshipped the golden calves, if^ ^ ny p 

to that they shall, &c. Comp. Jer. vii. f!% ^'9^, how long shall they be incapable 

10, xliv. 8. In all such cases the pre- of purity ? i.e. how long shall they be 

position is employed to give peculiar obstinately attached to the impure service 

emphasis to the subject The Israelites of idols, and reject the means by which 

could not seriously, or in reality, have they might be recovered from its stain 

intended their own destruction, but they and punishment, 
acted as if they had ; and it would 6. The golden calf had its origin in 

assuredly overtake them. The nomi- Israel : it was not made by any of the 

native to TVl^ may either be Israel, surrounding idolaters. The i in VKt) is 

understood ; or it may have respect to emphatic, n^ ^^^f » *haU be or become 

the people collectively. flames, L e. shall be burnt. B^33i^ is a 

CHAP, viii.] HOSE A. 47 

The carpenter made it ; 

It is not God : 

Surely the calf of Samaria shall become flames. 

7 Because they have sown wind, 
They shall reap the whirlwind. 
They shall have no stalk ; 

The growth shall produce no grain ; 
Should it peradventure produce it, 
Strangers shall swallow it up. 

8 Israel is swallowed up ; 

They are now among the nations. 
Like a vessel in which is no delight. 

9 For they went up to Assyria, 
Like a solitary wild ass : 
Ephraim hath given the hire of love. 

aira^ Xcy. and has no root ia Heb. ; but here realized in prophetic vision. He 

., . , , A ,. . . sees them in a state of exile — the objects 

comp. the Arab. L^^v^, accendit tgnem, ^f contempt to their oppressors. Comp. 

Jer. xxii. 28. 

^^ , ardor, Jlamma. As the calf 9^ iq. njy, to go up, is elsewhere used 

was made by man, so it should by man ?^ foreigners coming to the land of 
be converted into fuel for the flames. It ^"^^ J ^"* ." ^"« employed with sin- 
consisted, in all probability, of wood, g«^f propnety of the Israelites gome 
thickly overlaid wifh gold. When taken ^^ ^ssyna, to intimate their depressed 
as a present to the king of Assyria, (see condition, and their acknowledgment of 
chapf X. 6,) instead of being worshipped Jjl® «nperionty of the As85;nan power, 
or held in respect, it would be stripped The reference is not to their going into 
of the gold, and consigned to the flames, captivity, but to the embassy which they 
TheLXX.foUowedbytheArab.Hor8ley, f*** ^?^ *^c purpose of ohtainm g aid 
and Newcome, improperly translate ra from that quarter. ;wS« stands for nytijt, 
' ^ ^ -f the n of direction being omitted. The 
^^n^??*?* ^^ T"^ 'IcrpaiJX, ^I-*m| ^J, in point of comparison in the " wQd ass*' 

"^ ^ 18 his untractableness, and his disposition 

Itratl, and join the words to those of the to take his own way, in consequence of 

preceding verse. which he forsakes the society of others, 

7. •^!>GK' is the emphatic form of n^, and loves the solitariness of the desert. 
a tornado, wMrlwind, Leo Juda, mag" See Job xxxix. 5 — 8. Thus it was with 
num tttrbidem. Comp. nn^^ Exod. xv. Israel. Despite of all the counsels and 
16 ; r«»4«5j, Ps. iii. 3. Tlie nominative warnings given them by the prophets, 
to ^ is *V^. understood ; but it is best they persisted in entering into foreign 
to take it collectively, in harmony with alliances, nsn, to give pregents, hire, &c. 
the plural of the preceding verbs, is purposely chosen, to convey the idea 
Observe the paronomasia in ^ np^ of a violation of the marriage contract 
nc^n^. The Israelites should be by unlawful commerce with another 
unsuccessful in all their undertakings; party — the derivatives ]^ and ttspm, 
and whatever partial gains they might properly denoting a gift or reward given 
acquire, would be eagerly seized by the to a wnore. See on chap. ii. 12. The 
Assyrians. aggravation of the evil is signified by 

8. What Hosea had just foretold is representing the female as offering these 

43 HOSEA. [chap. viir. 

10 Yet though they have hired among the nations, 
I will now gather them ; 
And they shall suffer in a little 
By reason of the tribute of the king of princes. 

rewards to her paramours to induce or setting free. Nor is there any pro- 

them to commit lewdness, instead of her priety in taking it in the usual sense of 

being prevailed upon by presents made beffinningt and so construing it with iQVip, 

by Uiem. Comp. Ezek. xvi. 33, 34. as if the latter word were the infinitive 

lliough in Hiphil, the verb has here the of tiie verb b^q, to be diminished. The 

same signification as in KaL ^'7*^^,1 lit. ancient versions refer to ^, as the 

loves, a plural not in use in English, root, in the sense of waiting^ desisting 

Jerome, who renders, numera dederunt from^ &c. LXX. jcoirdcrovcrt. Symm. 

amatoribuSf either read D^!JM, which is fu»ov<riy. Thcod. duiXci^ovo-t. Syr. 

found in one of De Rossi's MSS., or he ^ 

took D>:;nH in a concrete sense, as our ^Qu^ZLj. Vulg. quiescent. And in 
translators appear to have done, for 

which there is no necessity. Instead of this reference I concur, especially as ten 

w at the beginning of ver. 10, two of MSS. and forty-four editions, read ^rm 

De Rossi's MSS. the LXX. Syr. Vulg. without the Dagesh in the Lamed : only 

Targ. and Arab, read urp, as if from )n^; I would abide by the signification, to be 

according to which, the Israelites are tn pai$i, trfflictionf which is that given to 

represented as delivered over to, or the verb in our common version. Such 

? laced in the power of the nations, construction alone suits the connexion, 
'he fifth Greek version, however, has By some D*?to ^ are considered to be 
dXXa K€Li orav fua-B<i<rfjT€u tBinft which an instance of asyndeton ; and twenty- 
is preferable, as it is most likely that the one MSS. and originally ten more, the 
prophet repeated the verb he had iust LXX. Aq. Syr. Vulg. Targ. and Talm. 
used, and as the other rendering is less Babyl. supply Uie copulative i before 
suited to the connexion, n^, now, i. e. onto. So Kimchi, Mercer, Piscator. 
shortly. Comp. IQ^ immediately after. Grotius, Houbigant, Dathe, Michaelis, 
The suffix in d?|^, " I will collect Kuinoel, Newcome, Tingstadius. It 
them," belongs to tr\3n, the nationSf and has been doubted, however, whether, 
not to the nominative to ^3n^, or the Is- according to tliis resolution of the word, 
raelites. f3^ is used in Piel in a bad as they should be referred to the native 
well as in a good sense. Comp. Ezek. king and princes, or to those of Assyria. 
xvL 37. Thus Kimchi and AbarbaneL Some, as Maurer, take them to be the 
Instead of afibrding any assistance, the nominative to ^^, and make the sense 
Assyrians would be collected against the end with vifo, the burden or tribute^ sup* 
apostate Israelites, invade their land, posing the heavy taxes imposed by the 
and cany Uiem into captivity. Into Israelitish rulers to be intended. The 
that state of suffering, imposed upon best sense is brought out by reading 
them by the king of Assyria, they were D^ ''iVip in construction, (he king of 
shortly to be brought, as a punishment minces^ and applying the phrase to the 
for their idolatrous desertion of the true xing of Assyria, who had many kings 
worship of God. Dn^ i|^ vif&i? €90 ^^i and princes subject to his sway. Comp. 
has been variously interpreted. Ge- Is. x. 8. Thus Pococke's Arabic MS., 
senius renders, **and they (the hostile Leo Juda, Drusius, Jun. and Tremel., 
nations,) shall presently set them free Piscator, Eichhom, Boeckel, Goldwitzer, 
from the burden of the king, i. e. from Hitzig, and Ewald. The vivo, burden, 
his oppressive yoke ;" but without any was the tribute exacted by Menahem, 
suitable sense — the whole passage being and paid to Pul, amounting to a thousand 
of a comminatory nature, and not pro- talents of silver, 2 Kings xv. 19 — 22. 
missory of good. Vcn?, the Hiph. of ^, Comp. Mjep tif^, tribute money, 2 Chron, 
has nowhere the signification of hosing xvii. 11. 


11 When Ephraim multiplied altars to sin, 
They became to him altars to sin. 

12 I may prescribe for him the numerous things of my law ; 
They are treated as a strange thing. 

13 As for my sacrificial offerings. 
They sacrifice flesh and eat it ; 
Jehovah accepteth them not : 

He will speedily remember their iniquity. 
And will punish their sin : 
They shall return to Egypt. 

11 By multiplying alUrs in oppo- Pococke's Arab. MS. j^J. SJtc. 

ntion to the express prohibition, Deut. \^^'j J 

xii. 13, 14, ihe Ephraimites not only *« _x /i » » ' c«,««, ^\s. 

contracted great ™ilt, but paved thi Aq. ^XitfuMt'ovt ^«c- Syuim. «X,- 

way for the mtrocTuction of other sins. ^^^^^J^ ^ ^.^^.g ^^ ^^^ ^^,^ ^^ ^,, .„^^ 

Syr. lb' ]^JiujL ad crimen ingetu. ""'B^rd, &c., but also to treat in a 

' ^^9 '^*^ " ' manner corresponding to the estimation 

There is an easy but beautiful variation in which a person or thing is held, 

in the repetition of the words. As used , .i *\\^ \ ' \ 

the second time, «^ possesses consi- Tanchum, ^^^I <w^^lS s^j^J^^ 
derable emphasis. Comp. for a similar 

instance of varied repetition, Is. xxvii. 5. juJi dJ^ )* they reject them like a 

It shows how much the mind of the ** *-^ 

■ prophet was affected by the wickedness ttrange thing to which no regard is 

of his people. Some suppose that there paid. 

is a play npon the douhle meaning of 13. ^visn ^\ form the nominative ab- 

H|^ as signifying to tin, and to be solute. ^^^, my gifts or offerings, i. e. 

punished fir sin, just as our Lord uses such as they professedly offer lo me. 

ytKpoi in two senses, Matt viii. 22 ; but The word is contracted for ^VH^.i and is 

the second signification cannot attach to derived from Vv, to give. It seems 

the verb in this connexion. preferable to abide by this usual signi- 

12. avQM, Keri 2|^, is continuative fication of the verb, which it has likewise 

and potential, and is equivalent to, I in Aramaic, Arabic, and Ethiopic, than 

have prescribed, I still prescribe by my to follow Kimchi, who refers the nuun 

prophets, and I may go on prescribing ; to a root nron, to which he assigns the 

It will be of no avail. Keri ^1^ in many signification to bum, scorch, roast ; or 

MSS. ^ri, the plural of A which is Ewald, who, appealing to the Chald. 
properly the infinitive of 3^, to be great, 

numerous, &c. Here the idea of number ^^y and the Arab, (w.^ and Ly^^jJb^ 

is evidently desiirned to express the _ >^ . * . * 

abundant provisions God had made in ''Anders, raw offermgs. nnri ,9 a more 

bis written law, and its enforcement by ^^^^^^^ ^\}^ /^J ^^"^9' or n>a^. For 

the prophets, against the commission of the reduplicate form, comp.^T?.^, chap, 

idolatry: According to the Chethiv ^sn, "[• 18 J ^»^»ch word the LXX. Syr. and 

we should render, •* I may prescribe to ^arg. appear to have followed in this 

him my laws by myriads r V.^M, by place; of which Hiizig seems to approve. 

thousands; Hitzig, 6y ten thousands. Aq., observant of the gemination, renders, 

uvfTiai <p€pf <pfp^ dva'iaQov<nv, bymm. 

The Syr. wlfiDQ^J^ mvQ£D* Targ. 6vaias ^TraXXrjXovs. Theod. Gvviav 

^^ fitraipop^y ^Bvataa-av. Jehovah rejected 

rrftk nrsD. Vulg. mtUtiplices leges meas, the sacrifices that were offered, not 


50 HOSEA. [cHAF.ix, 

14 Because Israel bath forgotten his Maker, and built temples. 
And Judah hath multiplied fortified cities ; 
Therefore will I send a fire into his cities. 
And it shall consume the palaces of each. 

according to his own appointment, bat to accordance with the reading of all the 

gratify tlie carnal appetite of the wor- Heb. MSS. 

shippers. Reference is had to the 14. ^ in nsif^ marks theprotaab; in 

sacrifices offered to him, as represented ^T^T^ the apodosis. llie rffJTri were 

by the golden calf. In osn k^ is a doubtless t<fo/a^roiw <efiip^« erected after 

meiosis. n^, noWy is here used in the the models of those in use among the 

sense of speedUy^ thortly. From the Syrians and Phoenicians. See, for the 

references made chap. ix. 3, 6, xi. 11, it word, my note on Is. vi. 1. Though 

is clear that the last clause of the verse idolatry had not made the same progress 

predicts the actual return of a number in Judah, the inhabitants nevertheless 

of the Israelites to Kgypt, whither, in evinced a want of confidence in Jehovah 

all probability, they fled when the king> by fortifying a number of cities, to which 

dom was broken up by the Assyrians, they trusted for defence. The masculine 

The threatening pointedly reminded sufnx in T^ refers to Judah ; the femi- 

themof the depressed condition in which nine in ^rntytr^ to each of the cities, 

tlieir ancestors had been in that country, taken singly. Ewald strangely asserts, 

Comp. Deutxxviii. 68. ThcLXX. add, that the words of this verse appear to 

icat cv *K<r<rvpioi5 dxaBapra ffxiyovrai ; liave been inserted from some book of 

but the words are wanting in the Aldine Amos no longer in existence! Compare, 

edition, and in seven MSS. They have however, for the latter distich, Jer. xlix. 

evidently found their way into the text 27; Amos i. 4, 7, 10, 12, 14, ii. 2, 5 \. 

from chap. ix. 3, where they stand in and see note on Amos i. 4. 


The prophet checks the propensity of the Israelites to indulge in excessive joy on 
account of any partial relief from their troubles, 1 ; predicts the failure of the 
crops, &c. in consequence of the Assyrian invasion, 2 ; their removal to Egypt 
and Assyria, where they should have no opportunity, even if they were inclined, 
to serve Jehovah according to their ancient ritual, 3 — 5 ; and the hopelessness 
of their returning to enjoy the property they had lefl behind, 6. He then 
announces the certain infliction of the divine judgments, and points out the true 
character of the false prophets, by whom the people had been led astray to their 
ruin, 7, 8. Illustrative references are next made to the early history of the 
Hebrew nation, accompanied with appropriate comminations couched in varied 
forms, in order to render them more affecting, 9 — 1 7. 


1 Carry not thy joy, O Israel ! to exultation, like the nations, 
For thou hast lewdly departed from thy God ; 

Thou hast loved the hire, 
Od all the com floors. 

2 Neither the floor nor the vat shall nourish them ; 
And the new wine shall fail therein. 

3 They shall not dwell in the land of Jehovah, 
But Ephraim shall return to Egypt, 

And in Assyria, they shall eat what is unclean. 

1. *pf^ — na^)rrt«, lit. rejoice not to ediiions, with the support of the LXX. 
exultation. The LXX. Syr. Targ. and Syr. Targ. and Vulg. read D|, in them, 
Vulg. read ^| ^, exult not ; hut con- i. e. tliem, the Israelites, instead of n^, 
trary to the ueus loquendij which requires in her, the received reading. It is, 
the verb following ^ to he in tlie future however, too plainly an emendation to 
tense, as Seeker properly observes. Some entitle it to adoption. Nothing is more 
find in the comparison "like the nations/' common than for our prophet to use first 
an imitation of their idolatrous festivities; a plural, and then a singular suffix of 
but the language is rather predictive of the same subject : according to the rule 
the joyless condition to which the Is- laid down by Tanchum, that when in a 
raelites were to he reduced. While those continued discourse a nation or people 
by whom they were surrounded, and is spoken of, either the feminine affix 
especially their Assyrian invaders, should agreeing witli rrw, congregation, or the 
indulge in unrestrained mirth, they should masculine agreeing with Qi^, people, may 
experience affliction and sorrow. There be used ; as also, that the singular may 
is most probably a reference to the joy be used of them, viewed as a body, and 
occasioned by the league entered into the plural, when they are regarded as 
with Pul, by which peace seemed to be consisting of distinct individuals. See 
secured. Their joy was to be of short in Pococke. At the same time it is 
duration, and therefore required to be better In a translation to render them 
moderate. Instead of d*Q93, thirteen alike, as in the ancient versions just 
MSS., originally five more, one by cor- quoted. 

rection, and five editions, read d'd^ 3. Canaan was called Tfp^ ynw, the 

'* among the nations,*' of which Rosen- lecnd of Jehovah, because he had appro- 

muller, following Abarbanel, approves, priated it for an inheritance to those 

The prophet adds the reason why they whom he had chosen to be his peculiar 

should have no cause for exultation- — people. It was his gift to Abraham and 

their abounding idolatries, by which they nis posterity, to be enjoyed by them on 

incurred the judgments of God. These condition of their fidelity in his service, 

idolatries they carried to such a pitch. For this end he attached to it his special 

that they erected shrines at their thresh- blessing, Deut. xi. 10 — 12. Comp. Jer. 

in^ floors, in order to offer at them the ii. 7, xvi. 18 ; Ezek. xxxvi. 20. The 

oblations of their grain. The crops return to Egypt being here mentioned 

were considered to have been bestowed in connexion with an exile in Assyria, 

by the idols in compensation for the proves that it is to be taken literally, 

worship rendered to them, (see chap. ii. and that it is not designed to express a 

5, 12, 13 ;) and are therefore spoken of servitude similar to that of Egypt. See 

as 1^, a meretridout reward, on chap. viii. 13. The fulfilment of this 

2. For ^iSn^, in reference to the failure prediction in the history of the ten 
of the productions of the earth, see tribes, is nowhere mentioned in Scrip- 
Uab. ill. 17. The verb properly signi- ture. No doubt the number that fled to 
fies to lie, deceive, &c.; nguratively, to E/ypt was small, compared with the 
fail. Twenty-six MSS., originally six- body of the nation carried into the 
teen more, and per4iaps two, three Assyrian exile. By MOp is meant pro' 

52 HOSEA. [chap. ix. 

4 They shall not pour out wine to Jehovah, 
Neither shall their sacrifices please him ; 

They shall be to them as the bread of mourners, 

All that eat thereof shall be unclean : 

For their bread shall be for themselves ; 

It shall not come unto the house of Jehovah. 

5 What will ye do on the day of assembly ? 
On the day of Jehovah's festival ? 

6 For, behold ! they go away from destruction, 

But Egypt shall gather them, Memphis shall bury them ; 

As for their coveted treasuries of money, nettles shall possess them : 

Thorns shall be in their tents* 

hibiied food, meats pronounced unclean 6. The prophet here specially de- 

by the Mosaic )aw. Comp. Ezek. iv. 13. scribes those Israelites who should take 

To such necessity should they be reduced alarm at the invasion of the country by 

as captives. the Assyrians, and flee for safety into 

4. "^3 is used of the pouring out of Egypt. They imagined that their stay 
wine for a libation, Gr. anMetPj Exod. there would only he temporary ; but it 
XXX. 9. yy^, properly to miXf mingle, is predicted that they sliould no more 
came to signify sweet, agreeable, pleasing, return to their possessions, and be buried 
from the circumstance, that what was in their fathers' sepulchres, but should 
pleasant to the taste, often consisted of die in the land, and have their interment 
mixed ingredients. D'?^ on^, bread, or among the mummies of Egypt. For 
food of sorrows, i. e. such as was eaten Memphis, as the great necropolis of that 
by mourners for the dead, and conse- country, see my note on Isaiah xix. 13. 
quently regarded as unclean, on account y^, to gather, is here used in reference 
of the contact in which they were sup- to the removal of the soul at death into 
posed to come with the dead body. See the world of spirits, and is equivalent to 
Numb. xix. 14, 15, 22 ; Jer. xvi. 7, 8 ; F|DM3, Numb. xx. 26, or the full phrases 
Ezek, xxiv. 17; Hagg. ii. 12, 13. In- ter^ F]^a, and vn\3|rtM tfx^ to be 
stead of feasting upon the sacrifices as gathered to one^s people or fathers, 
their fathers had been accustomed to which is always spoken of as something 
do, when thev slew them according to different from death and burial. Comp. 
the law, which was always an occasion Jer. viii. 2 ; Ezek. xxix. 5, in which 
of joy, they should be placed in circum- latter passage >]pM, and ^, are used as 
stances in which no such sacrifices could synonymes. According to tlie signi- 
be offered, and no such feasts enjoyed, fication of the cognate Arab. verb. 
Their food should all be common— j^ ^epit, apprshendU manu rem, it 
ncdDi\, for ihetr soul or hfe, i. e. merely Lr*7' ^ '^'^ 

for its sustenance ; not fit to be pre- conveys the idea of God's taking away 

sented to the Lord. Thus Schmidius, ., i tr *i. u! .. • - 

Grolius, and others. . . "** ^ *"' *^' 

5. In captivity they would find it im- mortuus est, literally, God took him; and 

possible to observe their solemn feasts — • •• '^ i ^ i * / j i^ • 

r*^ * ^j^ simply, mortuus est (ad Dei mise- 

a great aggravation of their punishment. U^V '^•'' ^ The exposition of ricordiam delatus). Freytag, When it 

Jarcni, Abenezra, Kimchi, Mercer, is said that Egypt should gather and 

Capito, and others, according to which, Memphis bury the Israelitish fugitives, 

the day of punishment, represented the meaning is that they should be re- 

under the idea of sacrifice, is meant, moved out of this world, and that their 

cannot be sustained. bodies should be buried there. The 


7 The days of punishment are come. 
The days of retribution are come ; 
Israel shall know it : 
The prophet is foolish , 
The man of the spirit is irantic. 

Because of the greatness of thy punishment. 
And because the provocation is great. 

personification is employed, as usual, that h clothed, or endued with the spirit, 

for the sake of effect, "iprip, desire, only adding, by way of explanation, but 
covetousness ; that which is the object of o ^ o 

desire, what is covetabU, coveted, from erroneously, ]ZQa^La.^. of folly. Comp. 
"inn, to desire, covet. As the verb DXI?^*! 

has a plural suffix, this noun is here to Mic. ii. 1 1, rm Tfn «h?; ^1 Cor. xiv. 37, 
be taken as a collective, and rendered «* t« ^o«" irpo^rjrrjs €ivai fj nvcvfia- 
in the plural. The idea of treasury is 7*0^; 2 Pet. i. 21, viro TrvtvfiaTOf 
supplied by the connexion. ^9p is used "^y^ov (jttpoficvoi ; and see my Lectures 
generally of money, as in most other on Divine Inspiration, p. 25. W^, 
places, when ^ gold, is not combined ^„ r^^^^^ ^^^1, ^ i^^^ 
with it. Targ. j^nepa nT^rr n% the house * '' ZT ' 
of their desirable money. Symm. rd fuit rhylhmice, to speak in an impas- 
tviBvfiiiftara rov doyvpiov avrSv. sioned manner, like an inspired poet; 
Others, less aptly, explain the words of hence, from the violence of the gesti- 
houses, palaces, &c. adorned with silver, culations, tones, &c., to act like a mad- 
On leaving those treasures which they man, to be mad, insane, Comp. Jer. 
could not carry with them, the Israelites xxix. 26, where V|i^ vS^m and m^^ are 
would naturally bury them in the earth, synonymous. The meaning is, that the 
which accounts for the very significant pretenders to inspiration, by whose false 
phrase, " the nettles shall inherit them." predictions of uninterrupted prosperity 
For the combination xffny^ or xffvoiQ and the people had been deluded, should be 
n^, comp. Is. xxxiv. 13. The whole convicted of /o%, and reduced to a state 
▼erse is miserably translated by the of absolute frenzy by the infliction of 
LXX. the divine judgments upon the nation. 
7. TT^^visiteUion, punishment, Comp. Hosea introduces this declaration re- 
Is. X. 3; 1 Pet ii. 12. %^, sh/ill know spectin^ the Israelitish prophets paren- 
experimentally . By the M*a3 is obviously thetically, thereby giving force to his 
to be understood in this place, the false own prediction of impending calamity. 
prophet or prophets by whom the people The affix in 'J^'nj refers to ^toj, to whom 
of the ten tribes were seduced from the the prophet turns in the way of direct 
right worship of Jehovah, who taught address, "(f^ means here, not the crime, 
them to worship the golden calves, and but its punishment. Comp. for this 
otherwise encouraged them in their idol- signification of the term, Is. v. 18, and 
atrous practices. Thus Pococke's Arab, my note there. In Tcj^ subaud. % 
--„... .ii»^.^ J J ^ because. The adjective ns>, is here 
MS. »^ ^^1, he that pretends to ^^^^^^ y^^^^^^ .^, substantive for the sake 

prophecy; "and Kimchi, T« ^33, lying of emphasis. See on Is.liii. 11. From 

prophets. With this, the phrase rvm «>^, the use of D?^ in the sense o{ hatwo, 

the man of the Spirit, is synonymous ; ^tnctng hoMtty, &c., therecan be little 

one pretending to inspiration, or pro- ^^vht that the derivative npij^ which 

fessing to deUver oracles under the in- occurs only m this and the foUowing 

fluent of a divine efflatus. LXX. verse, has the significaUon of hostility, 

ivSprnvot 6 wtviJLaro<t>Spof, Syr. provohng conduct, provocatton. That 

i(»r. -^ ^o V^^pv ot snare or trap, which Gesenius assigns 

f-i^5 cn^ H^^? It^^: '^^ ^°" to it, is not borne out, even by the 

54 HOSEA. [chap. ix. 

8 Epliraim expecteth help from my Ood ; 

Tiie prophet is a fowler^s snare in all his ways ; 
The cause of provocation in the house of his god. 

9 They have deeply corrupted themselves, 
As in the days of Oibeah ; 

He will remember their iniquity, 
He will punish their sins. 
10 I found Israel, like grapes in the desert ; 

Like the first early fruit of the fig tree, at its commencement, 

Syriac SoAtt, which signifies vinxit, 29. What the prophet asserts is, that 

'^ the Ephraimites indulged in expectations 

compedivU, but not to entnare, Comp. ^f ^^^ from Jehovah, notwithstanding 

the Arab. ^Uom., adet gladii ; acutiores their dereliction of his worship in its 

r pure and legitimate forms, and tiieir 

et fervidiores kominum. LXX. fiavia; adoption of the idolatrous practices of 

Aq. iyKooTiaif ; AXX. cKa-raais ; ail of the heathen around them, in this they 

which convey the idea of great excite- were encouraged by the false prophets, 

ment, and yield support to the interpre- who caught tliem by their ensnaring 

tation I have given. The idolatrous doctrines, as is declared immediately 

practices of the Israelites are meant, by after, npisnop is here used in the same 

which they provoked the righteous in- acceptation as in the preceding verse, 

dignation of Jehovah. only there is a metonymy of the effect 

8. Dr^ ^^» are not in construction, for the cause. By rn^ n*^. ** the house 

and to be rendered as in most versions, of his god,'* is not meant the temple or 

" the watchman of Ephraim," to justify people of the true God, but the temple 

which construction various modes of or temples in which the false worship 

exegesis have been resorted to ; among was performed, which the prophets here 

others that of florsley, who would have reprobated were specially active in pro- 

the watchman to be Elijah. Nor can moting. 

the rendering of Ewald be sustained, 9. vvr^ V?^* an instance of the con- 

who gives the passage, Ein Spaher ist stiuctio asyndeta. The former of the 

Ephraim gegen mein Gott, *' Ephraim two verbs is to be rendered adverbially, 

is a spy against my God." When t39 For its use before infinitives, see on 

signifies against, it follows verbs of chap. v. 2. Mercer, "Quam corrupti»- 

more active import E. tc?iaut nach simi sunt." vin^ may either be taken 

Weiuagttngen aus neben meinem Gott; intransitively, or urr3'T4, Dfi^V^, or the 

'' Ephraim looks for prophecies besides like, must be supplied. So great was 

my God," — the rendering of Hitzig, is ^le depravity evinced by those whose 

equally objectionable. I quite agree conduct the prophet here describes, that 

with Gesenius and Lee, in assigning to it could only be paralleled by the 

nos in this place the signification of atrocity of the inhabitants of Gibeah, 

looking out, expecting, as in Ps. v. 4 ; specified Judges xix. 22 — 30. 
Lam. iv. 17, in Piel. d;^, with, is used 10. V^.* Israel, here means the an- 

elliptically for D9Q, /rom triM, i. e. yrom. cestors of the Hebrew nation. It has 

A similar ellipsis undeniably occurs Job been asked, '' How could God be said to 

xxvii. 13. VD? 3»^ O^^JT^ •^i ^^** *• find the Hebrews in the wilderness, 

the portion of a wicked man from (ov, since he conducted them into it from 

with,) God, as appears, not only from Egypt?" To remove the difficulty, some 

the synonymous phrase *7^, <' prom the very unwarrantably explain the wilder- 

Almighly," in the corresponding hemi- ness of Egypt itself; but others connect 

stich, but from the actual use of ]P, "^^TPI D^?^,9, like grapes in the desert, 

from, in the parallel passage, chap. xx. and explain m|^ of finding by experience. 

CHAP. IX.] HOSE A. 55 

I T^arded your fathers ; 

But they came to Baal-peor, 

And separated themselves to the object of shame ; 

They became abominable, like the object of their love. 

11 As for Ephraim, their glory shall fly away, like a bird ; 
There shall be no birth, no womb, no conception. 

12 Yea, though they should rear their children, 
I would take them away from among men ; 
But woe to them I when I depart from them. 

trial, &c. Such tlie^'were, proved them- or shameful idol which the Moahites 
selves to be in my judgment. And this worshipped. O'T^t lit. abominatioru, 
seems to be the proper division and in- but used here adfectively, haiAtome, 
terpretation of the words. At the same abominabie. D^m ib properly the sub- 
time "ij^ yy^ Hi|o occurs in reference stantive, VM — ^the points being changed 
to the same subject, Deut. xxxii. 10, on account of the suffix. Vulg. facti 
where the verb must be taken in the sunt abominabiles sicut ea, quae di- 
sense of reaching with sufficient aid. lexerunt. The Hebrews became aa 

« ^, p,, ««•«». ^ . •# A u abominable as the impure idol whose 

Comp. the Eth. Oil fsT\ : venU ; Arab. ^^^, ^^^^ celebrated. yp« mn yiptD tivn, 

La<. perduxU, tractavU, negotium ; and ^ethat serveth an abominalton, ia him- 
self an abominati<m, Kimchi's MS. note 

chap. xiii. 5 ; Jer. xxxi. 2. The point in Pococke. 

of comparison in the verse is the delight 11, 12. oyf^, Ephraimt is of the 
with which a traveller enjoys grapes nominative absolute, which gives pro- 
found in a desert, in which they were minence to the name, and its siguifi- 
unexpected, and where they served most cation. As for Ephraim, (^no$, from 
opportunely to quench his thirst ; or the rn^, to be fruitful, Oen. xli. 52,) such 
early fig, which is accounted a great may be his name, but, &c. ii3|, ghn/f 
delicacy in the East. When Jehovah is in contrast with n^, shame, in the 
entered into covenant with the people of preceding verse. The lewd and idol- 
Israel at Sinai, they were regarded bv atrous conduct of the Israelites should 
him with delight, being free from idol- meet with a fit retribution. Instead of 
atry, and engaging to adhere to his having an increase of children, that 
service. Comp. chap. xi. 1 ; Jer. xxxi. 3. might grow up and become the glory of 
The scene, however, was soon changed, the land, those who might now be ac- 
79^, illiy these very persons. At Baal- counted such should speedily be removed 
peor, they proved faithless, and indulged into Assyria, and there would be nothing 
ID Uie very atrocities of which their but sterility to characterise the nation. 
posterity were guilty in the days of the The preposition o, prefixed to the three 
prophet For the transactions referred last substantives, is privative in signi- 
to, see Numb. xxv. 1 — 5. Priapism, fication. \^}t womb, stands here for 
which Hosea justly characterises as in pregnancy, or for the jfoetus in the womb. 
the highest degree abominable, was the The order of the words presents an 
worship peculiarly acceptable to the god instance of the gradatio inversa. D^l^, 
of Peor. See Calmet and Winer in among men, as *|C)m D^^qSap ^^, " thy 
voc. — T!) signifies to separate oneself mother shall be childless atnon^ women," 
from any person or thmg, and also, 1 Sam. xv. 33. Ewald and Hitzig 
followed by ^, to separate or devote translate "yi^}, when I look away from 
oneself to some religious object. Hence them^ contending that we should read x^ 
the substantive t*i), a Nazarite ; "^t} instead of xo ; but no MS. is thus pointed, 
consecration, rnfi is the abstract for and the present punctuation is so far 
the concrete, and denotes the obscene supported by the LXX. (>; <r(ip( fiov, 

66 HOSE A. [chap. ixr. 

13 I see Epbraim, like Tyre, planted in a pleasant place ; 
But Ephraim shall bring out his children to the murderer. 

14 Give them, O Jehovah ! — what wilt thou give ? 
Give them a miscarrying womb, and dry breasts. 

15 All their wickedness is in Gilgal ; 
Surely I have hated them there : 

On account of the wickedness of their deeds, 
I have driven them out of my house ; 
I will love them no more : 
All their princes are rebels. 

16 Ephraim is smitten, their root is dried up ; 
They shall produce no fruit : 

i. e. *)toji), Aq. Vulg. and Targ. ITiree extensively with the Phoenician ports, 

MSS. and one edit, liave "l^^t to which was only surpassed hy Tyre herself. 

n^ is doubtless here equivalent. Many Yet the fruit of this lovely region was 

instances occur of the substitution of xo only to be produced in order to its being 

for D, and vice versd. The meaning is, destroyed. The inhabitants were to be 

when I withdraw my protection from slain in great numbers with the sword, 

them ; no longer showing them any The ^ before the infinitive in M^n^, is 

favour, but delivering them over to their future in signification, indicating what 

enemies. For the abortive attempt of was about to be, or would be done. 
Lyra to prove a corruption of the passage 14. These words strongly mark the 

by the Jews, and to palm upon the ren- efiTect produced upon the mind of the 

dering of the LXX. >) o-dp^ fiov €{ prophet by the contemplation of the 

avT^Vj the doctrine of the incarnation wickedness of his people. In holy 

of the Messiah, see Pococke. ardour of soul, he feels himself excited 

13. After cnDM supply 'rwj, from the to imprecate what he had predicted ver. 

following TteJ 'nw TOfS. Though n>n H. Some, less appropriately, render 

commonly governs the accusative, yet, Tvp, not as an interrogative, but as sig- 

in Ps. Ixiv. 6, it is followed as here by nifying that which, i. e. give them what- 

the dative, without any difference of ever thou wilt. Barrenness was ac- 

signification. LXX. ds Brjpay, reading counted a great misfortune among the 

"RS, instead of t^. Aq. Symm. aKpo- Jews. 

TOfiov; Thcod. ircrpav; Amoldi, and 15. For Gilgal, see on chap, i v. 15. 

after him Hitzig, would derive 11^2? from Being one of the chief places of idol- 

the Arab. ,^0, as signifying the Palm ; ^^'^^s worship, the wickedness of the 
yJ^ 0^0 nation might be said to be concentrated 
but it only signifies the root of that tree, in it. When God is represented as 
or describes it as small in size, an ac- hating the wicked, it must be understood 
ceptation which would ill suit the present in regard to the odiousness of their 
connexion. Ewald renders, Bild, image moral character, and hu infliction of 
or likenesi. The point of comparison is positive punishment upon them on ac- 
the beautiful situation of Tyre. See count of it Hitzig considers M^ to b^ 
Ezek. xxvii. 3, xxviii. 12, 13. The here used inchoatively. For the sense 
notion of planting seems to have been in which n^ house, is to be taken, see 
suggested by the name of Ephraim. on chap. viii. 1. Hatred and love are 
See on the preceding verse. The ter- contrasted as here, Mai. i. 2, 3. Id 
ritory occupied by that tribe, and several Dnnto d;tw> is a paronomasia, 
of the other nine, was distinguished for 16. The figurative language here em- 
its beauty and fertility ; and the pro- ployed is suggested by the meaning of 
sperity of its inhabitants, who traded the name Ephraim, as in verses 11, 13. 

CHAP. X.] HOSBA. 57 

Yea, though they should beget children, 
I will kiU the beloved of their womb. 
17 Mj God will abhor them, 

Because they have not listened to him : 
They shall be wanderers among the nation?* 

1^^ is in the fQlure, while n|n and «9g( xli. 1 8. For Dnono, comp. on ^lonQ, 

are in the preterite, to mark the state of ver. 6. 

unfniitfulness as following upon the in- 17. Though the pronominal affix in 

jury done to the tree. The resolution ^n^ is omitted by the LXX. and Arab, 

of the figiu-e in the latter half of the and one of Kennicott*s MSS., it is, in 

▼erse possesses much force. Most of such connexion, more in the style of 

the MSS. and some few editions read, Hosea than D^v^. The dispersion of 

with the Keri, ^ instead of ^f, which the ten tribes is here expressly pre- 

occurs, however, before a verb, Job dieted. 


In this chapter the prophet continues to charge the Israelites with idolatry, 
anarchy, and want of fidelity, 1 — 4. He expatiates with great variety on the 
judgments that were to come upon them in punishment of these crimes, 5 — 1 1 ; 
and then abruptly turns to them in a direct hortatory address, couched in meta- 
phorical language, borrowed from the mode of representation which he had just 
employed, 12. The section concludes with an appeal to the experience which 
they had already had of the disastrous consequences of their wicked conduct. 

Israel is a luxuriant vine ; 

He putteth forth his fruit ; 

According to the increase of his fruit, 

He increased altars ; 

According to the excellence of his land, 

They prepared goodly statues. 

1. The wickedness which manifested proportion to the abundance of their 

itself in idolatry. &c. is here traced to , . « .««« a i. n 

the abuse of the nrosperity which God ^'^wment. pp.|, Arab, j^, muUui 

had conferred on the Israelites. Instead fiuUt, foeeundus fuU, mtdtum plttviam 

of spending the bounties of providence demiiii, Jhrere ccepit pkmia, is here 

for the gloiy of God, they appropriated used to express the luxuriance of the 

them to idolatrous uses, and that in vine, and not, as in our common version 

58 HOSE A. [chap. x. 

2 Their heart is divided, they shall now be punished : 

He will cut off their altars, he will destroy their statues. 

3 Surely now shall they say : We have no king ; 
For we fear not Jehovah : 

As for the king then, what can he do for us ? 

4 They utter empty speeches ; 
Swearing ialsely, making covenants : 
Therefore judgment blossoms like the poppy 
On the ridges of the field. 

and some others, its unfruitfulness. The the Assyrians. ^ is properly a sacri- 

idea of emptying, which the verb also ficial term, signifying to cut off the head 

has, derived from that of pouring out of a victim, by striking it on the neck ; 

entirely or abundantly the contents of a hence, to drop as blood from the place 

vessel, does not suit the present con- thus struck ; and to drop generally. It 

nexion. LXX. €VK\rjfiaTov<raj or, as is here, with much force, used metony- 

in other copies, iyKkrjfiaTova-a. Aq. mically, in application to the destruction 

tvvdpos* Symm. vXofiavova-a. Vulg. of the altars on which the animals were 

frondosa. Comp. Gen. xlix. 22 ; Ps. offered. Ewald renders, Er wird ihre 

Ixxx. 9 — 11 ; Ezek. xvii. 6. In every altdre enthaupten ; ''he will decapitate 

other instance ]D| is construed as a femi- their altars." For the distinction between 

nine ; but here the masculine name n^^Tp and nil^, see on chap. iii. 4. 

^jf^., Israel, required it to be taken as n^?, now, in this and the following 

of that gender, rnf, to resemble, be verse, has the signification of soon^ 

equal to, sufficient ; in Piel, like the Eth. speedily, 

rtCD P, to bring to maturity, produce , 3. The language of desperation is 

- ., 4. . ,, , ., 1 . , here put mto the mouth of the apostate 

fruU. ft, m the phraaejVnjttJ:, ,s pleo- i^aelites, at the time of the infliction 

nastic, ^ m '&^, &c., but may here be ^f divine judgment. Their king, to 

rendered as a possessive pronoun. ^^^^ ^y^' ^^ naturally looked for 

2. p^ IS here to be teken mtransitively, protection, was removed ; they had for- 

BS in our common version, and refers, f^^^^^ ^^iQ favour of God, who was now 

not to any differences of opinion among y^^^^^^ jj^^j^ ^^^^y . ^^^ therefore, it 

the Israelites respecting the claims of ^^ ^^j^ ^ ^ ^ j^^i f^om an earthly 

their numerous idols, but to their m- monarch. Some think the prophet refers 

sincenty in the service of Jehovah,— ^^ ^^e time of anarchy dunng the inter- 

professing to worship him, while they jegnum, between the murder of Pekah 

hkewise addicted themselves to the and the accession of Hoshea. 
worship of idols. Thus Tanchum ;— 4 .^, y^>,^^ i^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ 

\JJL\ iil ^t., ^As^. ^L> ^,***M ywcA, i. e. what is merely such ; empty, 

J J ">^ n ^ n • r false pretences. Comp. the Lat, verba 

^M Mj," Iheir mind and their under- ^«r*- , The prophet begins with the 
>*^ • finite form of the verb, and then, for 
standing, and their opinion are divided, the sake of more specific description, 
while they associate others with God" changes it for the infinitive. Comp. Is. 
The acceptation to be smooth, .which lix. 13. For n^^, as an absolute infi- 
some propose, is to be rejected, on the nitive, instead of rf^, comp. n\ni(, Is. 
ground that, though the verb is used in xxii. 13 ; niwj, chap. xlii. 20. nn|, cove- 
this signification of the tongue, it nowhere nant, is here used as a collective noun, 
is of the heart. For the meaning of and is to be rendered in the plural. 
D^, see on chap. v. 15. The nomi- Whether the fiilse swearing and the en- 
native to MV1, He, is D^n^, God, in ^fM, tering into covenants refer to the conduct 
chap. ix. 17. Jehovah is here said to of the Israelites in regard to each other, 
do, what he would effect by means of or whether they respect their conduct in 

CHAP. X.] HOSEA. 69 

5 For the calves of Beth-aven, 

The inhabitants of Samaria shall be in fear ; 
The people thereof shall mourn on account of it ; 
The priests thereof shall leap about on account of it — 
On account of its glory, 
Because it hath departed from it. 

6 It shall itself also be carried to Assyria, 
A present to the hostile king : 
Ephraim shall take disgrace. 

And Israel shall blush for his own counsel. 

reference to foreign powers, has been p$ is a collective, llie nominative to 
disputed. Tlie latter would seem to be the pronominal affixes in i^, May, r^^, 
the more probable, since it is the making &c. i^ the ^J9, calf of Jeroboam, singled 
of covenants and not the breaking of out from the rest, to?, Us people^ those 
them, of which the prophet speaks as devoted to its worship. Comp. Numb, 
something criminal. He seems to have xxi. 29. v^} is only used in Hebrew 
in hit eye the historical circumstances to designate idolatrous' priests, and occurs 
narrated 2 Kings xvii. 4. By v&ttHp is but twice besides, viz. 2 Kings xxiii. 5 ; 
meant the divine judgment which was ^g-jjj : 4, \.^^ j- f^e Svriac II^o^ 
to be inflicted upon the people of Israel. P • • » / ||^caa» 
So Jarchi, masnfin piD» vrsmo. This he kumro, signifies a priest of the true God, 
compares to the rapid and luxuriant as well as one engaged in the service of 
growth of the poppy, which overruns idols. Gesenius derives the noun from 
the fields, and is destructive as a poison. 'V^, to bunif be scorched, black, sup- 
Celsius, in his Hierobot supports the posing the reference to be to the black 
common rendering hemlock, as the sig- dress of monks or ecclesiastics ; but this 
nification of vMn; but that of poppy, seems too modem to be entitled to 
proposed by Gesenius, is preferable, both adoption. The derivation of Iken, in 
to such construction of tne term, and to his Dissert, de Cemarim, who refers the 
that of colocynth advanced by CEdmann, ^^^ j ^ ^j^g p^^j^ ^ ,^„^ magorum 
or that of loltum or darnel suggested by y 
Michaelis. The term is usually ren- ignicolarum chigulum, of which frequent 
dered poison in our common version ; mention is made in the Sadder of Zoro- 
sometimes gaU. LXX. aypaa-Tis, D^n aster, is much more natural. Comp. the 
rather signify the ridges between the Chald.^ffap^, vna^^ a belt or girdle. Some 
furrows than the furrows themselves, think the Lat. camillus, an inferior order 
See Pococke. of priest, who attended upon and assisted 
5, 6. In these verses the object of the flamens, is derived from this root, 
idolatrous worship is spoken of, now in Ewald renders the word by Pfaffen, 
the plural, and now in the singular which is used of priests by way of con- 
number, which Hitzig accounts for on tempt, in German. Those who render 
the ground, that though the Israelites ^^T, they rejoiced, which is the usual 
might have multiplied golden calves, signification of the verb, supply *t^ 
that set up by Jeroboam would still be before it ; but the Vau conversive con- 
held in peculiar honour. Four MSS. nects it so closely with ^, as to render 
have r^, calf, in the singular, which is such supplement inconsistent with the 
also the rendering of the LXX. Syr. construction. It is, therefore, better to 
and an anonymous Greek version in the revert to the primary signification of 
Hexapla. This reading is very uncri- ^\, to move about, leap, dance, or the 
tically adopted by Kuinoel, Dathe, New- ,., ^ *u 4 u I • -^ 
come, and wme other modern.. For '**=• Comp. the Arab. J*^ c.m.m.t«/. 

1^ rr^, Beth-aven, see on chap. iv. 15. Such would be the excitement of the 

60 HOSEA* [chap. x. 

7 As for Samaria, her king is cut off; 

He is like a chip upon the surface of the water. 

8 The high places of Aven, the sin of Israel, are destroyed ; 
Thorns and thistles shall grow upon their altars : 

They shall say to the mountains, Coyer us ; 
And to the hills. Fall upon us. 

9 Since the days of Gibeah, thou hast sinned, O Israel ! 
There they remain : 

Shall not the war against the unjust overtake them in GileadP 

idolatrous priests at the capture of their ver. 10. In the midst of the calamities 

god, that they would leap ahout in a that should come upon the people, death 

state of desperation, like those of Baal, would be preferable to life. Comp. Rev. 

1 iLings xviii. 26. The glory of the vi. 15, 16. 

idol consisted in its ornaments, wealth, 9. That reference is here made to the 

Sec. 't^ D| is emphatic : itseif altOf i. e. transactions recorded Jud. xix. xz., there 

the idol or golden calf. For tne meaning can be no doubt. The prophet declares 

of 3T, Jarebf see on chap. v. 13. The that as a nation his people had all along, 

worshippers of the golden calf would be irom the period referred to, evinced a 

ashamea of him, when they found that, disposition to act in the same rebellious 

instead of protecting them, he was him- ana unjust manner as the Gibeonites 

self carried into captivity. That n?^ is had done. Comp. chap. ix. 9. The 

not to be changed into rra^, and ren- words yt^ cr^, there they renuurit con- 

dered in a tound sleep, as Horsley does, tinue, persist, graphically express the 

nor into ^fl, in this year, with Mi- character of the inhabitants in his day. 

chaelis, the parallelism sufficiently shows. The Gibeonites are still, what they have 

7. For the sake of emphasis, '(nati is ever been, a wicked and abandoned 
put absolutely. The whole phrase is people. They are here singled out as a 
equivalent to the king of Samaria, &c. nt specimen of the whole nation ; and 
That n^'is agrees with n37p, and not with are called niV'a^ sons of wickedness, to 
]Vio^, the gender shows. ^^ has no- mark the enormity of their conduct, 
where the signification of /oam or fcum. Instead of nj^, the Brixian edition, 

. ... thirty-nine MSS. originally seventeen, 

It IS denved from rjsg, Arab. v-JUa5, and perhaps a few more, have njw, the 

/regit, to cut, cut off, and signifies any common form, which is supposed to have 

chip or small fragment of wood. Comp. ^een changed by a simple transposition 

nrai?, a fragment, Joel i. 7. Arab, o^ ^^e letters. Albert Schultens, how- 

',' ^^ -. .. ever, in his notes ad Harir. i. p. 15, 

cjUUas, fractus arboris ramus, ia^' justifies the present reading by deriving 

tenuitas arboris, LXX. i^pvyavov. Syr. it from the Arab, lie, modum excessit, 

JH^^fesiucam, The comparison of the exlulit se ; and Michaelis, in his Sup- 

^ plem. by referring it to the Syriac, 
king to a small chip of wood, which 

cannot resist the force of the current, is - t^Sf and the Eth. O ACD • fldem 
very beautiful and forcible. Spuma, 

which is the rendering of the Targ. fifellii, perfidusfuit. Comp. "Yh^ = 

Jerome, Symm. Abulwalid, Tanchum, - -. ,«^ « . i . 

and many modems, is less apt, even if ACD* : Rex iyrannus, soelestus. 

it could be philologically sustained. ji- ^ .r»^ -k- . • • . i - 

8. 1??, Jven, is an abbreviation of the A(DT : transgressxo aqm et bom, 

full form l>rn^3, Beth-aven, or Bethel, scelm, perversitas. That the Targumist 

^^^i^, the occasion of sin to Israel. See read the text as it now stands is clear 

CHAP. X.] HOSEA. 61 

10 My desire is to punish them ; 

The nations shall be collected against them, 
When they are bound for their two iniquities. 

11 Ephraim is a well-trained heifer, loving to thresh ; 
But I will pass on beside her fair neck ; 

I will place a rider on Ephraim : 

Judah shall plough^ 

And Jacob shall break the clods. 

from his renderiDg the word V ^, the y exegesia is that founded on the Keri, 

went up. The words non^ rq^ oanpn^ onb'© »bp^, for their ttoo iniquities, i. e. 

Tttn *j^ are somewhat involved, hut the two golden calves which Jerohoam 

the meaning is obvious. Destruction had erected, and which proved the source 

should assuredly overtake the wicked of all the evils which they had afterwards 

Israelites. D, the verbal sufiSx in D^^n, committed. They had many other idols, 

is anticipative of rn^ ^33. A stands for but these were the principal ; and they 

^, the interrogatory negative. are called iniquities by a metonymy of 

10. V$fh ^^ Lax. have read T^} ; the cause for the effect. Comp. ver. 8, 

rendering it i7X^€ ; or, according to the where rw^n, «m, is similarly applied. 

Alexandrian MS. and the editions of This reading is in the text of a great 

Aldus and Breitinger, rj\$€v. Of this many MSS. and is expressed in all the 

Houbigant, Dimock, Newcome, Ting- ancient versions. 

stadius, and Boothroyd, approve, and 11. The general meaning of this verse 
adopt it as an emendation ; hut contrary seems to be, that the Ephraimites had 
to all other authority, ancient or modern, been accustomed in the plenitude of 
and without necessity. 3 prefixed is the their power to crush and oppress others, 
^e^A £Meii<t>, indicating the substantive especially their brethren of the two 
character of the affection. See my note trioes ; but they were now themselves to 
on Is. xxvi. 4. rm, to be strongly pro- be brought into subjection to the king 
pense, desire yreatly^ expresses the irre- of Assyria, by whom they should be 
sistible inclination of infinite purity to placed in circumstances of great hard- 
punish sin. D1DH is the future in Kal of ship in foreign countries. The metaphors 
1D^ to chastise, punish^ compensation are agricultural. For v)^^, to tread or 
having been made for the first radical % heat out the corn, partly by the feet of 
by inserting Dagesh in the D. D^, the oxen, and partly by sledges with instru- 
infinitive of "CM, to hind, hind as a pri- ments adapted to the purpose, see on 
soner or captive, which is the sense in Is. xxviii. 27, 28. The ^ in ^ronh, is 
which the word is here to be taken, paragogic, as "^p^ and ^2^3a;79, Jer. xxii. 
^iT9 has occasioned great variety of in- 23 ; V}"^, chap. li. 13, though in these 
terpretation. Michaelis translates it passages it has been left unpointed by 
plough-shares, attempting to derive it the Masoretes. See Ewald, § 406. The 
from the Arabic. Jarchi, Lively, and, form is otherwise the participle rorAi. 
among the moderns, Ewald, render eyes, Vv '^ signifies here to pass on heside 
*' before their two eyes," i. e. openly; oue, as the driver does beside an ox in 
but the word is always written ^yv the yoke. Thus Jehovah would, in his 
when applied to real eyes, and only providence, lead forth the Israelites, from 
rnT9 when applied to fountains, or arti- the midst of their prosperity, to the toils 
ficial eyes. Some translate habitations ; and hardships of captivity. OT>em yr^, 
but mo&t, furrows^ which is the rendering lit. / wUl cause to ride Ephraim, meaning 
adopted by Abenezra, Kimchi, Abul- I will place a rider upon him — a con- 
walid, Tanchum, Munster, Vatablus, queror, who shall lead him forth from 
Zanchius, &c., after the Targum — some his land. Thus Calvin, Zanchius, Lyra, 
expounding the passage one way, and Tarnovius, Rosenmiiller, and Ewald. 
some another. The only satisfactory The judgments of God were not, how- 

62 HOSE A. [chap. x. 

12 Sow to yourselves for righteousness ; 
Reap according to piety ; 

Break up for yourselves the fallow ground : 

For it is time to seek Jehovah, 

Till he come, and teach you righteousness. 

13 Ye have ploughed wickedness, ye have reaped iniquity ; 
Ye have eaten the fruit of falsehood : 

Because thou trustedst in thy way — 

In the multitude of thy mighty ones. 

ever, to be confined to the northern terpreters. In support of the rendering, 

kingdom : the southern should also be He will teach you righieousneUf may be 
involved in them. In short, they should j.vcs **^ ^%f ' 

overtake the whole posterity of Jacob, adduced the Syr. |a^,:;,co ]l] ^ 
The prediction was fulfilled during the * *. * . 

two captivities. % in ^^il<^, is pleo- oiZoa^^] >Qr% X tiU he come and 

12. 'continuing his agricultural meta- '''^'^ *"> y^" ^'" righteousness ; Pococke's 
phors, the prophet here abruptly calls ^rab. MS. ^^^^, ^ ,1 Jl 
upon the nation to reform its manners. ^^ J^J u5^ (J U? 
DD'J is the Dat. commodi. ^ in ^ins^ \^ W ^-n l j 'j "j 
I^tate out the end or object to be ob- J'^*". "^ *« «<""« '"^ S""'" V"^ '" 
tained by sowing. Sow what will pro- righteousness. The Targ. to the same 
duce the fruits of righteousness. The effect, JiaJ ]|0] ^C^l ^^i*! Il?t now he shall 
second imperative is here equivalent to be revealed, and shall bring rigJiteousness 
the future: '' Sow, and ye shall reap;" to you; Vulg. cum venerit gut docebil 
or the subjunctive, ** Sow, so that ye vos justitiam. Thus also Dathe, Hitzig, 
may reap." That td*?* P*^ly or goodness, Winer, and others. Kimchi remarks, 
is to be referred, not to God, but to «i» wn imso "imm nart n r» "rrnn d« rfn 
man, its being parallel with n^, right- pis D3n« mm, there are those (of the 
eousness, manifestly proves. To change Rabbins) who expound, If ye seek the 
TXSl) into nri, and join this word with t). Lord, to know his law and his command' 
preceding, as Newcome, following the ments^ he will come and teach you right- 
LXX. and Arab., does, is unauthorized eousness. And Abenezra asserts the same, 
and inept. The Israelites had long in nearly the same words. Such con- 
neglected Jehovah : it was now high struction of the passage seems, from the 
time to return to his fear ; and though preceding use of ^im, to be more apt, 
they might not meet with immediate than to take pTi absolutely for npis^, in 
tokens of his favour, they were to per- due proportion, adequately, fully, ac- 
severe in seeking him, in the assurance cording to the claims or necessities of 
that he would be gracious to them, your condition. See on Joel ii. 23. 
Such is the force of "<?, untiL This 13. Instead of following such a course 
favour was to be manifested by his as that to which they had just been 
coming and communicating to them in- exhorted, the Israelites had pursued one 
struction respecting the only righteous- directly opposite, and now reaped the 
ness which could avail the guilty at his disastrous consequences. The same 
bar. That the words ojb pi^ rnin are metaphors are here continued. \*Jri3 »■«, 
not to be rendered he will grant you fruit of falsehood, seems rather to mean 
suitable rain, but, he will teach you the effects of their false and hypocritical 
righteousness, and that they contain a conduct in professing attachment to the 
prophecy of the advent and prophetical true God, while they addicted themselves 
office of the Messiah, has been main- to the worship of other deities, than 
tained by Jerome, and many other in- fallacious and disappointing results. 

CHAP. X.] HOSEA. 63 

14 Therefore a tumult shall arise among thy people, 
And all thy fortresses shall be destroyed^ 
As Shalman destroyed Beth-arbel in the day of battle : 
When the mother was dashed in pieces with her children. 

Seeker wouid read *|]9^, in thy chariots, proper name, and is said to stand for 

instead of ^13, in fhy way, on the Skalmanatsar, king of Assyria, only it 

authority of the LXX. iv apfuiai aov, is abbreviated; and perhaps Shdlmanat- 

which reading is found in Compl. Aid. iar is compounded of two names, one of 

Barb. Reg. Laud. Cyrill. Ital. Ambros. which is omitted because it was well 

Arab. Slav. Hexap. Syr. and a Copt, known: and Arbel is the name of a 

MS. ; and Kuinoel has actually adopted city, and is said to be that which is 

it into hts tlebrew text. It is, however, called Arbel at the present day." The 

unsupported by any Heb. MSS., or any abbreviation of proper names is not un- 

of the ancient versions, and is justly to common in Scripture, as ^rr3|, Coniah, 

be rejected. Four MSS., originally two, for p^, Jehoiachin, &c. It was this 

the Syr. and Targ. read ^f^yri, in thy monarch that besieged Samaria for the 

ways. The way of the Israelites was space of three years, and took it in the 

the wicked course of conduct which ninth of Hoshea, b.c. 722, carrying the 

they had adopted in opposition to the king and most of his subjects into exile, 

will of God. Kimchi : naiOMm wm "pi 2 iTings x^ni. 1 — 6. To this interpre- 

TTsm, the way of wickedness and bad tation it has been objected that our 

religion. The Vat copy of the LXX. prophet wrote before the time of Shal- 

bas iv rots oftaprqfjMtri aov. Comp. maneser, and therefore could not speak 

Is. 1 vii. 1 ; Jer. ii. 23. of his destroying Arbel as something 

14. The prophet now denounces a that had already happened. It must, 

severe threatenmg against his rebellious however, be recollected, that though 

countrymen, foreshowing that they Hosea prophesied before the time of 

should be involved in all the horrors of that king, ne continued to deliver his 

war. DMQ, with m epenthetic, after the predictions as far down as the time of 

manner of the Arab J**- 't successor Sennacherib, and must, 

• I*i,«l9 ; or 1 may jj^ejefore, have been well acquainted 

be regarded as merely a maler lectionis. with the previous Assyrian invasions. 

Some few MSS. and some others in the With respect to ^«3T« rvj, or, as some 

margin, read DRJ. Twenty-four MSS., MSS. read, "f^, Beth-Arbel, commen- 

one originally, four of the early editions, tators are divided in opinion. Some 

and all the ancient versions, read «f5»]i, think that the Assyrian city Arbela, 

thy people, instead of *r^, thy peoples, situated between the Lycus and the 

For minor varieties in the readings, see Tigris, celebrated for the victory ob- 

Kennicott and De Rossi. The nomi- tained there by Alexander the Great 

native to ipc is % taken as a collective, over Darius, is meant ; but it is far 

comprehending the whole. That ]P^, »nore probable that the prophet refers to 

Shalman, and ^M?TMn>3, Beth-Arbel, kxe the *Api9^a of 1 Mace. ix. 2, which 

proper names, is now universally ad- JosephusplacesnearSephoris in Galilee; 

mitted. The best interpretation of them Eusebius, in the plain of Esdraelon. Of 

. .1 . . V T* 1. w^wm I I the battle here mentioned, no account 

u that given by Tanchum : pw t«U - a a ' : •*!. •« - « j « 

® ^ • ^^'j uideed is given either in sacred or pro- 

tTOM v-jdL« "tt>oo^ jjl (JjkJ* ^ ^ fane history ; but as the contemporaries 

' I ^^ ^^ of Hosea are supposed to have been 

^^ ^^m^j^ TiMcfTO O^^ ji^A^U acijuainted with it, there is reason to 

• HI 1 . believe that it took place on the in- 

n*n f^^MJ UjbJrf»-l Jsiuwli f^jjy*** vasion of the kingdom of Israel by the 

»- *n I M \ - \ I Assyrian army. The ancient versions 

JLw ^1 4>1 J^j *y^, jKwI '»OT« of this clause of the verse are more or 

•• , , less at fault; but have afforded abundant 

^HTW ^^1 l^. " As for Shalman, it is a ^^^^^^ f^^ ^^^g exercise of emendatorial 

64 HOSEA. [chap. xi. 

15 Thus shall he act towards you at Bethel, 
On account of your flagrant wickedness : 
In the morning shall the king of Israel be utterly cut off. 

criticism. See Newcome, who renders, sity, with Newcome, to resort to emen- 

Like the destruction of Zalmunna by the datioti. Instead of "vr^ " in the 

hand of Jerubbaal; and supposes the morning," fifteen MSS., and perhaps 

reference to he to Jud. viii. *J$ here one more, six originally, the Proph. of 

signifies foithf in the sense of hein? Soncin. 1486, the Venet edit, of 1518, 

superadded. See Gen. xxviii. 9, xxxi. in the margin, and the Vulg. read vi^y 

50. ** like the morning." Were the fol- 

15. The nominative to nto^ is Shalman lowing verh noi to be taken in the sense 

in the preceding verse, or perhaps njrp, of reiembUna, being like^ &c., the latter 

Jehovah, understood, but not ^^i, reading might possess some claim on our 

Bethely as in our common version, attention; but as the idea of being de- 

since this does not so well agree with t^royec^best comports with the connexion, 

what follows. The words contain a that of the Textus Receptus is prefer- 

special prediction against Bethel, where able. The difference or reading has 

tne wickedness of the Israelites had arisen from the similarity of the letters 

been most conspicuously exhibited, itn a and 3. The reference is to the sud- 

D^^, lit the unckednea of your wicked' denness with which Hoshea was to be 

nesSf i. e. your excessive, or most flagrant seized by the king of Ass3rria, and an 

wickedness. A rare example of a noun entire end put to the regal dignity. See 

put in construction with itself repeated 2 Kings xvii. 4. The doing of anything 

tn the singular^ in order to form the early or soon is frequently expressed by 

superlative degree. There is no neces- its being done in the morning. 


To aggravate his representations of the guilt of the Israelites, the prophet adduces 
the divine benefits conferred upon them from the earliest period of their history, 
1 — 4. He then threatens them with unavoidable punishment on account of 
their obstinacy, 5, 6 ; but, all of a sudden, introduces Jehovah, compassionating 
his rebellious children, and promising them a restoration from their captivity in 
foreign lands, 7 — 11. 

1 When Israel was a child, I loved him. 
And called my son out of Egypt. 

1. That these worda relate to the prophecy of any future event, is so 

nation of Israel — ^bein? a description eviaent, that no person who impartially 

of what Jehovah had done for it ages examines the preceding and following 

before the prophet wrote, and not a context, can for a moment caU it in 


2 According as they called them, they went from their presence, 
They sacrificed unto Baals, 

And burned incense to graven images. 

3 Though I taught Ephraim to walk, 
Taking them by their arms. 

Yet they knew not that I healed them. 

question. Nor but for their having been The Hebrew people are also called the 

applied by the Evangelist Matthew (ch. son of God in the same figurative sense, 

ii. I5t) to our Lord's return from Egypt, Exod. iv. 22, 23. The early period of 

would it ever have been imagined that their existence is frequently represented 

they had or could have any other refer* as their youth. See Is. liv. 13 ; Jer. ii. 

ence. It is only, therefore, with respect 2, iii. 24, 25, xxii. 21 ; Hos. ii. 15. 

to such application that any diffioulty 2. The use of the verb vrf^, to call, in 

can exist respecting their exegesis ; and, the preceding verse, suggested the idea 

in my judgment, there appears to be of the subsequent messages which had 

nothing in the N. T. appHcation beyond been delivered to the Isradites by the 

the mere appropriation of the language prophets, to which H^sea now appeals, 

of the prophet, for the purpose of giving m order to contrast with the means 

to Jewish readers a more vivid impres- which had been employed for their re- 

sion of the strikingly analogous circum-* formation, the obstinate character of 

stances of the sojourn of our Saviour in their rebellion. Before wn^, subaud. 

Egypt, and his return from it, to those ^^h to correspond to ]^, Thus the 

of the ancient Israelites. The Evan- LXX. kgB' tis. The nominative is the 

gelist does not affirm, that the words aa prophets, understood. The very pre^ 

used by Hosea were a prophecy of sence of the prophets being an imnoy-* 

Christ; he only adduces them, to show ance to them thev withdrew from it, 

how aptly they described the historical that, unmolested, they might indulge in 

event which he was narrating, just as idolatry. 

he does Jer. xxxi. 15, in application to 3. *^^r!?, an instance of the Tipkil 

the murder of the infants at Bethlehem, conjugation, equivalent to Hiphil in sig- 

and Ps. Ixxviii. 2, in application to our niiication, and, in all probability, formed 

Lord's teaching in paratdes. " He must by hardening the preformative n into n. 

be a stranger to the Hebrew writers. Indeed, one of De Rossi's MSS. reads 

that does not know, that nothing is more ^tf^Tpf instead of ^y^. There exist 

common among them than such accom- only two other instances in the Hebrew 

modations of the text upon all occasions, Bible, viz. rmn^, Jer. xii. 5, and n^ClC^f 

They abound in such applications ; I xxii. 15, if Dyrrtstop, xxv. 34, is not to 

may say their Midrashim do very much be so taken. Compare the Shanhel 

exceed in them." Kidder's Demon, of Conjugation in Syriac, in which lan- 

the Messiah, Pt. II. p. 216. '^Parodiarum guage this very verb occurs in the form 

'^ ^I'^'Tin "T- Il^«°f'/- §•. ^«*'- ^^^li. SeeKn6sChrest.Syr.p.ll2. 

11. 15 and 23, ubi tmpleta dicuntur xT^ * 

Scriptwr<B tum etiam, cum nulla histo* It is a denominative from bsp,/A«/oo<, and 

rica aut typica est impletio, sed analo- signifies to xsatue or teach to use the feet, 

fica tantum." Hettinger in Primit. jt c j rr ^"^^ «.,, 

leidelberg, n. 80. See Surenhiisii, ^^ •^«*- Syr. and Targ. Z^^ VS^i, 

fiiffkos jcaraXXfp, p. 338. Home's Ii>- / led, only the latter paraphrases, H^ 

trod. vol. ii. pp. 341, 342. Robinson's rn|i »©7P^.p rr^ ^ptei, ana I led, &c. 

Greek Lex. in lya, C. 2, d. Instead of by an angel sent from my pretence. The 

^, the LXX. appear to have read v^^ ; use of the personal pronoun Vi^ before 

but instead of rd rticva avrov, hie the verb gives additional force to the 

children, which is their reading, that of laneuage. n^ in on^ is the infinitive 

Aq. Symm. Theod. the Slavon. and used as a gerund, as in Ezek. xvii. 5. 

Matthew, agree with the Hebrew text Both the sufiixes D and i refer to 

66 HOSE A. [chap. xi. 

4 I drew them with the bands of man, 
With the cords of love ; 

I was also to them as those who lift up the yoke from their neck, 
I held out meat to them, I made them eat. 

5 They shall not return to the land of Egypt ; 
Assyria shall be their king : 

Because they would not be converted. 

6 The sword shall be whirled in their cities, 
It shall destroy their barriers, and devour, 
Because of their devices. 

Ephraim. See on chap. iz. 2. Four lowing connexion than the idea of taking 

MSS. for Trth], " hit arms," read ^n^|, the yoke off any place Uiat may have 

** my arniB," which is also in another been galled by it, in ordei to afford 

originally, and now in another, and in reliefl The ^, yokef not only included 

the Soncin. edition of 1486. It is also the piece of wood upon the neck, by 

supported by the LXX. Syr. Vulg. which the animal was fastened to the 

Another MS. reads Dn\9h|, but they are pole, but also the whole of the harness 

all corrections of the original, and are about the head, which was connected 

only to be tolerated in translation. The with it. The yokes used in the East 

metaphor taken from teaching children are very heavy, and press so much upon 

to walk is continued, as those who do so the animals, that they are unable to bend 

take hold of their arms to keep them their necks. T^ tt|n, Ewald renders, 

from fallins; while they move their feet und Bonfl gegenUin, "and gently towards 

It beautifmly expresses the condescen- him," &c. ; but it is preferable to take 

sion of God to the circumstances of his v^ as the apocopated future in Hiph. 

people, and the kind care which he ex- of rnp^, to stretch out^ extend^ reach any 

ercised over them. Comp. Deut i. 31, thing to another. The verse sets forth 

xxxii. 11. His healing them^ refers to the kind relief afforded to the Hebrew 

his recovering them from the calamities nation in Egypt, and the provision with 

which they brought upon themselves by which they were miraculously supplied 

their sins. in the wilderness. 

4. Di^ ^, the bands of man, are ex- 5. an!L to turn, retwm, which is used 

plained by the parallel phrase ?nnM n\n!n^, at the beginning of the verse in its 

cords of hve, i. e. humane, gentle, per- proper acceptation, is employed at the 

suasive methods, such as men generally dose metapnorically to express cotwet' 

employ when they would induce to sion to God. The Israelites seem to 

action. There seems to be still a re- have been very generally inclined to 

ference to the case of children, who, mi^te for a time to £gypt, in order to 

when taught to walk, are not only held enjoy the protection of its monarch ; 

by the arms, but also by soft cords or the prophet assures them that they 

leading-strings, are led about, or drawn should not carrv Uieir purpose into 

in a gentle manner by those who have effect, but that they should be subject 

the care of them. The terms, however, to the Ass3nian rule, as a punishment 

naturally suggesting the idea of the for refusing to listen to the calls given 

ropes by which oxen are bound and led them to repent and turn from their 

about, the metaphor is immediately idolatries. 

changed into one borrowed from agn- 6. Most of the Rabbins take >n in 

cultural life. 'rve\ ^ l^n^l does not the sense of resting, remaining; but it 

mean to remove the yoke entirely, but seems preferable to adopt the signifi- 

to raise it from the neck and cheeks of cation to turn, be turned, or whirled 

the animal, so as to allow it freely to about, as a sword when it is brandished^ 

eat its food. This better suits the fol- or when it is employed in cutting down 


7 For mj people are bent upon defection from me ; 
Though they call them to the Most High, 

Yet none of them frill exalt him. 

8 How shall I give thee up^ O Ephraim ? 
How shall I deliver thee over, O Israel ? 
How shall I make thee as Admah P 
How shall I make thee as Zeboim ? 

My heart is turned within me ; 

All my feelii^ of compassion are kindled. 

9 I will not execute the fierceness of my anger ; 
I will no more destroy Ephraim ; 

the enemy. Comp. the Arab. JU# J' ?• ^.^^ Mows one of the most 

. . _- ., affecting inetances of the infinite ten- 

eanversafuUreB. V. m convertti; verius ^erneM of the divine companion to be 

mutatusqtu fmt, on?, hmrrtert, Ge- fou„a in Scripture ; the point of which 

•emus and Lee take metaphorically, as j. enhanced by its being introduced 

denotmg cAie/# or prmcM. immediately after a description of the 

« ^' M°T?S = °v' ^ . ^ „ ^"? « , t odious conduct of the Israelites. It is, 
Rossi 8 M8S. reads onginally, the Pahul ^s Bishop Lowth characterises it, ex- 
Part, of Tf^, io hang, used here meta- q„|sitely patheUc. The repetitions and 
phoncally m the sense of bending, ox gynonymous features of the parallelism 
being propente to any thing. The idea „eaUy add to the effect The words 
of doubt or itupejiK, which some attach belong to the period after Uie subjuga- 
to the word in this connexion, lU agrees tjo^ of Samaria, and the carrying away 
with the character of the Israelites as ^f the Israelites by Shalmaneser, 2 Kings 
otherwise depicted m this book, n^^ ^^y 5^ ^^ ^^;^ g^jg. They were de- 
ls always used in a bad sense, defeeUm, ,|g„ed to inspire the capUves with hope 
ap^ttuy, &C. Comp. chap. xiv. 5. The {„ the mercy of God, and thus lead 
suffix m TQ^ IS to be taken passively ; ^^^ ^^ ^^ repentance. *!?|W, the 
defection which has me for ite object, £XX. render iJirfoaowKS <rov ; Aq. 
and cannot with any propriety be ren- ^x« KVKkfiaa <rc; Vulg. protegam U; 
deredas by Horsley, •* my retummg. deriving the idea from the significaUon 
For ^, ad iummum, see on chap. vii. ^f the substantive ^, a shUld; but it 
16; and for ^., on ver. 2. After ^ ^^^ ^f deUvering over enemiee, Geu. 
opVT, supply Wt, ^ffi, from Vy, Me juv. 20. Symm. Jk^o^w <rf. Before 
^iiprfwe, preceding. Jehovah had been w^ j, ^ ^\y^^ of TO, which had 
degraded by hjsbeingworshipped through i,eady been twice repeated. The de- 
the medium of miages, and havmg idols gtruction of Admah and Zeboim is only 
associated with him ; yet none of his ^ferred to as an example in one other 
apostate people were inclined to raise ease, vix. Deut xxix. 23, and then in 
him from this degradation, by rejecting connexion with Sodom and Gomorrah, 
them and celebratmg His praise, as the x^ ti^^ ^^^\ catastrophe recorded Gen, 
sole and glorious object of adoration, xix. the sacred writers frequentiv appeal, 

Pococke's Arab. MS. J^l Jo J "» order to produce a sense of the evil 

C/** r of sin, and the severity with which it 

jDI a*«| i^JLi jA^ there woe not deserves to be punished; or when they 

^ j"^ j-» would convey the idea of complete and 

one of them that glorified the name of irretrievable ruin. Comp. Is. i. 9, xiiL 

Qod, ixv with a negative is to be ren- 19 ; Jer. xlix. 18 ; Lam. iv. 6 ; Amos iv. 

dered not one ; without it, aU, altogether, 11 ; Matt. x. 15 ; 2 Pet. ii. 6 ; Jude 7. 

tckoBg, as in the following verse. Some would render ^^ ^ ^|G^, " my 

68 HOSEA. [chap. xi. 

For I am God and not mat), 
The Holy One in the midst of thee ; 
I will not come in wrath. 
10 They shall follow Jehovah, wheu he roareth like a lion ; 
When he roareth, the children shall hasten from the sea. 

heart is turned agairut me," i.e. my afibrcb no suitable sense, and would 
pity rises in overpowering opposition to require the article "i^ as, indeed, one 
the determination to which I had come of De Ro6si*s MSS. reads. Bishop 
to inflict punishments; but the phrase- Lovth's translation, '' though I inhabit 
ology will scarcely bear such construe- not thy cities," (Lectures, vol. ii. p. 38,) 
tion, though it cannot be questioned, is equally unsatisfactory with the inter- 
that it is designed to express a powerful pretation of Jerome and Castalio : I am 
inward revolution. Comp. ^ *i?nn~nD, not like those who dwell in cities; living 
Ps. xlii. 6, 12, xliii. 5; ^nn ^ n^i^ivrrr, after human laws, and deeming cruelty 
cxlii. 4; ^^^, Jer. viii. 18; in all to be justice. Such construction Maurer 
which passages the preposition conveys states to be in his opinion " artificiosior 
the idea of mental contiffuityf nearness, ouara elegantior." I, therefore, adopt 
tn, within, as ^y^^b^jBri^ my heart is uie interpretation hinted at by Jarchi, 
turned within me, Lam. i. 20, incon- and since approved by Schroeder, Seeker, 
testably shows. From the connexion in Oathe, Manger, Tingstadius, Eichhom, 
which it occurs, in the last cited passage, De Wette, Noyes, Boothroyd, Gesenius, 
it is obvious the phrase is there aesigned Maurer, and £wald, which takes yp not 
to express great mental distress, "to^ is in the sense of city, but of anger or 

used in Niphal, of the stirrings of na- ^^^j, comparing the Arab. ,U, ferhuU 

tural afecaon, Gen. xlni. 30 ; 1 Kings ^ * > "^ 

iii. 26. The idea seems to be deriv^ astu dies. Comp. Jer. xv. 8 ; Hos. vii. 

from the commotion produced by the 7 ; and *^, an enemy, 1 Sam. xxviiL 16; 

kindling of a fire, and the heat or Pb. cxxxix. 20. The words are thus 

warmth in which it results. Tanchum strictly parallel, and synonymous to »^ 

explains the word by Ub, concUatus ^> ""^^^ «««• The derivaUon from 

fuU, LXX. avv€rap&^, or, as in the ^' ^ ^^^^^ Michaelis assigns the 

Complut, girrap^x^- D^?, the same signification angry, g^, ira in Deo, 

m effect as onpm, compassion, feelings of ^ ^ ^ J^ 

tender pity and affection, Targ. ^iprn, Orient. Bib. Pt. XIX. p. 9, is less appro- 

my compassions, it is derived firom onp, priate, though the sense which he gives 

to he mwardly affected, whether with is the same. 

grief, pity, consolation, or anger. In 10, 11. These verses contain gracious 

the idea of displeasure with oneself, has promises of the return of the Israelites 

orinnated the signification, to repent, to the true worship and service of God, 

which accounts for the renderings, ficra- and their restoration to their own land 

fitXcia, pcenitudo, repentings, &c. See from the different places in which they 

my note on Is. i. 24. The language is had been scattered during the captivity, 

in the highest degree anthropopathical. Hjn; ^tta ifm^ to walk after Jehovah, is 

The 9th verse contains a declaration of always used in the religious sense of 

the purpose of God founded upon his addicting oneself to his worship, and 

compassion, and quite in keeping with keeping his. commandments, ana is not 

the manner in which expression had to be interpreted, as Hitzig does, of a 

just been given to it. art) in rrr^ aV^ ^ mere following of providence by takine 

IS, as frequently, to be taken adverbially, advantage of the opportunity that would 

The captivity was the last judgment that be afforded of returning from Babylon, 

was to come upon the ten tribes as a So the Targ. ^ ^^^i^ vo, after the 

punishment for their idolatry. The ren- worship of Jehovah. For the contrary, 

tiering, *' I will not enter into the city," see ver. 2. As 3Mf , to roar, like the 


11 They shall hasten^ like a sparrow, from Egypt, 
And, like a dove, from the land of Assyria : 

And I will cause them to dwell in their own houses, 
Saith Jehovah. 

lion, always conveys the idea of terror observantibus Bocharto in . Hieroz. et 

or awe, it cannot be here applied either Schultensio in Animadverss. philol. ad 

to any invitation to the Jews as a people, Is. xix. 17/' Winer, in voc. The same 

or to the preaching of the gospel gene- idea of velocity is further carried out by 

rally ; but must be referred to the awful comparing the return of the Israelites to 

judgments which God executed upon the flight of birds remarkable for their 

&iby]on, Egypt, &c. through the in- swiftness. inBS is here used not in its 

strumentality of Cyrus and his succes- generic sense of bird, but specifically of 

son; thereby opening the way for the the sparrow, as the use of Tt^\ dove, 

liberation of tlie Israelites who were immediately after, shows. The cr, sea, 

found in these countries. Comp. Is. is the Mediterranean, or the islands and 

zzxi. 4; Jer. zxv. 30; Joel iv. lO; other maritime regions in the west. 

Amos i. 2, iii. 8. By t3^|, sons, er Kimchi, itvon, the west; Pococke's Arab. 

ekUehren, are meant the Israelites, who . 

had been for a time rejected, but were MS. jbs^] J\y>' ^^ from the isles of 

again acknowledged in that character, '^ >V* 

b^caose they were to be reinstated in the sea, Comp. Is. zi. 11 — 16; a 
the privileges of adoption. Comp. chap, passage strictly parallel, only including 
i. 10. Tf^ is here pregnant with mean- the Jews as well as the Israelites. The 
ing — signifying to come or hasten under three quarters of the globe here specified 
the influence of great agitation. The embrace all the countries mentioned by 
idea of trepidation, though implied, and Isaiah ; and as the ten tribes form the 
connecting well with that of the roaring subject of Hosea's discourse, the present 
previously mentioned, is not so promi- prophecy furnishes an additional proof 
nent as that of quick or nimble motion, of their return also, after the Babylonish 
Excited to the utmost by the revolutions captivity. To argue, therefore, from 
of empires, which allowed them to take this passage, that they are still in ex- 
possession of their native country, they istence, and are yet to be restored in 
would use all haste in repairing thither, their tribal capacity, is hermeneutically 
LXX. iKtmiaoPTat ; but in the following unwarranted. ^ in the phrase Drpn)|'^, 

„^_^ . f c *v;i.. ^i instead of 5, seems to have special re- 

yeiBe .Ksmaoirai. Syr. ^fii^oyi, they f^^^^^ ^^ Jj^^ ^^^^^ ^f ^^e brientaU, 

shall move or be moved, ** Sic Lat. tre- who enjoy their time upon, rather than 

pidare etiam sumitur pro fesUnare, in their houses. 


This chapter commences with renewed complaints against both Ephraim and 
Judah, more especially against the former, 1, 2. The conduct of their pro- 
genitor Jacob is then adduced in order to excite them to apply, as he did, for 
the blessings which they required, 3, 4; to copy which they are further 

70 HOSE A • [chap, xiu 

encouraged by the unchangeable character of Jehovah, 5, 6. The prophet next 
reverts to the deceitful and hypocritical character of the ten tribes, notwith- 
standing the numerous means that had been employed to promote true piety, 
7 — 10; renews his eastigation of their idolatrous practices, 11 ; again appeals to 
the kindness of God to the nation in its obscure origin in the person of Jacob, 
12, 13 ; and denounces anew the judgments that were to be inflicted upon it, 14. 

1 Ephbaim hath encompassed me with falsehood, 
And the house of Israel with deceit ; 
And as for Judah^ he is still inconstant with God, 
Even with the faithful Holy Ones. 

1. The LXX. Vulg. Targ. and our naiur, which has been given to *ir\ la 

common version join this verse to the altogether gratuitous. The meaning of 

preceding chapter ; but improperly — the prophet will, therefore, be, that 

there being no connexion whatever with Judan or the inhabitants of the southern 

the previous verses, whereas it is mani- kingdom acted with vacillancy in regard 

fest from the renewed reference to to Jehovah. So far were they from 

Jndah, ver. 3, that the three verses inti- adhering stedfastly to his covenant, and 

mately cohere. The proper ezeffesb of seeking their happiness in obedience to 

this verse depends upon tne signification his will, that they resembled animals 

assigned to "n, and the consequent ap- that are dissatisfied with their pasture, 

plication of xg^. That the former break loose, and run wildly up and down 

cannot grammatically be referred either in search of what is more agreeable to 

to IT) or Trn^ to Mubdue^ hear rule, or to their appetite ; or like a female who, 

TP, to deicend, as Jerome renders it, is discontent at home, seeks for satisfaction 

now agreed on all hands ; and there is by gadding about among her neighbours, 

no alternative left but to derive it from The description applies to the state of 

*m, which occurs only in three other things among the Jews towards the end 

passages, viz. once in Kal, Jer. ii. 31, of the reign of Jotham, and during that 

and twice in Hiph. Gen. xxvii. 40, and of Ahaz, who introduced a Syrian altar, 

Ps. Iv. 3. In the two first, the ideas of and other idolatrous objects, by which 

becoming or being unfiuthfiU, rebelling, the people were tempted to infidelity 

ioandering ai large, are obviously con- towards Jehovah, but had not yet alto- 

veyed. In the third, the verb is applied gether renounced his service. Hence 

figuratively to an agitated or unsettled the force of 'i^, yet, stilL Though the 

state of mind, to which the notion of idea of hostility implied in the verb 

wandering seems much more natural, would not justify the use of the prepo- 

than that of mourning, which is that sition c», mfh, taken as in the pnrases 

expressed b^ our translators. Thus also D^ Dn^a, d;^ y\ to fight mth, contend 

the derivative Tng may best be ren- wifk ; yet it well agrees with its use 

dered circumvagatiOf erratio, Lam. i. 7, after verbs of acting toward*, or m 

••• to n^^^^^^ ♦!.* A*.i«;» % % reference to any one, such as oy nsi, 

m. 19. Compare the Arabic d^j, d^j. ^^^^ ^ ^^ W Schroeder. Datht 

^««tot/ pabulum; tdiro citroque ivit; Eichhom, De Wette, Boothroyd, Kuinoel, 

mobile fuit; ducurrit hue illuc mulier Gesenius, Noyes, Hitzig, Maurer, and 

t Ewald. Such construction of the passage 

apud vmnae tuae, J)^, locus, quo m jg f^Uy y^^^ ^^ |,y ^^r. 3, which can- 

pascuis eameli modo prodeunt modo re- «ot be consistenUy interpreted, if Judah 

_ « V •«» «- yttxe here represented as faithfully main- 

trocedum. Eth. d^^R ' peneqm, ^^^^ ^j,^ principles of the theocracy. 

mturrexif, &c. The signification domi- But ii the signification which haa been 

CHAP, xii.] HOSE A. 71 

2 Ephiaim feedeih upon wind, 
He puTsueth the east wind ; 

Eyerj day he multiplieth falsehood and violence ; 
Yea, he maketh a covenant with Assyria, 
And oil is carried into Egypt. 

3 Jehovah hath also a controversy with Judah, 
And he will punish Jacob, according to his ways ; 
According to his deeds, he will recompense him. 

4 In the womb he took his brother by the heel, 
And by his strength he strove with God ; 

^yen to T) be alone jnsiifiable, then it sincerity and faithless conduct of the 

u eTideut X^t faithful, cannot apply to nation was the destruction which it 

Judah, but must be taken as qualifying brouja^ht upon itself. Such conduct was 

D*tfV^, the adjective noun immediately specially exhibited in the leagues that 

preceding. To this it cannot be ol)- were formed, and the friendsiiips that 

jected, that the one is in the plural, were entered into with the two most 

while the other is in the singular; for powerful of the ancient monarchies. 

we find a precisely similar combination ]9^, oil, was one of the most valuable 

in P^ 0T*%« the righteous God, Ps. vii. productions of Canaan, and formed a 

10. That D*i^*i|^, the Holy Ones, cannot profitable article of exportation. It is 

here be applied either to human saints, here spoken of as a present sent to the 

or to angels, but must be interpreted of king of Egypt, doubtless among other 

God himself, the law of parallelism cosUy articles, with a view to obtain a 

clearly requires. Comp. Josh. xxiv. 19, favourable hearing to the embassy which 

MVT rnfn^ dt»^; Prov. ix. 10, 0*^1;? rm was despatched to secure his aid against 

7^ ; XXX. 3, VTrt LTti'Tj? norn. Kimchi the Assyrians. 

himself allows that mSfaff must be so 3. ''Judah" and ''Jacob" stand for the 
understood in this place. Between the two kingdoms respectively, the latter 
inconstancy of the Jews, and the faith- name denoting the ten tribes, as in Is. 
fulness of God, the contrast is placed in xvii. 4. The declaration here made 
a very striking point of view. They manifestly shows, that in ver. 1 the 
had never found him to fail in giving conduct of Judah is to be viewed in an 
efl^t to any of his promises ; while unfavourable light. At the same tune 
they, on the contrary, had all along the language of both verses in reference 
shown more or less of a fickle and to that power is not so strong as that 
roving disposition. The ancient versions which is employed respecting Israel, 
exhibit considerable diversity of ren- 4, 5. Having introduced tne name of 
dering in this place ; but none of them Jacob in reference to his posterity, 
suggests a meaning preferable to that Hosea adverts to three interesting in- 
just given, or warrants any alteration in cidents in his personal history, with the 
the reading of the Hebrew. view of encouraging his countrymen to 
2. By " the wind," and " the east apply themselves with all assiduity to 
wind," are meant empty, unsatisfying the service of God, who alone could, 
and pernicious objects. Such were the and would extricate them from the cala- 
idolatrous confidence and foreign alii- mitous circumstances into which their 
ances c^ the Israelites, tr^, the LXX. sins had brought them. Though 3;$, 
lender Kai<r»v, the Arab. ^^^|, the ^o"^ ^^^h the name ^., Jacob, is 
Samoom, or scorching wind, called the ^^rive6,Anh.i.^^^,evestigiosequulus 
" east wind," because it blows from the fuit, a calce venit, &c. signifies to qome 
desert to the east of Palestine. See on behind any one, take him by the heel. 
Is. zxvii. 8. In proportion to the in- trip, circumvent, &c., it is obviously used 

12 HOSEA. [chap- xit. 

5 Yea, he strove with the Angel, and prevailed ; 
He wept and made supplication to him ; 
He found him at Bethel, and there he spake with him ; 

here in a good sense, to denote the the words, " I will not let thee go, 
supernatural hidication which his taking except thou bless me." The struggle 
his brother Esau by the heel afforded of was not merely corporeal, it was also 
the superiority, which, in the course of mental. The outward conflict was only 
divine providence, he and his posterity a sign of that which was internal and 
were to obtain. Gen. xxv. 22, 23, 26. spiritual. The prophet, as in the former 
To this effect the Targ. h^ "V ijnr m^ reference, leaves the Israelites to make 
'D^riM ]p *3D^ yt^^ T^S^riM, ufos it not scud ^ the application. If they would only 
Jacob hefort he teas borut that he should now redeem their character as descend- 
be greater than his brother? The la- ants of Israel, and show that they were 
raelites were reminded of the promise, entitled to the name, by sincerely and 
" The one people shall be stronger than earnestly engaging in supplication to 
the other people ;" and had they acted the God of their ancestor, they too 
on the faitn of it, they would have found should prevail, and obtain every neces- 
that, with Jehovah on their side, they sary blessing. The third reference is to 
were not only stronger than the Edom- the narrative Gen. xxviii. 11 — 22, which 
ites, but even than the Assyrian power contains an account of the scene at 
itself. The idea of power having thus Bethel, and the promises which God 
been suge^ested to the mind of the then made, not to the patriarch only, 
prophet, he was reminded of the re- but also to his posterity. The nomi- 
markahle occurrence which took place native to Hsp, he foundy is God, and 
at Peniel, •when Jacob wrestled with the not Jacob, as Abene2ra, Tanchiun, and 
divine messenger of the covenant, and several others have attempted to main- 
prevailed, rrrto, to put forth power ^ tain. The meaning is, that Jehovah 
exercise rule as a princcy or commander^ afforded to the solitary traveller the 
the verb from which ^^^^, Israel, the gracious aid which his exposed situation 
other name of Jacob, is derived, is that rendered desirable, ^htp^, Bethel, is 
employed Gen. xxxii. 29, where the here the accusative of place, and is used 
language is nearly identical with that with singular effect, in reference to the 
used in these two verses. In the re- contrasted appropriation of it by the 
sumption of the subject, ver. 5, ^ is patriarch, and by his apostate posterity, 
employed, which, though equivalent to The LXX. not perceiving this, have 
rn^ in signification, must be referred to rendered it oIkos Qu, the house of On, 
the root "Bto. Comp. Jud. ix. 22, and as elsewhere in this book, viqis, *< teith 
Hos.viii.4. f» properjy signifies manly us," Aq. Symm. Theod. Syr. Tanchum, 
vigour. Here 's|M^, the Angela corre- Abulwalid, and several moderns, render 
sponds to OTi^, Ood, ver. 4, and desig- as if it were ^, ** with him ;" but 
nates the Uncreated Angel, of whom there is no variety of reading in the 
we read so frequently in the Old MSS., and u^ is nowhere used of the 
Testament, to whom, as here, names third person singular. The LXX. have 
distinctive of Deity are ascribed, and irp^s avrovs, to them, as if they had 
who is represented as possessing the read D)^?, which, so far as pronunciation 
divine attributes. See on Is. Ixiii. 9, is concerned, goes to confirm the Masor- 
and Dr. M'Caul's Observations appended etrc punctuation. That the prophet 
to his translation of Kimchi on Zech- here speaks per KOivaaiv, identifying 
ariah, chap. i. ^ specially points to the himself and his contemporaries wi£ 
Angel as the object towards whom the their progenitor, in whose loins they 
conflicting efforts of the patriarch were may be said to have been, when he 
directed. Of the circumstances of his received the gracious promises which 
weeping and making supplication, no related not to himself only, but also to 
particular mention is mane in Genesis, his posterity, is the interpretation advo^ 
but they may be regarded as implied in cated by Manger^ Uorsley, Hitzig, 


6 Even Jehovah the God of hosts : 
Jehovah is his memorial. 

Maurer, and Rosenmiiller. CorapvPs. words tT7r\ mn rm ^y7fM rch wm, " And 

Ixvi 6; Heb. vii. 9, 10. On the other He alone is our God; He wab, He is, 

hand, Ewald, following Jarchi and and He shall be." It is a coincidence 

Joseph Kimchi, renders the words '^T^ in no small degree remarkable, that this 

^ysf, he will speak mih us, in the future, threefold description of the divine ex- 

and considers the prophet to be an- istence obtained both among the ancient 

nouncing, that Gdd would renew his Egyptians and Brahmins. On the Saitic 

communications at Bethel, provided the temple of Isis was the inscription, 

Israelites returned to obedience. But '£><» c?/Ltt irav rh ytyovov koI ov koI 

though this seem? less etititled to adop- i&ofxtpov, koI tov iyuov ninXov ovbels 

tion, it cannot be denied that his design ir<a Bmjrds aycfcoXv^c, " 1 am all that 

in the adduction of this instance was to was, and is, and shall be, and no 

lead his peopleto repentance, in order that mortal hath ever uncovered my veil.'' 

they might inherit the promised blessings. Plutarch de Iside. In the Bhagavat 

6, ^ in Tijrn is expletive. Ewald the Supreme Being thus addresses 

strangely gives to the combination the Brahma : — " Even I was at first, not 

form of an oath: " bei Jahve," ex- any other being; that which exists 

gaining it in his note, " wahr ist das unperceived ; Supreme : afterwards I 

i Jahve," By Jehovah it is true! The ah that which is; and He who must 

incommunicable name is here introduced remain am I." Asiat. Researches, vol. i. 

for the express purpose of showing that p. 245. Comp. Zevr ^v Ztjis i<rrl' 

He who had made promises respecting Z€vs co-o-crai* S fieyake Zcv. ** Zeus 

the posterity of Jacob, would not prove was ; Zeus is ; Zeus shall be ; O great 

unfaithful to his word. While 7?^ Zeus!" Pausan. Phocx. 12. Whether 

Tfvatn^ the Ood of hosts, LXX. Uapro- the name ttJtp was in use before the 

Kpartapj conveys the idea of supreme time of Moses, has been, and still is 

and infinite power by which he is able matter of dispute. That die patriarchs 

to carry all his purposes into effect, his were unacquainted with it, nas been 

peculiarly distinctive name ^tsv^ conveys concluded from Exod. vi. 3, where God 

that of immutable constancy, and, by declares, that the name under which he 

implication^ fidelity to his promises, revealed himself to them was ^^ 

Some refer the word to the root nin, to God Almighty, but that he was not 

txistj be; but that it is to be derived known to them by his name r^, 

from the cognate and more ordinary Jehovah. Since, however, we meet 

verb of existence ^, appears evident with this name not only in the history 

from Exod. iii. 14, where, m the expla- of the patriarchs, but also expressly 

nation of the name, the form of the emplovea by themselves, as in Gen. xv. 

future is not tittm, but rrriM, But as "^ is 2, xvi. 2, xxii. 14, xxiv. 3, xxvii. 7, 

nevertheless inserted in n^, which also xxviii. 20, 21, &c,, it seems undeniable 

retains % the preformant of the third that they were acquainted with it; so 

person singular, it is impossible not to that what is meant by the words 'Vf^ 

acquiesce in the opinion, tnat the noun is onj "VCfn^ if) rnnj, b, that God had not 

made up of tttt, lie was, nSn, He is, and caused them to experience the import of 

7T7V^ He will be. What confirms this his name n^, Jehovah. For this sig- 

hypothesis, is the peculiar designation nification of the phrase D^ 9T, fo know a 

of God, Rev. i. 4, 8. 'O cSv kgI 6 rjp name, or, to know, comp. Is. Hi. 6, Ixiv. 1 ; 

Kol o ipxofifvos, He that is, and that Jer.xvi. 21. It had special reference to 

was, and that is to come, which is something future — the fulfilment of the 

merely a translation into Greek of these promises which he had given them ; and 

different forms of the verb. See Po- as these promises began to be fulfilled 

cocke on Joel i. 19. In this derivation when he interposed for their deliverance 

Abeuezra and other Rabbins concur ; from Egypt, there was singular propriety 

and, accordingly, the second article of in its being selected as the name by 

tlie Jewish creed concludes with the which Moses was to announce him to 

74 ROSEA. [chap- xit, 

7 Thou, therefore, return to thy God ; 
Observe mercy and judgment, 
And wait continually on thy God. 

8 As for Canaan, deceitful balances are in his hand ; 
He loveth to oppress. 

9 Epliraim saith, Surely I am rich, 
I have acquired wealth ; 

In none of my labours am I chargeable with guilt. 

his people, on opening his commission i^«^, ]P^^» T^t^o ^c* '^^ change of 

to them. The same futurity of reference the Segol into Kametz may be accounted 

may be said to have continued to attach for on the ground of the grave manner 

to it all along till the advent of Messiah) in which the final syllable required to 

in whom all the promises are yea and be accented, if it was not intended to 

amen, 2 Cor. i. 20 ; just as it is still stand for the second vowel of the pre- 

prominently exhibited in *0 ipxofj^yo^f terite rrn. 

The coming One, of the Apocalypse, 7. An exhortation to duty derived 
which obviously respects the revelation from what God had been, and would 
of the Lord from heaven to iiilfil the still, in accordance with the significant 
mystery of God. Such interpretation aspect of his name, in continuance be, 
alone goes to fully justify the emphatic to those who served him in sincerity, 
statement made in the text of our pro- 8. |933, Canaan, is the nominative 
phet, V91 riirr, compared with Exod iii. absolute, introduced abruptly for the 
15, 'H'fi^n^} rn, in which the Most High purpose of graphically describing the 
declares, that this name was to be em- real character of the Ephraimites. The 
ployed for the purpose of perpetuating word may, indeed, be rendered m^rcAanf, 
the knowledge of his character with but then xSth, man, must be supplied; 
respect to promised blessings. Comp. X^^ vi^, a man of Canaan, meaning a 
also Ps. cxxxv. 13. That it should have merchant — the inhabitants of that country 
come into oral disuse among the Jews, being the celebrated merchants of anti- 
can only have originated in a feeling of quity. The prophet seems rather to 
superstitious veneration, which led them place the names of Canaan and Israel 
to regard it as too sacred to be pro- in antithesis; in which there is great 
nounced without profanation. The point, as the Israelites were accustomed 
earliest trace of such supentition is to hold the Canaanites in the utmost 
thought to be found in the words, Ec- contempt. Comp. Ezek. xvi. 3. Horsley 
clesiasticus xxiii. 9, oyofiaaia rov dyiov renders a trafficker of Canaan, which 
Ikf} wveBia-Brjs, ** use not thyself to the weakens rather than strengthens the 
naming of the Holy One;" but Philo antithesis. The fraudulent practices of 
de Nomin. mutat. makes express mention merchants were quite proveroial among 
of it. Whenever the Jews meet with it the Jews. " As a nail sticketh fust in 
in the text, they read ^3iM, Lord, instead the joinings of the stones, so doth sin 
of it, except when it follows ^3iM, in stick close between buying and selling." 
which case they point it riirr, and read Ecclesiasticus xxvii. 2. 
DTi^, God. Some are of opinion, that 9. The character assumed in the pre- 
the present punctuation n^ is merely ceding verse is here directly applied, 
that of ^3% the simple Sheva taking the only the ten tribes are represented as 
place of Hateph-Patach,- which only flattering themselves that tney had em- 
occurs in connexion with gutturals ; but ployed no illegal means in aequirinff 
the employment of the two first syllables their affluence, ^t^l, they shall fnd, 
with precisely the same points in the is used impersonally. {^ is employed 
formation of compound proper names todenote the ac^o/*^>/or/ioff or iniquity; 
manifestly goes to show that our present Mipn its guilt or culpability. The words 
pronunciation is correct. Compare literally rendered are, with respect to all 


10 Yet I, Jehovah, am thy God from the land of Egypt ; 
I will still cause thee to dwell in tents as on feast days. 

11 I have spoken to the prophets, 
I have multiplied visions ; 

And through the prophets I have used similitudes. 

Miy tfforU^ they shtUl not find attaching 11. Jehovah adduces a further proof 

to me iniquity which m tin ; and the of the kindness of his disposition towards 

. meaning is, any fraudulent transactions the nation*— the abundant means of in- 

for which I might be punished. ** The struction which he had afforded them ; 

merchant imagines it is not possible to while, at the same time, the language is 

get through business without some'de- so worded as to draw their attention to 

ceit; but he takes care not to commit the messages which the prophets had 

any gross or deadly act of delinquency, delivered. These messages contained 

hoping that God will not be strict m the most powerful dissuasives from idol* 

regard to the rest." — Miehaelit. atiy, and the greatest encouragements 

10. Commentators have been greatly to cleave unto the Lord. ^ in *^1 

divided in opinion as to whether these D>r^rr^, following a verb of announce- 

words are to be taken as a promise, or ment, is equivalent to ^, /o, and is not 

as a threatening. Those who take the to be pressed so as to make it signify 

latter view interpret the living in taber- the coming down or retting of inspiration 

naclea of such a life as those lead who upon the prophets. Comp. Job xxxvi. 

have no settled habitations, like the 33. LXJl. irp3f irpo^rar. If Hosea 

Israelites in the wildeniess, or like those was one of the earliest of the Hebrew 

who assembled at the annual festivals, prophets, whose books are now in our 

and who could only be accommodated hands, reference must here be had to 

in tents without the city. But, though those who had flourished before his 

such exegesis might at first sight seem time, such as Ahijah the Shilonite, She^ 

to suit the connexion, yet there is some- maiah, Iddo, Azariah, Hanani, Jehu, 

thing so forced in comparing a state of Jahasiel, Eliezer, Elijah, Elisha, Mlcaiah, 

captivity to that of the Hebrew nation Joel, and Amoz, not to include the 

during the celebration of the most joyiiil hundred prophets of the Ijord whom 

of all their fefttivals, that I am compelled Obadiah hid in a cave, after Jezebel 

to regard the verse as containmg a had put a number to death. Not only 

promise of what God would still do for had iehovah made numerous communi- 

the Israelites on their repentance and cations of his will through the instru- 

reformation. Those who are familiar mentality of these messengers, but he 

with the sudden and abrupt transitions had employed such modes in making 

which abound in Rosea, and the fre- these communications as were calculated 

qnency with which he intermingles pro- at once to gain and secure attention, 

mises with threatenings, will not be For |^in, see on Is. i. 1. ^>f, from no^, 

surprised at this unexpected assurance to he like, retemble ; in Piel, to Uken, 

of the divine clemency. The argument compare^ employ , timiles, or comparitont ; 

is this : the Israelites have indeed acted or, in general, to use figurative language, 

a most wicked and deceitful part, and In such language, including metaphor, 

justly deserve to be for ever cast off allegory, comparison, prosopopceia, apo- 

from all participation in my favour ; but strophe, hyperbole. Sec. tne prophets 

I am still, what I have been from the abound. They accommodated them- 

beginning of their history, their cove- selves to the capacity and understanding 

nant-God, and will yet cause them to of their hearers by couching the high 

renew their joy before me. That they and important subjects of which they 

were not to enjoy any such privilege in treated under the imagery of sensible 

their apostate condition is taken for objects, and invested them with a degree 

granted. The prombe was fulfilled on of life and energy which could only be 

the return from the captivity, resisted by an obstinate determination 

76 HOSE A. [chap. xii. 

12 Verily Gilead is iniquitous, 
Surely tbey are false : 

In Gilgal they sacrifice oxen ; 
Their altars are like the heaps 
On the ridges of the field. 

13 Jacob fled to the country of Syria ; 
Israel served for a wife ; 

And for a wife he kept the flocks. 

14 By a prophet Jehovah brought Israel up from Egypt, 
And by a prophet he was kept. 

not to listen to religious instructioD. ridffes of a field. In o^}, heapt^ comp.. 

Though n^>f is in the future, it borrows Jo£. vii. 26, there is an obvious refer- 

its temporal signification from the two ence to the name >|^a. Both are derived 

preceding verbs, Tnai and VT^t which from ^|, to roUf roll stones, &c Por 

are in the preterite. ^ ^n, comp. chap. x. 4. 

12. Dt} is not used here as a particle 13, 14. Tlie argument of both these 

expressing doubt ; it rather expresses verses is the same, though it is only in 

the certainty of what is afiumaed, as ^ the latter that it is expressly stated, viz. 

following, evidently shows. The two the divine goodness in preserving Jacob 

places here mentioned were celebrated and his posterihr, God was with the 

in the history of tibe Hebrews : — Gilead, patriarch, accormng to his promise, and 

on account of the solemn agreement protected and prospered him all the time 

which Laban and Jacob entered into he was in servitude in Padan-aram; and 

there with each other; and Gilffol, on he likewise delivered his descendants 

account o£ the general circumcision of from Egyptian bondase, and conducted 

the people, and the solemn observance them s^ely to the land of Canaan, 

of the passover when thev had passed dim, Aranuea, Syria, the high country, 

over Jordan. They are adduced by the from dt\ to be high ; here specially the 

prophet to remind the Israelites of the region between the Euphrates and the 

sacred obligations under which they lay, Tigris, called, on this account, tnrn cni^ 

and the sacred character which, as the Aram of the two rivers, LXX. Mco-o- 

peculiar people of God, they ought ever frorafua, Mesopotamia. Being lower 

to sustain. Pointing, as it were, to the than the rest of Syria on the west, it is 

heap of stones which Jacob had erected here called ^rfip, field, which corresponds 

in testimony of the transaction between to |^, a level or plain. Gen. xlviii. 7 ; 

him and Laban, Hosea asks. Is Gilead hence Padan-aram. ton^, to keep, is 

the scene of iniqui^ ? Are its inhabi- used without Ifia, sheep, in the sense of 

tants actually worshippers of idols? And keeping a flock. See Gen. xxx. 31; 

then he fearlessly charges them with 1 Sam. xvii. 20. To the verb as thus 

idolatry. Both \^ and ^ are specially employed in its literal acceptation, ver. 

used of idols, in order to express their 13, the fifi;urative use in io^, ver. 14, 

nothingness and vanity. The abstract corresponds. The church of God is 

stands for the concrete. By '^\, Oilead, frequently compared to a flock. The 

is meant not merely the place, but its vn^, prophet, here referred to was Moses, 

inhabitants. Comp. for the wickedness who was so kut c^x^''* See Exod. iv. 

of the Gileadites, chap. vi. 8. ^|^s, 15, 16; Numb. xii. 6— -8; Is. Ixiii. 11,12. 

QUaal, had also become desecrated by The repeated reference to the Hebrew 

idolatrous practices, chap. iv. 15, ix. 15, legislator in this character, was evidently 

which abounded to such an extent, that intended to impress the minds of the Is- 

the number of the altars was like that raelites with a conviction of the necessity 

of the heaps of stones which have been of attending to the messages which the 

collected and left in various parts of the Lord sent to them by his prophets. 


15 Eplmdm hath given most bitter provocation, 

Therefore will his Lord leave his blood upon him ; 
And bring back upon him his reproach. 

15. tryn^f lit bUtemesieSf i. e. mo§i By ^nBrvT, his reproaehf is meant the dis- 

bilter, or bUlerly, The object of pro- graceful conduct of the ten tribes in 

Tocation u not expressed, but that it is abandoning the true God, as unworthy 

Jehovah is clear from the following of their service, and transferring it to 

clause. The blood of Ephraim was, in idols. TaiM is the nominative to tmai as 

all probability, that of human victims well as to 3*^ and in our language the 

which had been shed in the service of corresponding term Lord requires to be 

Moloch, y*™^ his Lordy is improperly used before Uie former, and understood 

applied by Horsley to the king of Assyria, before the latter of the two verbs. 


After contrasting the prosperity of the tribe of Ephraim, during the period of its 
obedience to the divine laws, with the adversity which it had suffered in conse- 
quence of idolatry, 1, the prophet proceeds in the same manner, as in the 
preceding chapter, to intermingle brief descriptions of sin and guilt, 2, 6, 9, 12; 
denouncements of punishment, 3, 7, 8, 13, 15, 16; and promises of mercy, 
4, 9, 14. 

1 When Ephraim spake, there was tremour, 
He was exalted in Israel ; 
But he offended through Baal, and died. 

1. Ephraim means here the tribe pro- when Ephraim spake, trembling fell upon 

perly so caUed, in distiucUon from the ^^ ^„^ ^ Tanchum, J A^] 

other tnbes of Israel, mentioned imme- c; i-5^ 

diately after. Such was the power and irjK ^ .tXo. ^JU) , Jji) 

influence which it originally exercised *^ ^ U^'^J^ *^^. LT^'' 

over ihe rest, that they showed it the Ihe meaning is, that men revered him, 

utmost deference, rc^, a ava^ XcycJ- and trembled at his word. The same 

luvov, but obviously cognate with w^ construction is adopted by Jerome, 

p Kimchi, Abarbanel, Munster, Vatablus, 

Jer. xlix. 24, Syr. jfi^Zi, Targ. Mrm}, ciarius, Drusius, Lively, Grotiu^ Ri- 

fear, iren^. In -pococW. Arab. vet^^^Ti^^UcHu.^^ ^^^er^t 

MS. the words are rendered ,^Xc and Hitzig. It is impossible to approve 

. . .. ^ the translation of Ewald : " Wie Efraim 

. i^u)f Ac *fli' JtXcJl ^}y\ L— ^lla>-, redete £mporimg, es atifnihr machte in 

78 HOSEA- [c:iiAr. xiii. 

2 And now they continue to sin^ 

And make for themselves molten images. 
Idols of their silver, according to their skill ; 
All of them the work of artificers ; 
The men that sacrifice, say of them. 
Let them kiss the calves* 

Israel," WhenEphraim gave utterance to Bootbroyd, Noyes, De Wette, Gesenius, 
eedition^ it produced rebellion in Itrael. Maurer, and Ewald. The rule of syntax 
Neither nm nor m^ admit of being so laid down by Gesenius respecting this 
translated. To take n(T? adverbially, mode of constraction, Lebrgeb. p. 678, 
and render it trembUngly, or trembling^ is, that when a genitive foUowmg an 
as in our common version, though it adjective is a noun of multitude, or of 
affords an apt sense in itself, is less the plural number, such adjective is 
suited to the connexion, m^ occurs in particularly used in poetry for the pur- 
the sense of elevating oneself ^ Ps. Ixxxix. pose of designating those of the mul- 
10 ; Nab. i. 5, or being exalted. Hence titude to which Uie specified quality 
M*tp^ a prince, ^ in ^^, has the force belongs. Instances are Is. xxix. 19, 
of, tit union with, in the matter of, and D^ ^^?9i the poor of men, i, e. those of 
marks the participation of the Ephraim- men who are poor ; Mic. v. 5, o^ ^3, 
ites in the service of Baal, mo, to die, the anointed of men, i. e. such of men 
is here to be taken in a civil or political as are anointed. So in the present case, 
sense ; to lose one's influence, necome dim ^, sacrificers of men, i. e. those of, 
subject to misery, punishment, &c. It or among men that sacrifice, which is 
forms an antithesis to Mtoj, to be exalted, merely a periphrasisforprttf^/f. Although, 
No sooner did the Ephraimites forsake thererore, it is a fact, that the ten tribes 
the true God and take up with idols did sacrifice their children to Moloch, 
than he inflicted judgments upon them, 2 Kings xvii. 17, it would be more than 
by which their power was weakened, precarious to draw any such inference 
and at last became entirely extinct — nrom the present passage, especially as 
" ex quo peccavit, nulla jam est auto- Uie prophet mentions the ca/vf«, of wnose 
ritate in populo Dei." CEcolampadius. — worship human sacrifices, so far as we 
" Vita serumnosa et tristis pro morte cen- know, formed no part. )V^ o^* let 
setur ; idcirco exules mortui dicuntur, et them kiss the calves. It was customary 
exilium sepulchri nomine notatur, Ezech. for idolaters to give the kiss of adoration 
cap. 37." Rivetus. to the objects of their worship. This 
2. This verse sets forth their perse- was sometimes done by merely touching 
verance in idolatrous practices, notwith- the lips with the hand, to which reference 
standing the chastisements with which is made Job xxxi. 27. Comp. Lucian 
they had been visited. D^ ^\, the irepl Opx^o-€€»t i. p. 918, edit Bened. 
LXX. Vulg. Jarchi, Abenezra, Abar- Mmutius Felix, cap. 2, ad fin, Apuleius 
banel, Tanchum, Calvin, Piscator, Leo Apol. p. 496. At other times the idol 
Juda, and among the moderns, Schmid, itself was kissed by the worshippers. 
J. H. Michaelis, Horsley, Hitzig, Stuck, Comp. 1 Kings xix. 18. Thus Cicero 
and J. Fr. Schroder, render sacrifice, or tells us, that at Agrigentum in Sicily 
sacrificers of men, on the principle, that there was a brazen image of the Tyrian 
the presentation of human sacrifices is Hercules whose mouth and chin were 
meant. This, however, was called in worn by the kisses of his worship- 
question by Kimchi, who explains, ^3n pers — " non solum id venerari, verum 
Ttyh D^HlTf DIM, the men who come to etiam oscuktri solebant." Act ii. in 
sacrifice. To the same effect Munster, Verrem, lib. iv. cap. 43. Nothing is 
Piscator, Junius and Tremelius, Rivetus, more common in the Russian churches 
Mercer, Glassius, Lively, Drusius, Bo- than for the devotees to kiss the picture 
chart, our own and most of the au- of the Virgin, or of St Nicholas. The 
thorized versions, Lowth, Newcome, construction of the words oniph on onj 


3 Therefore shall they be like the morning cloud, 
And like the dew which early departeth, 

Liike chaff blown by a whirlwind from the threshing-floor, 
And like smoke from the window. 

4 Yet I, Jehovah, have been thy God from the land of Egypt, 
Thou knewest no God besides me ; 

Nor was there any Saviour besides me. 

5 I regarded thee in the wilderness, 
In the land of burning thirst. 

6 As they were fed, so were they satiated ; 

They were satiated, and their heart was lifted up ; 
Therefore they forgat me : 

7 So that I became to them as a lion, 

I watched for them as a leopard by the way. 

8 I met them as a bear bereaved of her cubs> 

p?f! D^. D^? TO* is somewhat difficult. 5. Here *PD^, / knew^ contrasts witli 
As usually divided they are interpreted vn^ in the preceding verse, only it is to 

D79 TOt, the saerificers, as in apposition great thirst, extreme drought, from a«J, 

withy and exegetical of D*Ttjk Dn, they . . « • • • ^^ ^ 

9ay, 1. e. they, the men that sacrifice, ^^^^' S-^^» "''"i/, Comp. anj, to hum, 

say to the people, let them kiss the a « , t ^^ -^^ '^ •j- 

cJtm. Whiie tL priests presented the ^^^- S-^' «'•*"' """*> «" '""'• 

sacrifices, they encouraged the worship- Munster renders, '< terra siti ardente." 

pers to come forward and kiss the objects Comp. Deut. viii. 15. 

of their adoration. 6. on'Spipd, according to their feeding, 

3. Comp. chap. vi. 4. \^ the threshing i.e. in proportion to their enjoyment of 

fooT, being an open area, generally on the provision which I made for them, 

an eminence, was peculiarly exposed to feeding them with manna from heaven, 

the wind, which carried off the chaff, on and d'terwards abundantly supplying 

its bein^ trodden out, or separated from their wants. It is equivalent to, << as 

the gram. n|^, A^. atr6 Karappaicrov, they were fed." For the rest of the 

which Jerome explams, "foramen in pa- verse comp. Deut. xxzii. 13 — 15. 

riete fabricatum per quod fumus egrer 7, 8. ^ m ^n^ is inferential, showing 

ditur;" Symm. ovfjg, oiri^, an orifice ; that what follows was the result of what 

Theod. Kawovhoxqvy a hole for the pas- is stated in the preceding verse. The 

sage of smoke. It is very common in context requires the verb to be taken in 

the East for the light to be admitted, the past time. The images here em- 

and the smoke to make its escape by ployed are of frequent occurrence, 

the same passage or orifice in the wall. Comp. Job x. 16; Ps. vii. 2; Is. xxxviii. 

The idea of a speedy removal is that 13; Lam. iii. 10 iipj, the leopard, so 

conveyed by all the images here em- called from his spots or streaks, Arab* 

'''Tcomp. chap. xii. 10. Tlie long J^' '»««^'" /»«. "w«^" p«nrti«,* 

addition in the LXX. is totally unsup- respersus fuit ; pardux. See Jer. xiii. 23, 

ported, and was most probably inserted vrnrjan no: ^t^. 'I'he leopard is noted 

in that version by some scholiast. for his swiftness, ferocity, and especially 

80 HOSE A. [chap. xiir. 

And rent the caul of their heart ; 
I devoured them there, as a lioness ; 
The wild beast rent them in pieces. 
9 O Israel ! Thou hast destroyed thyself. 
Nevertheless in me truly is thine help. 

10 Where is thy king now ? 

That he may save thee in all thy cities ; 
And thy judges, of whom thou saidst, 
Give me a king and princes. 

11 I gave thee a king in mine anger, 
And took him away in my wrath. 

his cruelty to man. He lurks in the xliv.21. Newcome unwarrantably adopts 
dense thicket of the wood, and springs the rendering of the Syriac, " I have 
with great velocity on his victim. With destroyed thee." Most of the moderns 
respect to the bear, Jerome remarks, give a hostile sense to the i in the fol- 
** Aiunt, qui de bestiarum scripsere na- lowing ^[^} % against tne, against thy 
turis, inter omnes feras nihil esse ursa help; but, considering how frequently 
ssevius, quum perdiderit catulos vel declarations of kindness are mixed up 
indignerit cibis. 3^ being of common with charges of evil, and that some verb 
gender, the participle V^ is put in the denoting rebellion would be required to 
inascidine, tnough the female bear is support such construction, it seems pre- 
meant. Comp. o^^^ ^V^^ Ps. cxliv. feraole to give to ^ the common adver- 
14. ^^39 is the pericardium, or mem- sative signification of yet, nevertheless, 
brane which contains the heart in its and to regard the ^ in ^f^^ as the Beth 
cavity, and is thus fitly called its ffit- J^Menfkr, which renders the phrase much 
closure. For "mi^, / watched, sixteen of more emphatic than the pronoun, or the 
De Rossi's MSS. and one in the margin, substantive verb would have done. It 
three ancient editions, and twenty-four is equivalent to. In me is thy real help, 
others, the LXX. Syr. Vulg. and Arab. Other sources may be applied to, and 
read 'nt^, Assyria, which some prefer, they may promise thee assistance; but 
on account of the number of lions, from me alone efficient aid is to be ex- 
panthers, tigers, &c. with which the pected, and in me it is sp be found. So 
regions of southern Asia abound. The our translators. See on Is. xxvi. 4. 
text would then read, as a leopard, in This exegesis is strongly supported, if 
the way to Assyria ; but the common not rendered absolutely necessary, by the 
reading is more in accordance with the pointed interrogations in the following 
spirit of the passage. verse. The LX A. rU Porf0^a'€i ; turning 
9. «|nn^, I take to be a noun with ^ into ^, and omittine the second ^ 
the suffix, thy destruction ! i. e. the de- altogether. Thus also t£e ^yr. 
struction is tlnne own; thou hast brought 10, 11. tm is in all probability a me- 
it upon thyself by thy sins. It is, tathesis for rPH, where ? It is thus 
therefore, equivalent to " thou hast de- rendered by the LXX. Syr. Vulg. Targ. 
stroyed thyself," and cannot be better Abulwalid, Tanchum, Luther, Drusius, 
rendered. Thus the Vulg. Perditio tua, Mercer, Osiander, Rivetus, Castalio, and 
Israel. Dathe, Ipsi estis Israelite ! by most modem expositors. It is also 
exitu vestri causa. Some, however, as so taken by Gesenius, Lee, Winer, and 
Kimchi, supply bysfn^ the calf ; others, Fiirst; and alone suits the connexion. 
?|3^, thy king, from the following verse ; Comp. in support of this interpretation, 
others, some other noun; and take tst^ the combination MiB^ n;^, Jud. ix. 38 ; 
to be the third person singular of Piel. Job xvii. 15 ; Is. xix. 12. One of 
Comp. for the form oV^, Deut. xxxii. 35; Kennicott's MSS. and perhaps another, 
'^,, Jer. v. 13; *^'^, Hos. i. 2; "y^., Jer. one of De Rossi's in the margin, read 


12 The guilt of Ephraim is bound up. 
His punishment is laid up in store. 

13 The pangs of a woman in labour shall come upon him ; 
He is an unwise son, 

Otherwise he would not remain long 

In the place of the breaking forth of children. 

14 I will deliver them from the power of Sheol ; 
I will redeem them from death : 

ny instead of *n^, though probably by the mother, or other causes, is detained 

correction. Another of De Rossi's has in its passage from the womb. The 

a note in the margin, stating that the LXX. ovrot 6 vlos frov 6 (bpdvifios has 

word is so explained. The ^ in ^pipB^ doubtless originally been ovrog 6 vlos 

is pleonastic, except it be regarded as ov Apovi/jLos. *9 introduces the contrary 

introducing the apodosis. ]^ is so in* of tne preceding proposition, and is used 

timately connected with the past trans- elliptically for the sentence, " For if it 

actions implied in "Vrnn IT)QM, thou saitUtf were not so," &c. It may best be ren- 

^ve me, that, though future in form, it dered into English by otherwise, else, or 

cannot with any propriety be rendered the like. TXf, time, is here to be taken 

otherwise than in the preterite. Some adverbially, in the sense of for a time, 

refer the circumstances here mentioned long, &c. AViner, aliquod tempus, cUi- 
to the selection and removal of Saulj j- /> ^i. a i. ^. 

but it is more in keeping with the ^««'»<*««- Comp. the Arab. ^j. when 

^SStSlSirttr^b^J usedinoppcitionto^,. ^ the 

his successors in the regal dignity ; and os uteri. Comp. 2 Kings xix. 3 ; Is.' 

that the removal regards the frequent xxxvi. 3, Ixvi. 9. Without a national 

changes which took place in the history iroXtyyfvccrta, no prosperity could be 

of the Israelitish kings, which proved a expected. It was ror tlie Israelites by 

source of great calamity to the nation, true repentance to accelerate and ensure 

See 2 Kings xv. their deliverance from threatened de- 

12. The metaphors are here borrowed struction, and their enjoyment of a new 
from the custom of tying up money in period of peace and happiness. 

bags, and depositing it in some secret 14. The ideas of Sheol and Death 

place, in order that it might be pre- were naturally suggested by the perilous 

served. The certainty of punishment circumstances described in the preceding 

is the idea conveved by them. Comp. verse. Extinction as a people is there 

for die former, Job xiv. 17 ; and for the apprehended. Here it is viewed as 

latter Deut. xxxii. 34, Job. xxi. 19. having already taken place ; and a 

13. Another instance of two meta- gracious promise is given of the resto- 
phors closely connected, the transition ration of the Israelites, and the complete 
from the one to the other of which is, in destruction of the enemies by wnom 
the manner of the Orientals, rapid and they had been carried into captivity, 
unexpected. See Dathe's very judicious 1^, from the hand, a common Hebraism 
note. It is not unusual in Scripture to for from the power, rn^ properly sig- 
compare the calamities of a people to nifies to redeem, or buy loose, by the 
Uie sorrows of childbirth. In addition paymetit of a price ; ^, to avenge the 
to this the danger and folly of Ephraim murder of a relative, and also to recover 
in protracting repentance, in the midst or redeem property by repayment. Both 
of the afflictive circumstances in which verbs, however, are used in a more ex- 
he was placed, is fitly compared to the tended signification, and especially in 
extremely critical condition of a child reference to the deliverance of the 
on the point of being born, but, owing Hebrews from Egypt, and from the 
to the want of strength on the part of captivity in Babylon. That ^^, Sheol, 


82 HOSEA. [chap. xiii. 

Where is thy destruction, O Death ? 
Where is thine excision, O Sheol ? 
Repentance is hid from mine eyes. 

and rrfQj Death, are here to be taken in words as occurring in Hosea, and, under 

a figurative sense, with application to the influence of strong emotioUi he 

the state of the Israelites in the Assyrian commences his quotation with viKot 

and Babylonish captivity, deprived as prominently in his mind. Olshausen 

they were of all political existence, and thinks vikos is a later form for vixtf. 

subject to the most ffrievous calamities, „ ^ .^^ * i . t ♦• ^ ^ ^ ^ 

the exigency of the pissage imperatively «^«' ^ A'^^' S--J^' '^ «"; «** ^f' 

demands. Comp. Is. xxvi. 19. Re- destroy. That i^^ is the genuine read- 

specting ^ interpreters are far from ing, and that ||Q^, a goad, which some 

being agreed. Symm. the Vulg. Coveiv would substitute for it, in order to make 

dale, Drusius, Tingstadius, Horsley, the Hebrew correspond to Kivrpov, is to 

Dathe, Kuinoel, De Wette, Noyes, be rejected, may very conclusively be 

Rosenmiiller, Hesselberg, and Maurer, gathered from the similar occurrence of 

take it to be the first person future of the words "t^^ and ^n^ together, Ps. xci. 

the substantive verb >T^, to he ; whereas 6. Comp. Deut xxxii. 24. The import 

the LXX. Aq. the fifth edition, (Paul, of this animated apostrophe, as used 

1 Cor. XV. 55,) Syr. Arab. Abulwalid, both by Jehovah in Uie prophet, and by 

Tanchura, Junius and Tremellius, Mer- the apostle, is, Where are now the efiects 

cer, Newcome, Boothroyd, Ewald, and of the destructive influence which you 

Hitzig, consider it to be used as in ver, have exerted? Your victims are reca- 

10, for 7T!9, iroO, fe;Aer«f With the latter vered from your dominion: they are 

authorities I concur, partly on the ground alive again, and shall no more be subject 

that it is not likely the prophet would to your power. The speakers place 

employ the same word in the same form themselves as it were in tne period after 

in two different acceptations in verses the resurrection : the former in that 

10 and 14 ; and partly because I find after the restoration from Babylon ; the 

^ nowhere used absolutely as an apo- other in that after the literal restoration 

copated future ; but always with the of the dead to life at the last day. Both 

Vau conversive prefixed. See for the look back, and triumphantly exult over 

full form rpTM, cnap. xiv. 6. To which the conquerors. With respect to the 

add, that the interrogation is more in appropriation of the words by the 

keeping with the animated style of the apostle in reference to the doctrine of 

passage. Instead of the plural ^p3^, the final resurrection, it appears to be 

My <2e«/rtic/iofw, one hundred and twenty- made, not in the way of proof, but 

two MSS., originally five more, now two^ merely to give expression, in the trium- 

and four of the early editions, read ^^, phant language of the prophet, to the 

ihy destruction^ in the singular. *^7, animated feelings which had taken pos- 

Arab, -^, deuth; specially the plague, Bewion of his breast. His direct quo- 

J* r .r J- ^ 7 ^^QQ iQ ^Q ^gy ^f argument is made 

pestilence ; the awful destruction of from Is. xxv. 8, and consists of the 
Auman life effected by it. Hence the words, xarnro^ o Bavaros tU pikos* 
LXX. mostly render it Sdyaros; here It would, therefore, be improper to 
bUtf, but in ail probability originally identify the subject of which he treats 
viKfj, for which Paul reads vUcs, only with uiat treated of by our prophet 
transposing vUos and Kivrpov, by which " Neque enim ex professo semper tocos 
latter term the LXX. render 3^, ex- adducunt apostoli, qui toto eontexto ad 
cufofi, cutting off, destruction. The cause insUtutum quod tractant pertineant : sed 
of this transposition is obvious. The int^dum alludunt ad unum verbum 
apostle had just quoted the passage in duntaxat, aliquando aptant locum ad 
Isaiah, agreeably to the version of sententiam per similitudinem, aliquando 
Theodotion, in which vUot occurs, abhibent testimonia. — Atqui satis con- 
whereby he was reminded of the same stat, PaiUum illo 15 cap. 1 ad Corinth 


15 Though he be fruitful among his bretliren, 
Yet an east vind, a wind of Jehovah , 
Shall come up from the desert, 

And dry up his fountain ; 

And his spring shall become dry : 

He shall spoil the treasure of all pleasant vesselp. 

16 Samaria shall be punished, 

Because she hath rebelled against her God : 

They shall fall by the sword ; 

Their infants shall be dashed in pieces^ 

And their pregnant women shall be ripped up. 

Don citasse prophet89 testimoniam ad of a spring and a fountain, which natu- 

confirmandum illam doctrinam de qua rally suggest the idea of a tree, the roots 

disserit." Calvin in loc. See also of which are plentifully supplied by 

Horsley's critical note, orr's, LXX. vra- their water. For C3^1^, see on chap. zii. 

^^^ 2, and Is. xxvii. 8. rts\\ vpc\ like «5h 

pdkXrifriSt Syr. lL»aO» Vulg. consolatio; D^, Job i. 19, is the genitive of cause, 

' a wind caused, sent by, or proceeding 

bat r^/Teyitonce better suits the connexion, from Jehovah; not ** a great wind," as 

It expresses the immutability of the some interpret. The Assyrian army is 

divine purpose, which had the deliver- meant. noQ)^ mrr, ffe, i. e. the Assyrian, 

ance of his people for its object. Conip. couched under the metaphor of the 

Rom. xi. 29. Horsley strangely refers destructive wind, shall plunder every 

the repentance to man, and not to valuable article belonging to the Is- 

God. raelites 

15. This and the following verse set 10. [Chap. xiv. 1.] This verse begins 
forth the devastation and destruction of the following chapter in the Hebrew 
the kingdom of the ten tribes, which Bible, but it more intimately coheres 
was to precede the deliverance promised with the preceding context, ^rt^, LXX. 
in that which precedes. While the a.<l>api<r$i)<r€TaL,\\i\g. pereat. The word 
promise was designed to afford conso- signifies to be guilty of crime, and to be 
lation to the pious, and encouragement treated om guilty, to t^er punishment, 
to the penitent, the threatening was be punished. Samaria, as the metropolis, 
equally necessary for the refractory and and the source of all the calamities 
profane, mn, he, refers to Ephraim, which were coming upon the Israelites, 
ver. 12. Mncr an asra^ Xcy. but obvi- is put as representing the whole nation ; 
ously equivalent to nncr, the Hiphil of but not to ttie exclusion of the peculiarly 
TrfB, to be fruitful. It is here used with severe punishment which the inhabitants 
special reference to the name of DTT^y of that city had to expect nitp, some 
being the root whence it is derived, and render to embitter, provoke bitterly ; but 
not improbably exhibits m instead of n, rebelling, resisting, striking against any 
because it forms the first letter of the one, are the ideas more properly con- 
noun. The tribe of £phraim was the veyed by the verb. Thus the LXX. 
most numerous in regard to population, ai/reon; n-pop r6v Oeop avr^s. The 
and was for a time in the most flourish- addition of the affix in •7*7^) '* her 
ing circumstances. That such is the God," gives great emphasis in such con- 
signification of the verb, and that it is nexion. Comp. chap. xii. 10, xiii. 4. 
not to be rendered divide or separate, as The aggravations of sin are increased 
in the ancient and several of the modem by the relations sustained by the sin- 
versions, nor act like a wUd ass, which ner. For the concluding portion of the 
others exhibit, appears from the mention verse, comp. 2 Kings vih. 12, xv. 16; 

84 HOSEA. [chap, xiv. 

Amofli.l3. That such cruelties were not and Horace, Carm. iv. Ode 6. The 
unknown among other nations, see Iliad construction w^J mV^ is ad seruumy 
vi. 58 : — though not according to the strict rule 

of grammar, and may have been occa- 

firj^ oTiva yaaripi lufrrjp sioned by the form of w5wt immediately 

Kovpoy lovra (jifpoif /ii/d* or <f>vyoi* ; — preceding. 


This chapter contains an urgent call to repentance, the supplication and confession 
expressive of which are put in a set form of words into the mouths of the 
penitents, 1 — 3. To encourage them thus to return to God, he makes the most 
gracious promises to them, 4 — 7 ; their entire abandonment of idolatry is then 
predicted, and the divine condescension and goodness are announced, 8 ; and 
the whole concludes with a solemn declaration, on the part of the prophet, 
respecting the opposite consequences that would result from attention or in- 
attention to his message. 

1 Return, O Israel ! to Jehovah thy God ; 
For thou hast fallen by thine iniquity. 

2 Take with you words, and return to Jehovah ; 
Say to him, 

Forgive all iniquity, and graciously receive us. 
Then we will render to thee the calves of our lips. 

1, 2. The n of direction in the im- to perform,** though sound divinity, is 

perative rOTS) is, as usual, intensive, equally indefensible on the ground of 

marking a strong desire on the part of pnilology. l^Q is used adverbially, be^ 

the speaker that the action expressed by nigney in bonam partem ; and the mean- 

the verb might take place. For the ing is, graciously receive us back into 

emphasis attaching to ttie affix in ^^, thy favour. With respect to the inters 

" thy God," see on chap. xiii. 16. mc3 position of the verb H^n, between % and 

}^ is a phrase of such frequent occur- |^, it may be observed, that it is not a 

rence with the meaning to pardon ini- solitary instance of such construction. 

quityf that it is surprising how Horsley See on Is. xix. 8, and comp. Job xv. 10. 

could insist upon its meaning to ** take D^, calves or buUocks, used here me- 

away the sinful principle within us — ^the taphorically for victinu, sacrifices. The 

carnal heart of the old Adam." His word occurring in the absolute form, 

construction of lis n|7, <' accept as good, some render U'njptp tr%, btdlocks our Ups^ 

what, so regenerate, we shall be enabled as if the two nouns were in apposition ; 


3 Assyria shall not save us ; 
We will not ride upon horses ; 

Neither will we say any more, " Our gods," 

To the work of our hands : 

For by thee the destitute is pitied. 

4 I will heal their apostasy ; 
I will love them freely ; 

For my anger is turned away from them. 

5 I will be as the dew to Israel ; 

but there are instances of nouns thus parallels fully corresponding to it are 

put, which cannot be explained other- Ps. 11. 15 — 17, Ixix. 31, 32. 

wise than in the construct, as to sense. 3. Three of the sins to which the ten 

Thus Deut xxxiii. 1 1, TJ^ ^.^, the tribes were specially prone are here im- 

h)m» of those who oppose him ; Jud. v. plied : dependence upon the aid of the 

13, ^ DT9:*) the princes of the people ; Assyrians ; application to Egypt for 

Prov. xxii. 21, n9M onoH, words of truth, horses, in direct violation of the divine 

Gesenius supposes the governing noun command^ Deut xvii. 16; Is. xxxi. 1; 

to be mentally repeated, and that the and idolatry. These they now for ever 

lull form would be u^roto rv? on^, bullocks, renounce, and avow their determination 

the bullocks of our lips. Such construe- henceforth to trust in Jehovah alone; 

tion in full he adduces in the instance adding as the reason of such determi- 

Exod. xxxviii. 21, mirn |3^ ll^?) the nation, the experience which they had 

tabemaclei the tabernacle of testimony, had of the divine favour in time of need. 

Some woidd change on^ into ^, frutt, t^ is here used in a causal sense, 

on the ground of the reading found in because, for, forasmuch as. Comp. Gen* 

the LX A. avTowodmfxtv Kopnov x^*^^*^^ xxxi. 29 ; Eccles. iv. 9. dVi^, orphan, 

jjfuiVf which is followed by the Syr. and is applied in this place metaphorically 

Arab, and is supposed to have been to the unprotected and destitute circum- 

borrowed by the apostle, Heb. xiii. 15. stances in which the Israelites had been, 

There is, however, no variety in the while in a state of separation from the 

Hebrew MSS. ; while the Targum and Lord. 

all the other authorities support the 4. Di^TSto is not, with Horsley, to be 

textual reading. The LXX. have com- rendered *' their conversion,*' but their 

mitted a similar mistake in rendering apostasy. See on chap. xi. 7. nii^, Ht. 

nne, her bullocks, roxis Kopirovs a^Trjf, spontaneousness, willingness, is used ad- 

her fruits, Jer. 1. 27. The conjecture of verbially for willingly, liberally, freely. 

Pococke, that they used Kapirds in the t* • j • j r ^*, a u . » * 

J * -I,: u X«« «.^«i«« It w denved from ana, Arab. i.,j^ 

sense of Kapircafia, which they employ -^* ^T^'^t 

to express sacrifice, oblation, &c., is instigavit, in^uUt ad aliquid ; agilis in 

less probable. See the important note conficienda re promptusque vir; gene^ 

of Horsley. The prophet's meaning is, rosus ; and is expressive of the free, 

We will render, in grateful return for unmerited, and abundant love of God 

thy forgiving and restoring mercy^ the towards repentant sinners. ^Q, " from 

only sacrifices worthy of it — our tribute him," i.e. Israel, the collective noun, 

of thanksgiving and praise. For such ver. 2, resolved by the Syr. Lat and 

use of D^, to requite, render back, other translators into a plural. 

comp. Ps. Ivi. 12, ^ ^^^^n D-?^, / wiU 5, 6. The love of God to his people, 

render thanks unto thee : so that the and its effects in their happy experience, 

construction proposed by some, *' we will are here couched in similes borrowed 

offer the sacrifices which our lips have from the vegetable kingdom. The dew 

vowed," cannot be regarded as unex- is very copious in the East, and, by its 

ceptionable, even if it were in keeping refreshing and Quickening virtue, sup- 

with the spirit of the passage. The only plies the place of more frequent rains in 

86 HOSE A, [chap. xiv. 

He shall blossom as the lily, 
And strike his roots like Lebanon. 

6 His suckers shall spread forth, 

And his beauty shall be as the olive tree. 
And his fragrance as Lebanon. 

7 They that dwell under his shade shall revive as the com, 
And shoot forth as the vine : 

Their fame shall be as the wine of Lebanon. 

8 Ephraim shall say, 

What have I any more to do with idols ? 

other countries. Kimchi thinks that %he Lebanon, on account of the number of 
constancy with which ^e dew falls is odoriferous trees and plants with which 
the point here more specially referred it abounds. In these verses, the render- 
to, and to which the divine blessing is ing/ran^ceiwtf, which Newcome prefers 
compared, rm^, UlUs, abound in Pa- to LebanoHf b not to be admitted, 'ilie 
lestine, even' apart from cultivation, stability, extension, glory, and loveliness 
There are two kmds : the common lily, of the church of God are forcibly set 
which is perfectly white, consisting of forth, 

six leaves, opening like bells ; and what 7. The Israelites are represented as 
, „. nlVi^ ^ ji again enjoying the protection of the 
the Syrians call Va^ifi ^^ <*« llost Highf and afforLg the most con- 
royal Uly, the stem of which is about the vincing proofs of prosperity. Wb is 
size of a finger in thickness, and which used as auxiliary to rm ; both verbs, in 
grows to the height of three and four such connexion, signifying nothing more 
feet, spreading its flowers in the most than revive^ thrive again, or the like, 
beautiful and engaging manner. Com p. The pronominal affix in ^^, Aw «Aac2e, 
Matt. vi. 29. To these productions the refers to Jehovab ; but in V91, Aw eele- 
moral beauty of regenerated Israel is brity^ fame, to Israel, understood, as 
very aptly compared. For Lebanon, see before, collectively, but best rendered in 
on Is. X. 34. The mountain stands here the plural. S^^ '2^, the construct with 
by metonymy for the trees which grow the preposition, as in ^3 ^n, Ps. ii. 12. 
upon it, such as the celebrated cedars, Modem travellers concur in their high 
whose roots striking far in depth and commendations of the excellence of the 
length into the ground, give them a wines of Lebanon. Von Troil, in par- 
firmness which no storms can shake, ticular, says, ** On this mountain are 
The ideas of strength and stability are very valuable vineyards, in which the 
those conveyed by the simile, whether most excellent wine is produced; such 
we refer the roots to the trees, or, meta- as^ I have never drunk in any country, 
phorically, to the mountain itself; but though in the course of fourteen years 
the amplification in the following verse I have travelled through many, and 
renders the former the preferable con- tasted many good wines." 
struction. ^ is oflen used, not merely 8. Several interpreters take O!^ to 
of continued, but of increased action, be in the vocative case, but, as it seems 
and here denotes to spread out as the harsh to refer the words immediately 
suckers or small branches of trees. The following to Jehovah, it is better to 
olive is frequently referred to, on account regard it as a nominative absolute, and 
of its beautiful green, and the pleasing to supply '^'^ thus : — As for Ephraim — 
ideas associated with its produce. Though the tribe distinguished above all the rest 
the former only is expressed, yet the for it3 addictedness to idolatry, and the 
idea of fragrance is implied, only it is fit representative of the whole people— 
with the strictest propriety extended in his language in future shall be, &c. 
the following clause to the whole of For % to me, the LXX. read % to Aim, 


I have answered him, and will regard him ; 
I am like a green cypress ; 
From me thy fruit is found. 
9 Who is wise, that he may understand these things ; 
Prudent, that he may know them ? 
For the ways of Jehovah are right ; 
The righteous shall walk in them ; 
But the rebeUious shall stumble in them. 

which facilitates the constructiony and Ephraim. I am like a green cypress. 
is adopted by £wald, but without suf- God. From me is thy fruit found. 
fident authority. 'SJ, /. i» not without g ^^^^^ ^^ f^^ ^ ., ^^ 

«npha«> in this connexion, in which c„„„i„i„„ ^ the whole book. Ae in- 

menbon la made of idols, -mi signifies jerrogation is employed for the purpose 

tovtewmth regard and cart, care for. of excitement, anS t6 give energ^ to the 

n^eh ever. Every provision should ^^^^^^ conveyed. It is worthy of re- 

henceforth he made for the protection ^^^ ^^ ^^^ .^ ^^^ ^^j ^^^ f^ ^^.^^ 

£ ^r'wiA 'T^ 'mLV« *" P^'P^'^' -• ^XriskUau., or 

M« vy//>cw, niu> <u> •«• u»u o-.. lou ^ svnonvmous term, m the course of 

ever-green appearance, not being a j,./ ^J^^^/^j prophecies. So awfully 

fruit-bewing tree, it is added w"h «n- j^ j were the times in which he 

gular effect, that m this respect there ,j^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ character had dis- 

ezisted a difference between Ae object ,ed. The contrasted characters 

and the sulnect of the metaphor. The ^^ij ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^.^^^ 

children of I»ael should not only enjoy ^ .^^^^ ^^ affectiig. *J, to uuOk, 

protection and refreshment as the result ,ig„*fleahere«.oo /om«^rf Jo^pw-owfo; 

of the dmne favour, but neh supplies ^ ^^ »tumbU, i, as to faU to one's 

of spintud provision for their support . .* ^j „j^; ^„ 

Sucu supphes were to be found m God '' ^ 

alone. Manger thinks there is here a " anfractu et libera ab omni 

dialogistic parallelism, which he exhibits Hanc Justus teret, hoc semper se in calle 

thus : — tenebit, 

Felicique gradu ad requiem contendat 

Ephraim. What have I forther to do ^^ defectores videas impingere in 

with idols? iiadem 

God. I have answered him, and wUl Exitiumque sibi factis properare sce- 

jegard him. l^g^j^^.. RiUerihunus, 



We possess no further knowledge of Joel than what is furnished 
by the title of his book, or may be gathered from circumstances 
incidentally mentioned in it. That he lived in Judah^ and^ in all 
probability, at Jerusalem, we may infer from his not making the 
most distant reference to the kingdom of Israel; while, on the 
other hand, he speaks of Jerusalem, the temple, priests, ceremonies, 
&c. with a familiarity which proves them to have been before his 

With respect to the age in which he flourished, opinions have 
differed. Bauer places him in the reign of Jehoshaphat ; Credner, 
Winer, Krahmer, and Ewald, think he lived in that of Joash; 
Vitringa, Carpzov, Moldenhauer, Eichhom, Holzhausen, Theiner, 
Rosenmiiller, Kiiobel, Hengstenberg, Gesenius, and De Wette, in 
that of Uzziah ; Steudel and Bertholdt in that of Hezekiah ; 
Tamovius and Eckermann assign the period of his activity to the 
days of Josiah ; while the author of Sedar 01am, Jarchi, Drusius, 
Newcome, and Jahn, are of opinion that he prophesied in the 
reign of Manasseh. The most probable hypothesis is, that his 
predictions were delivered in the early days of Joash ; that is, 
according to Credner, B.C. 870 — 865. No reference being made 
to the Babylonian, the Assyrian, or even the Syrian invasion, and 



the only enemies of whom mention is made being the Phoenicians, 
Philistines, Edomites, and Egyptians, it seems evident that Joel was 
unacquainted with any but the latter. Had he lived after the 
death of Joash, he could scarcely have omitted to notice the 
Syrians when speaking of hostile powers, since they not only 
invaded the land, but took Jerusalem, destroyed the princes, and 
carried away immense spoil to Damascus, 2 Chron. xxiv. 23, 24. 
The state of religious affairs as presented to view in the book is 
altogether in favour of this position. No mention is made of 
idolatrous practices ; while, on the contrary, notwithstanding the 
guilt which attached to the Jews, on account of which Jehovah 
brought judgments upon the land, the principles of the theocracy 
are supposed to be maintained; the priests and people are re- 
presented as being harmoniously occupied with the services of 
religion ; and Jerusalem, the temple and its worship, appear in a 
flourishing condition. Now this was precisely the state of things 
during the high-priesthood of Jehoiada, through whose influence 
Joash had been placed upon the throne. See 2 Ejngs xi. 17, 18, 
xii. 2 — 16; 2 Chron. xxiv. 4—14. It will follow that Joel is the 
oldest of all the Hebrew prophets whose predictions have come 
down to us. 

The delivery of his prophecy was occasioned by the devastations 
produced by successive swarms of locusts, and by an excessive 
drought which pervaded the country, and threatened the inhabi- 
tants with utter destruction. This calamity, however, was merely 
symbolical of another, and a more dreadful scourge — the invasion 
of the land by foreign enemies, on which the prophet expatiates 
in the second chapter. In order that such calamity might be 
removed, be is conunissioned to order an universal fast, and call 
all to repentance and humiliation before God ; to announce as 
consequent upon such repentance and humiliation, a period of 
great temporal prosperity; to predict the effusion of the Holy 
Spirit at a future period of the history of his people ; to denounce 
judgments against their enemies; and to foretel their restoration 
from the flnal dispersion. 

In point of style Joel stands preeminent among the Hebrew 
prophets. He not only possesses a singular degree of purity, but 


is distinguished by his smoothness and fluency ; the animated and 
rapid character of his rhythmus ; the perfect regularity of his 
parallelisms ; and the degree of roundness which he gives to his 
sentences. He has no abrupt transitions, is everywhere connected, 
and finishes whatever he takes up. In description he is graphic 
and perspicuous ; in arrangement lucid ; in imagery original, 
copious, and varied. In the judgment of Ejiobel, he most re- 
sembles Amos in regularity, Nahum in animation, and in both 
respects Habakkuk; but is surpassed by none of them. That 
what we now possess is all he ever wrote, is in the highest degree 
improbable : on the contrary, we should conclude from the culti- 
vated character of his language, that he had been accustomed to 
composition long before he penned these discourses. Whatever 
degree of obscurity attaches to his book, is attributable to our 
ignorance of the subjects of which it treats, not to the language 
which he employs. 


After summoning attention to the unexampled plague of locusts with which the 
country had heen visited, 2 — 4, the prophet excites to repentance by a de- 
scription of these insects, 5 — 7, and of the damage which they had done to the 
fields and trees, 8 — 12; calls the priests to institute a solemn season for fasting 
and prayer, 13, 14; and bewails, by anticipation, a more awful visitation from 
Jehovah, 15, while he further describes the tremendous effects of the calamity 
under which the country was suffering, 16 — 20. 

1 The word of Jehovah which was communicated to Joel^ the son of 

Pethuel : 

2 Hear this, ye aged men ! 

Give ear, all ye inhabitants of the land ! 
Did such as this happen in your days. 
Or, in the days of your fathers ? 

3 Tell your children of it, 

And let your children tell their children, 
And their children another generation. 

1. !»«rmnMTW, the more usual in- LXX. Ba6ovrj\ Pethuel, the father of 

troductory formula employed to express our prophet was, we are not informed, 

the communication of aivme revelations The introduction of his name was ne- 

to the prophets, or the divinely inspired cessary in order to distinguish the 

matter which they were commissioned present Joel from others of the same 

to teach. Comp. Hos. i. 1 ; Mic. i. 1 ; name, and cannot be admitted in proof 

Zeph. i. 1 ; Mai. i. 1. The name ^, of his having been a prophet or some 

Joel, Jerome interprets apxofitvo^, id person of eminence. It was common 

est incipiens, referring it to the verb ^, among the Hebrews, as it still is among 

which signifies to begin; but, that he the Orientals, to add the name of the 

was not ignorant of another derivation father to that of the son. 

18 evident from his commentary, in 2, 3. These verses contain an ani- 

which, after giving incipient, he adds, mated introduction to the following 

vel ett Deus, It is, however, beyond subject, nkft, properly this, the femi- 

all doubt compounded of njrp, in one of nine according to the Hebrew idiom 

its more contracted forms, and ^, and being used for the neuter, but it occurs 

signifies, Jehovah w God, Who ^fvid, here elliptically for nt^, like Ihis, such, 

CHAP. I.] JOEL. 93 

4 That which the gnawing locust hath left. 
The swarming locust hath devoured ; 
And that which the swarming locust hath left, 

the like^ and refers to the astounding the name of ^ry//f, which includes the dif- 
calamity of the locusts ahout to he de- ferent species, from the common grass- 
scribed. vpQ and Yf^ frequently occur hopper to the devouring locust of the 
as parallel initiatives in Hebrew poetry. East. The largest of the latter is about 
See Gen. iv. 23 ; Deut. xxui. 1 ; Is. i. 2. three inches in length ; has two anteunse. 
For the latter verb, yfffi^ is sometimes or horns, about an inch long, and two 
used. See Is. xxviii. 23; Mic. i. 2. wings,which, with their cases, are applied 
D^ is here to be understood, not in the obliquely to the sides of the body when 
official sense of elders, but in that of in repose. The feet have only three 
<iged men, as the connexion shows, joints, but are six in number. The two 
Those who were most advanced in years, nind ones are much larger than the rest, 
and might be expected to have their and are formed for leaping The locusts 
memories stored with ancient occur- are of different colours, brown, my, and 
rences, are appealed to for a parallel to spotted. In all stages, from the larvee 
the case referred to. Comp. DeuL xxxii. to the perfect insect, the locusts are her- 
7 ; Job xxxii. 7. n\3^ is often used in bivorous, and do immense injury to vege* 
the sense of ancesiors, forefathers, n in tation. The subject, so far as it occurs 
•T^, like rtth, refers to the plaeue of in Scripture, may be said to have been 
locusts. D79 '3^ children's chil£'en, is almost exhausted by the learned Bochart, 
not unfreauent, but the language here in his Hierozoicon, Pars Post. Lib. iv. 
employed oy Joel is cumulative neyond cap. i. — viii. The fourth chapter he 
example. specially devotes to the explanation of 

« Et nati natorum, et qui naseentur *« Pf"^** «,f~J; S«e "Js" <Ed- 

^ "% ^ f% ' 'A Credners Joel. Xne first name, du, 

'"* Zt^l ' ^'' YLTl7'^oi «<^<^"™ ^""^y ^^'^ ^"^ Amos iv. 9, and is 

y€,.«VTflt. Ihad XX. 308. ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^X. Kdii,nri ; and by 

4. The plague, which occasioned the the Vul^. sruca, caterpillar. This in- 

foUowing discourses of the prophet, is terpretation is supported by the Targ. 

now described in terse, though repe- h^, the crawling insect, by which, how- 

titious terms. This verse may be con- ever, may be meant the locust in its 

sidered as the text on which he afterwards wingless state. The Syr. renders the 
expatiates. Interpreters have found » «^ o 

great difficulty both in determining the word by |^q^J^, locusta non alata. 

precise signification of the several terms _ . .,,,.,- , 

employed to describe the scourge, and I* » evidently derived from the same 

^^%^'^^!^ ""wi^-i'* """ ^^''^''! ^^'^'^ ^oot with the Arab, y^, resecuit, am- 
understood. While some are of opinion M^ 

that different kinds of insects are meant, ^^^^ J ^^^^ Eth. IH©" : 

most are agreed m considenng locusts to '^ ' |v • ^ 

be intended. Yet here again discordant excidit, abscidU; Syr. sqVv incidit; 
views obtain : some insisting on different '^ "^^ 

species of locusts, and others on different Talmud. P}3, amputavit; and expresses 

states of the same species. Credner, the gnawing or cutting action of the 

for instance, in a work on our prophet, sharp teeth of the locusts on the leaves, 

full of erudition, considers cn| to be the and even the bark of trees. Comp. 

migratory locust; n^'W the young brood; Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. ii. cap. 29 : omnia 

p^ the young locust in the last state of vero morsu erodentes. n^'w is the generic 

transformation ; and V*pn the perfect lo- name of the locust, so called from the 

cust. The locust belongs to the genus of almost incredible numbers which breed 

insects known among entomologists by in different parts of the East; being 

94 JOEL. [chap- I. 

The licking locust liatli devoured ; 

And that which the licking locust hath left, 

The consuming locust hath devoured. 

derived from r^!}, to muUiplyf be nume- terror which his description was intended 

rottf, &c. Comp. Jer. xlvi. 23, n^^iMO \s^^ to produce. Just as Job accumulates the 

more numerous than the locusts. From terms rrw, !«Ttt>, urrcs, tJ^ and «7j, chap. 

its migrating in swarms it is called by iv. 10, 11, with a similar view. They 

Forskal gryUus gregarius, and by Lin- are rather poetical synonymes, than dis- 

nffius, gryllus migratorius. By the LXX. tinctive of different species. At all 

the word is rendered seventeen times by events, that locusts are meant, may be 

aKpist the common locust; thrice by inferred from the facts, that wherever 

ppovxoSf the unwinged locust, which V^ occurs, with the exception of a single 

browses on the g^ass ; once by ipvaiprj, passage, it occurs along with n^'M ; and 

mildew ; and once by dmXaPost the that n^>jt, which Moses uses in describing 

young or small locust. That nrM is one of the plagues of Egypt, Exod. x. 

generic, appears from Lev. xi. 22, where 10 — 20, is not only employed by the 

we read, ^3^ ^T^i the locust according to Psalmist, Ixxviii. 46, cv. 34, but also 

Us species. The third name, p^, from p^!^, ^^ and p^, as synonymous terms, for 

equivalent to pp^, to lick, designates the the sake of variety. Add to which that 

locust as licking off the leaves, and what- the verb ^, from which i^ is derived, 

ever is green on the trees, grass, &c, is employed to express the action of the 

This derivation is preferable to that pro- n|TM, Deut. xxviii. 38 : n^>*5 ^^J^i^i " the 

posed by Michaelis, who refers the word locust shall consume it." In the trans- 

^ ^1 A 1 I -^ 1 I't' lation I have given the meaning of the 

to the Arab, ^y properavU, volubtlts ^^^^^^ ^^^ j^ ^^^ expr^ive of 

. . I ,, /. . ji 1 . 1 ^^^ qualities suggested by each. The 

fuU, or to ^. albus fuU, and thinks p^g^ec might Otherwise be rendered 

that the chafer is meant. InNah. iii. 16, withNoyes: 

it is represented as winged, and in Jer. 

li. 27, it is described as "vgg, rough, " That which one swarm of locusts left, 

bristly, terrific, LXX. ppovxos four a second swarm hath eaten ; 

times J dKpis thrice. VnjTT, the remauiing And that which the second left, a third 

term, comes from ^, to consume, devour, swarm hath eaten ; 

LXX. Ppovxos, or ppovK09. Vulg. And that which the third left;, a fourth 

p ^ V swarm hath eaten." 

rubigo, mildew. Syr. Uo%5%' which •. 

"^ ^ It is a question of greater importance : 

Risius, the Archbishop of Damascus, Are the statements of Joel in the first 

describes as resembling the locust, only and second chapters to be understood 

differing from it, inasmuch as it never literally of these insects, or figuratively 

migrates, and confines its ravages to the of enemies that were to invade and 

fruits and herbs, but leaves the trees un- lay waste the Holy Land ? The latter 

touched. It is also noted for the noise is the more ancient opinion. It is that 

which it makes at night. A comparison of the Targum, the Jews whom Jerome 

of the different passages in which these consulted, and Abarbanel ; and is, with 

names occur, renders it more than pro- various modifications, adopted by the 

bable that they are here employed by following christian interpreters : Jerome, 

the prophet, not with any reference to Ephraim Syrus, Theodoret, Cyril of 

the species into which the locusts may Alexandria, Hugo de St. Vincent, Ri- 

be scientifically divided, but to designate bera, Sanchez, a Lapide, Luther, Gro- 

four successive swarms, according to tius, Marckius, Bertholdt, Theiner, 

certain destructive qualities, by which, Steudel, and Hengstenberg. On the 

as a genus of insects, thev are distin- other hand, Abenezra, Jarchi, Kimchi, 

guished, and thereby to heighten the Lyranus, Vatablus, Joh. Schmidius, 

cuAP. 1.] JOEL. 95 

5 Awake, ye drunkards ! and weep ; 
Howl, all ye drinkers of wine ! 

On account of the sweet wine, 

For it is made to cease from your mouth, 

6 For a nation hath come up upon my land, 
Mighty and innumerable ; 

Their teeth are the teeth of a lion ; 
They have the grinders of a lioness. 

Jahn, Eichhorn, Rosenmiiller, von Hence "O^, iirong, or intoxicating drink, 

Coelln, Justi, Credner, and Hitzig, whether wine itself, or, more commonly, 

maintain that the language is to be un- liquor resembling wine, which is distilled 

derstood literally of locusts. This inter- from barley, honey, or dates, and some- 

pretation has certainly much in its favour, times mingled with spices. By D*pV, is 

and if it could without violence be ap- meant the fresh wine, or juice of the 

plied throughout, might fairly be adopted, grape, or other fruit, which has just been 

But tiie announcement of a second and pressed out, .and is remarkable for its 

moreawfuljudgmentychap. i. 15, ii. 1,2; sweet flavour, and its freedom from in- 

the distinct recognition of a foreign rule, tozicating qualities. R. d^, to tread, 

ii. 17 ; and the assignment of the North tread down, or out. Targ. rnp ion, nure 

as the native country of the enemy, wine. It differs from v)\n*n, inasmuch as 

ii. 20; present insuperable obstacles to its the latter term is confined to the juice of 

adoption. See on these verses. There the grape ; and being derived from ^, to 

seems no possibility of effecting a con- take possession q/*, indicates that however 

sistent interpretation on any other prin- new,it had already obtained an inebriating 

ciple than that laid down and defended quality, llie locusts are here repre- 

by Cramer, Eckermann, and Holzhausen, sented as speciallv attacking and destroy- 

vti, that in the first chapter, Joel de- ing the vines and other fruit-trees, from 

scribes a devastation of the country the produce of which these wines were 

which had been effected by natural prepared. To such they are known to 

locusts ; but predicts in tlie second, its be very destructive. Comp. Theocrit. 

devastation by political enemieB,in highly- Idyll. 5, 108, in which a shepherd 

wrought metaphorical language, bor- beseeches them not to injure his vines : 

rowed from the scene which he had just ../•.«!. , c %^ , 

depicted AKpiOis, as rov (ppayfiov virnrtOrirt rov 

5. yny, the Hiph. of yV, is here used, ^, ?'*°''» . ^ , - , . ^^ . • ^ 

like the cognate root yK. Gen. ix. 24, in M>7 /i^v Xco^ocrco-dc rat a^nlXos' ^vn 

the sense of awaking from a sleep occa- ^^P apai. 

sioned by wine. Since, however, the rr^ properly signifies to cut, ciU off, but 

persons aiddressed had been deprived of here, as wine is the subject spoken of, it 

the means of intoxication, the prophet must be taken in the sense of destroying, 

is rather to be understood as borrowing or causing to cease. 

the term from the state in which they 6. ^, Tia^ton, especially used of foreign, 

had too often been found. Dn^3^ being barbarous and profane nations, and here 

Sarallel with "^ Tn^, drinkers of wine, selected on purpose to express the num- 

oes not here mean persons actually inr her and hostility of the locusts, and at 

toxicated, but such as were in the habit the same time to prepare the minds of 

of using intoxicating liquors, and by im- the Jews for the allegorical use made of 

plication, to excess. Thus Kimchi : these insects in chap. ii. If it had not 

pa "Orforf) crtjn dpw, ye who are accus- been for tome such end, the prophet 

iomedio make yourselves drunk with wine, mieht have adopted the term D^, people. 

It is derived from "0^1^, to drink to the which Solomon applies to the ants, Prov. 

XXX. 25, 26, and which would equally 

full. ArBh.J^,implevityti»,ebriTisfuU. have conveyed the idea of multitude. 

96 JOEL. [chap. I. 

7 They have laid waste my vine, 
And broken down my fig-tree : 
They have completely stripped it, and thrown it down ; 
Its branches they have left white. 

Comp. chap. ii. 2. This metaphorical transposition for r^r^o, and derives the 

use of the term is common in the classics, noun from an obsolete root vnj, to bite; 

See instances in Bochart and Gesen. but it may more properly be referred to 

Heb. Lex. in voc. "^h The Arabs em- .i a , i- , ' ., , , 

the Arab. «!)» longum fuUf and denotes 

ploy U in a dmaar way. ^ n^ it the grinder, or jaw-teeth of animal*, 

used in a hostile sense of an army, The metaphor, however, has no respect 

Is. vii. I ; but here figuratively of the to the size of the teeth of lions, but only 

locusts. In ^^, *' my land," the prono- to the terrible and complete destraction 

minal affix belongs to Jehovah, not to the which they effect. Pliny, speaking of 

prophet. Comp. Is. xiv. 25 ; Jer. xvi. 18; the locust, says : " Omnia morsu erodentes 

Ezek. xxxvi. 5, xxxviii. 16. Joel ii. 18. et fores quoque tectorum." According to 

tKS», strong f powerful. The strength of Fabricius, in his Genera Insectorum, 

the locust consists in the immense num- p. 96, the teeth of the locust are three- 

hers, which, formine themselves into forked and sharp. The same metaphor 

compact bodies, darken the air, and is used Rev. ix. 8, 6h6vr€s avr^v as 

advance forward, one swarm after another, \t6vrciiv ija-av. 

attacking whatever comes in their way. 7. For the pronominal reference in ^i 

They may well be described as "ibod |n«j, and TJSn, see on '^hm in the preceding 

innumerable. All who refer to them, verse. The vines and fig-trees might 

both in ancient and modem times, speak be called Jehovah's, because, in a special 

of them in the same language. sense, the land on which they grew was 

*A '% \''A * '/L^ ^i^' The vine has, from time imme- 

AKpii«,P nXneos Juv^op. morial, abounded in Palestine. It often 

ga arc.Y. . g^^^j ^^ ^ great size, and produces 

"Immensse locustarum multitudines." CTapes of corresponding bulk. Schulz 

Orosius, V. II. Shaw speaks of "in- describes one at Beitshin, near Ftolemais, 

finite swarms following each other." the stem of which was about a foot and 

Barrow states that those which he saw a half in diameter, its height was about 

in South Africa, might literally be said thirty feet, and by its branches and 

to cover the ground for an area of 2000 branchlets, which had to be supported, 

square miles. A later writer in the Cape it formed a hut upwards of thirty feet 

Town Gazette, describes a cloud of them broad and long. The clusters of these 

as passing before him in a train of many vines are so large, that they weigh ten 

millions thick, and about an hour in or twelve pounds, and the berries may 

length ; and mentions further that, though be compared with our small plums, 

millions perished in consequence of at- When such a cluster is cut off, it is laid 

tempts made to destroy them, their num- upon a board about an ell and a half 

•her appeared nothingdecreased. And Dr. broad, and three or four ells long, and 

Bowring states in his Report, that some several persons seat themselves about it 

years ago the army of Ibrahim Pasha, to eat the grapes. Rosenmiiller, in Bib. 

in the attempt to extirpate an immense Cab. vol. xxvii. p. 223. Comp. Numb, 

swarm, gathered up no less than 65,000 xiii. 23, 24. Palestine was equally cele- 

ardebs, equal to 325,000 bushels of En- brated for its Jig- trees, which are not 

glish measure ! How appropriate the reared in gardens, as with us, but grow 

name ^"^I What is innumerable is fre- spontaneously in the open country. The 

quently compared to them by the sacred figs were not only eaten fresh, but also 

writers. See Jud. vl. 5, vii. 12; Ps. cv. preserved for food, d^, to put, is often 

84; Jer. xlvi. 23; Nab. iii. 15. rrtv^o, used with nouns instead of the simple 

teethj Gesenius considers as standing by forms of the verbs to which the nouns 

o o ^ 


CHAP. I.] JOEL. 97 

8 Lament, as a virgin girded with sackclotli, 
On account of the husband of her youth. 

9 The offering and the libation, 

Are cut oif from the house of Jehovah : 
The priests howl, the ministers of Jehovah. 

are related, nroj?, Jreoifrace, Arab. ,_i^' \"^^ ^^"^ his loss. Holzhausen thinks 
^' ^ that she would also grieve rr^^ "», on 

fregiL ,Ju^^ abranch broken off from f ^/"^^ f^ ^Z ^Jl&\' and compares 
* "^ Jud. XI. 38 ; but this the text does not 

a tree. See on Hos. x. 7. LXX. suggest. LXX. vv/i<^i?. Compl. Trap- 

<rvyxXacr/ioff, CompL nXaafios, Syr. ^t^or- Wrapping oneself in sackcloth was 

a token of deep mourning. ^|, properly 

I, concUsio, divuhio. The locusts ^ord, master ^ possessor ; and secondarily 

husband, because in the East, wives were, 

not only consume the fruit and leaves of and still are, considered as the property 

trees, but strip them of the very bark, rather than the companions of their hus- 

— ''Nee culmus, nee gramen uUum re- bands. Comp. the Greek Kvpios yvvai- 

maneat, et arbores frontibus et cortice ^or ; and for the application of ai/ijp lo 

tanquam vestibus nudatae, instar tnin- one only betrothed, Matt. i. 19. Ac- 

corum alborum conspiciantur." Ludolf, cording to the Roman law, consensus 

Comment, p. 178. "f^ is here taken facit nupiias, 

in its proper causative signification. 9, To a pious mind the gloomiest 

What they do not devour, they so injure view of external calamities will be taken 

that it falls oflf the tree, cr^nto, branches, from their influence upon the cause of 

properly the intertwining tendrils of the God. The cessation of the usud solem- 

vine,from Tjto, to interweave. The vine, nities of the temple worship, occasioned 

being the more valuable of the two kinds by the destruction of the fruits of the 

of trees, the suffix refers back to it; and earth, must have occasioned great grief 

the fig-tree is treated as subordinate, to the religious Jew. Jerome and others 

«'?H they have made or left white. think that as the priests would be de- 

8. The land, under the metaphor of a prived of their regular support, by the 

female, is here addressed. 'Jm is the cessation of the otterings, they mourned 

second person feminine of the Impera- on that account ; but of this I should say 

tive in Kal of hJm, which usually means withMaurer, "Vateshicnonvideturcogi- 

to swear f call on God as witness; but tasse." nnDO, stands here for ojf^riw^s in 

here it takes the signification of the general, whether bloody or unbloody, — 

o * comp. Gen. iv. 4 ; LXX. 6v<ria, — even 

Syriac J]|, ululavit, deploravit, ■ >^. when restricted in its signification to 

meat-offering, such as consisted of meal, 

L2£, ululaius, lamenium. The deri- ^^^ oi^ ""^ incense, the proper sacri- 

• nces. D*na], are understood, as they 

vation from ^, God, in the sense God have were always connected with them, except 

mercy, is less natural. One of Kenni- in the case of the sin and trespass-ofier- 

cott's MSS. reads ^. LXX. Oprjpr/a-ov. ings. The libation, or drink-offering, 

A country is frequently said to mourn, was called ip}, on account of its being 

when it is subject to devastation. See poured out, from the root '^^, to pour. 

I8.xxiv. 4; Jer.iv. 28, xii. 4; Hos. iv. 3. From the circumstance that Joel pre- 

rfrui^, a virgin, a young woman, affianced fixes the article to ^vp, priests, but not 

to a husband, and, in this sense, viewed to D^^, husbandmen, and u>fyp, vine- 

as married to him. The idea of the dressers, Credner argues that he must 

strength of youthful affection, is that de^ either have been personally related to 

signed to be conveyed by the passage, them, or that prophets and priests must 

In proportion to the force of such affec- have been more closely united at the 

tion, would be the excessive degree of time he wrote than afterwards. Comp.. 



JOEL. [chat. t. 

10 The field is laid waste. 
The ground moumeth ; 
For the corn is laid waste, 
The new wine is dried up, 
The oil languisheth. 

11 Be ashamed, ye husbandmen ! 
Howl, ye vine-dressers ! 

On account of the wheat and the barley ; 
For the harvest of the field hath perished. 

12 The vine is dried up, 

And the fig-tree languisheth ; 

The pomegranate, the palm-tree also, and the apple-tree, 

All the trees of the field are withered ; 

Yea, joy is withered away firom the children of men. 

D'artsn, ver. 13, ii. 17. D'JTTS?* ministers, fication. Some would render xMi, as 

is a more dignified official term than applied to the new wine, to be ashamed: 

Dn», servanisj which is employed to but occurring as it does in parallelism 

denote common slaves, as well as per- with f?^ to droop, languish like plants, 

tons in more elevated situations about a it is better to retain the primary notion 

Yins. ®f ^» '° become dry, dry up. Both 

10—12. The prophet enters here more «>Tvri and vi^. stand for the vine and the 

minutely into a description of the de- olive tree, from which the wine and oil 

vastation occasioned by the locusts, are obtained. In the second instance 

«5Vvn, new wine, which is already in a «i^^n tokes the signification of xff\i, to be 

state of fermentation, and so intoxica- ashamed, being another form of the 

ting ; from xifv, to take possession of any Hiphil for tS*?^!. Both are used in- 

thing. See on ver. 6, where it is dis- transitively. The LXX. retaining the 

V signification of vkr, improperly render 

tinguished from n«lpv. "Syr. ]]Xa>P^, i§qpdvBrio-av y€opyoL |teri, the pome^ 

granate tree, is indigenous in Palestine 

sic dictum, quod se possessorem hominis ^nd Syria, and is reckoned one of its 

facU, ejus cerebrum occu^ando, ut ille noblest botanical productions. It grows 

non amplius sui compos sit Sic Arab. ^ ^^e height of twenty feet, has a 

vinum dicitur *u«, a captivando, et Jtraight stem, spreading branchej, lancet- 

*• ^ formed leaves, with large and beautiful 

,Ub, a tenendo et vinctum habendo," red blossoms. The fruit is of the size 

> of an orange, brown in colour, and 

Winer in voc, nito, Jield, and ^tm, afibrding a highly delicious and cooling 

ground, are synonymes; but differ in juice. It is also planted in gardens, 

this respect, that the former denotes the and in the courts of the houses ; and its 

open, free, uninclosed part of a country, fruit is greatly improved by cultivation. 

A««i> !. A j'± j'l * '^ *!, 1 i*. It is still one of the trees most frequently 

Arab, \\xti, extendtt, duatavit; ihelvXter, • x-l ^ • o i i «. j 

itAw, c*i-cr»t*».., «.*« V. , k , ^^^ ^^ those countries. So celebrated 

the rich red soil which is particularly fit were the dates of Palestine, that Pliny, 

for cultivation. Hence niton t5*M, a man speaking of the torj, date, or palm-tree, 

of the field, means a hunter, Gen. xxv. says, " Judaea vero inclyta est vel magis 

27 ; no*^ vhjt, a man of the ground, an palmis." It was adopted as a symbol 

agriculturist. Root D'ik, to be red. The of the country in coins struck under 

land is here, as frequently in the Hebrew Vespasian and Domitian ; and is fre- 

prophets, made the subject of personi- quently referred to in the Old Testament. 

CHAP. I.] JOEL. 99 

13 Gird ye. and mourn, O ye priests ! 
Howl, ye ministers of the altar ! 
Enter, spend the night in sackcloth, 
Ye ministers of my God ! 

For the offering and the libation 

Are T^ithholden from the house of your God. 

14 Appoint a sacred &st| proclaim a day of restraint ; 

It 80inetime3 reaches the height of an following Terse, to institute a sacred fast, 

hundred feet, is remarkable for its in order that such mournine might be 

straight, upright growth, and forms one general. After ran supply with the Syr. 

of the most beautiful trees in the vege- p^, as in one of Kennicott's MSS., or 

table kingdom. The fruit, which grows cr^, as in one of De Rossi's. Both 

in clusters under the large leaves, is of forms occur in connexion with the verb, 

an exceedingly sweet and agreeable which is not here to be restricted to mere 

taste, and, as an article both of suste- girding, but rather signifies to tcrap 

nance and traffic, is of great value to round one. Comp. Jer. iv. 8 ; Is. xxii. 

the inhabitants. In Abyssinia, the 12. 1B9, primarily to smite j strike^ then 

natives extract a juice from it which to strike the breast^ in token of mourning, 

they manufacture into a spirituous liquor See on Is. xxxii. 12. The LXX. always 

resembling champagne. Its importance render it by xoirreo-^at, except in two 

is here significantly expressed by the instances, m which they give it by 

particle Di being used intensively before xXatciv, to weep. For n^ip 'TH!^* comp. 

It rwB, Arab. ^, the appU-tree. , CorTix. 13. Some think that »*», 

D -ii J • 41. J r »•«« come, is to be taken idiomatically as a 

Rosenmuller derives the word from np}. /j^ ^^ exhortation, like ^) Wore 

to breathe, and m this Gesemus concurs, ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ • jji 13 

supposing the fragrant 6r.aM,L e. smeU ^^^ another instance in our prophet, 

or scent, to have originated the name. ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ . ^ ^^^ ^^^ 

Ihe former of f^ese writers adopts the , ^^^ necessarily to be so unde^ 

opimon of Celsius, that the quince tree ^^^^^J . ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^ 

15 specially mtended; but as the Arabs .^^^^^ ^^ the altar, immediately before, 

include under — lij, oranges, lemons, it appears more proper to take it in the 

^ sense of entering, i. e. into the court of 

peaches, apricots, &c. the Hebrew term the temple, where, in the more immc 

is likewise in all probability generic in diate presence of Jehovah, the priests 

its sifi;nification. To give to his de- were to bewail their sins, and those of 

scription the utmost latitude, Joel adds, the people. Thus the LXX. cto-eX^rrr, 

nron 'sy^a, aU the trees of the field, i. e. and Kimchi, vcd dw '''» m. vq, enter ye 

as Jerome explains, " omnia iigna, vel the house of God, and there mourn. 

infructuosa, vel fructifera ;" and, to bring |^ or *^, signifies to spend, or remain 

it more home to the feelines of his over the night, and retains this signi- 

countrymen, he represents the conse- fication in the present passage, though, 

quence to be, the entire removal of their from the connexion, it is obvious not 

joy. Some improperly limit '((f^ to one night only, but many nights are 

the joy of harvest. The construction meant. The priests were not only to 

]Q t)*^^n, to dry away from, is what is wear the habit of mourning during the 

usually termed pregnant, and more day, they were also to remain in it all 

forcibly expresses the removal of the night. Ahab is said to have lain in 

object on wnich the verb terminates. sackcloth, when he humbled himself 

13. The prophet now addresses him- before God, 1 Kings xxi. 27. LXX. 

self to the priests, and calls them first virvocrarc. 

to personal mourning, and then, in the 14. «5!f?, to haUoiv, consecrate ; to 

100 JOEL. [chap. I. 

Assemble the elders — ^all the inhabitants of the land, 
To the house of Jehovah your God, 
And cry unto Jehovah. 

15 Alas for the day ! 

For the day of Jehovah is near, 
And coraeth as a mighty destruction 
From the Almighty. 

16 Is not the food cut off before our eyes ? 

Arc not joy and gladness firom the house of our God ? 

17 The seeds are become dry beneath their clods ; 

The granaries are desolate, the store-houses are destroyed, 
Because the corn is withered. 

keep holy ; to appoint sacred or religious for the day ! " O infaustum et tristissi' 

services; here, to institute a sacred fast, mum ilium diem!" Rosenmiiller. To 

by fixing the time and circumstances, give intensity to the exclamation, the 

and preparing the people for its proper LXX. have the triple oTfioi, otfioi, otfioi, 

observance. The Plial participle is used That the njrn dV, day of Jehovah, i, e. 

even of warriors ; see on Is. xiii. 3. The the period of punishment, does not mean 

interpretations of the Rabbins, Jarchi that of the plague of the locusts, but a 

and Kimchi, "^a^Tn, and Abenezra, ^y^'n, more awful period still future, the term 

are defective, by leaving out the idea of sVi^, near, at hand, which is never used 

sacredness, which the verb always con- to denote the actual presence of any 

veys. "TJ^, restraint, or being held thing, but its speedy approach, suffi- 

back or prevented from labour : ^, day, ciently proves. What the Jews were 

or period, understood. See on Is. i. 13. then suffering was only a prelude to still 

The Jews were to abstain from their more dreadful calamities. For n^ "TJSp, 

worldly avocations, and spend the por- which forms an elegant paronomasia, 

tion of their time thus consecrated to see on Is. xiii. 6, where the same form 

the immediate and solemn duties of occurs. The 3 is, as there, the Caph 

humiliation, confession, and prayer, veritatis, and expresses the greatness of 

D'5S1» elders, in this connexion, might be the evil. 

taken in an ofRcial sense, denoting those 16. The verb rro is understood in the 

holding office among the people, who latter hemistich. The annual festivals 

were expected to take the lead, and, by were occasions of great rejoicing. See 

their example, to excite others to engage Lev. xxiii. 40; Deut. xii. 12, 18. 

in the religious solemnities ; but a com- 17. This, and the three following 

parlson of this verse with chap. ii. 15, verses, describe the drought which was 

in which " children" and " sucklings" simultaneous with the judgment of the 

are mentioned, would rather require us locusts. It exhibits the singular phe- 

to understand the term as referring to nomenon of four ana^ "Keyofifpa within 

age. The central point of convocation the short space which it occupies. For 

was the temple — the special theocratic the elucidation of xifiv^ some compare 

residence of Him whose wrath was to the Chaldee tim, to rot, but it is with 

be deprecated, and his mercy implored, more propriety referred to the Arab. 

pyj, Arab. ^:, ^t>, to cry out, cry ij*M, siccus fuit ; and so is of the 

earnestly for help. LXX. Kdcpa^tre same signification with t^?;, to be dry, 

fKT(va9. ** Ardentissimas fundite pre- dried up. Thus Abulwalid. By the 

ces." Rosenmuller. desiccatmg influence of the heat, the 

15. Joel now exclaims, Di»^ nrw, alas ! seeds that had been sown in the ground 

CHAP. I.] JOEL. 101 

18 How the cattle mourn ! 

How the herds of oxen are perplexed ! 

Because they have no pasture ; 

Yea, the flocks of sheep are destroyed. 

19 To thee, O Jehovah ! I cry, 

For fire hath consumed the pastures of the desert, 
And a flame hath burnt all the trees of the field. 

Would lose all their moisture, and perish. pJexUy to which any one is reduced who 

That Ttrr^ mean teeda or grains of does not know how to extricate himself 

com, &c. seems satisfactorily determined from difficulty. The brute creation are 

^ '^ graphically represented as being in this 

by the use of the Syr. jZ^ja. granum, condition from the total failure of pas- 

Malt, xiii. 31 ; John xii. 24; 1 Cor. xv. ^^"p" ^^^ °^ ^^^^^ t^T? \^^' 

37, in the Peshito; and the signification ^^IZL "'"'" \ tH' Tk ' ' 

of T>B, to separate, an actfon which Z^Z^^% unsmtable for the oxen, are 

takes place wlien, in sowing, the bus- ^epnved of food. As the 'dea ofpufi- 

bandman scatters' the seed^in distinct ^"'I^^^VriT-n^^ '^^^^.1,^^ 

grains. To the same effect Tanchum, J?:^; 'n^^L^^^^^^^^^^^ ?,Tt 

tjji^ LJOI icci dl id fcXnJI V»VnJ| ^'^"o^^"* creatures are involved in the 

^J v^ jj^ j<^»V . y^ consequences of guilt incurred by trans- 

. t,t * . . . gressors. Comp. £xod. xii. 29 : Jonah 

^j»y ^t grams prepared for somngt jij, 7, 

so caUed because they are scattered in ^\ ?' ?' °^* unusual for the Hebrew 

tHe ground, n^,^/.^, or lumps of FJetgt wXlsS^t^^^^^^^^^^ 

earth. Comp. the Arab, u^^, gleha that were brought upon their countrj*. 

-^ Comp. Is. XV. 6, xvi. 11, xxi, 3, 4, xxii. 

terrtB ; Jfiy^' L^i^» terra diversa varia. 4; Jer. xxiii. 9. It has been questioned 

-^ ' . ^ whether the '• fire" and « flame" are 

Thus also u-5i)yfflr*, signifies a mark on here to be taken literally of the actual 

, burning of the grass, which often hap- 
the body, occasioned by the contracting pens in extreme heat, or whether they 
or drying up of the skin, and resembling are used figuratively of the heat itself. 
a round lump of earth or dung, rfnx/g The former is more probably the mean- 
is synonymous with nrxak, granaries ; ing. n^3, Kimchi explains, vemi rmortpo^ 
and, according to the force of the local grassy places, places of pasturage ; hence 
o prefixed, signifies places or houses pasturage itself. It is derived from njj, 
containing store rooms, or granaries, in to be pleasant, (comp. n«3,) to dwelT: 
which grain was deposited. The Dagesh but signifying in this connexion the 
in the second D is euphonic. The green, grassy spots, so eagerly desired 
simpler form rrrotp, occurs Hag. ii. 19; by the cattle, and pleasant both to man 
and both are to be referred to the root and beast. From the circumstance 
'ra to gather, collect For the diver- that such places would naturally be se- 
sified and unsatisfactory renderings of lected for occupancy by tents, dwellings, 
the ancient versions, see Pococke in loc, &c. the word came also to signify habi- 
The verbs to^ and nrn are here to be . , 
taken in the sense of being left or '«'«ow*- Comp. the Arab, ^y, diver- 
neelected like places that have been . ^ , n ... . ." 1 
laid waste or destroyed. . *'*''" ^*'» hospiho exctptt : ^^U' 

18. fa, in Niplial, expresses the per- piansio, sedes commorationis. 

102 JOEL. [chap. II. 

20 The very beasts of the field look up to thee. 
Because the streams of water are dried up, 
And fire hath devoured the pastures of the desert. 

20. anj, Arab. _^, Eth. {J CI I 1^7**^^-^'°^^^^??^^^^^^^ 

^ ^J ^*-»' bestfte, as the Psalmist evidently intended 

ascendit : to look up with panting or )». represent the deer standing on the 

brink of the channels in \vhich water 

earnest desire, Arab. i>-,c, incUnatio, usually flowed, but which had become 

'-^ dry. To their pitiable condition he 

propensio in rem. The word beautifully compares his own circumstances when 

expresses the natural action of animals deprived of the usual means of spiritual 

parched with thirst, and deprived of all reireshment. The idea of their crying 

supply of water. ITiey hold up their ^^ q^ ^j,;^^ j^e Syr. ^X., and the 

heads, as ii their only expectation were "^ ' x^ 

from the God of heaven. LXX. dvi- Rabhins attach to the word, is derived 

fiXe^rav. Ck)mp. Ps. xlii. 2, where the from such passages as Job. xxxviii. 41 ; 

force of vrn^md^ is lost by the ren- Pa. civ. 21, cxlvii. 9, rather than from 

dering of our common version, " after anything expressed by the word itself. 


The prophet reiterates his announcement of the approach of a divine judgment 
more terrific in its nature than that of the locusts, but employs language bor- 
rowed from the appearance and movements of these insects, in order to make a 
deeper impression upon his hearers, whose minds were full of ideas derived from 
them as instruments of the calamity under which they were suffering, 1 — 11. 
He then summons anew to humiliation and repentance, 12 — 17; giving assu- 
rance that on these taking place, Jehovah would show them pity, destroy their 
enemy, and restore them to circumstances of great temporal and religious 
prosperity, 18 — 27; and the chapter concludes with a glorious promise of the 
abundant effusion of the influences of the Holy Spirit in the apostolic age, 
28, 29, and a prediction of the Jewish war, and the final subversion of the 
Jewish state, 30, 31, in the midst of which such as embraced the worship and 
service of the Messiah should experience deliverance, 32. 

I Blow ye the trumpet in Zion ! 

And sound the alarm in my holy mountain ! 

1. To give the greater effect to (he ing. Tlie persons addressed are the. 
alarm here commanded to be sounded, priests, on whom it devolved to blow 
Jehovah himself is introduced as speak- with trumpets. 17 a-akniy^ opyavop 

CHAP. II.] JOEL. 103 

Let all the inliabitants of the land tremble ; 
For the day of Jehovah cometh ; it is near. 
2 A day of darkness and gloom^ 

A day of clouds and dense obscurity ; 
Like the dawn spread over the mountains, 
A numerous and mighty people : 
None such have ever been, 
Neither shall there ever be after them. 
During the years of successive generations. 

f <rri n-oXe/iov. Philo de Septenario. chap. i. 6 ; only exchanging ^, naliottf 

They were to warn all of the threatened for U^, people^ which is also used of 

judgment. Comp. chap. i. 15, where foreign and idolatrous nations, Numh. 

the prophet anticipates what is now xxi. 29; 1 Chron.xvi.20; Jer.xlviii.42. 

about to be the subject of special de- In this description, he not only transfers 

scription. the metaphor back to the proper subject 

2. Synonymes are here accumulated fronni which it was taken, but converts it 
to give intensity to the expression of the into an allegory, and at considerable 
thought. The awful calamity which length, and in the most minute manner, 
was to come upon the Jews is set forth exhibits the invasion, the formidable 
under the metaphor of darkness, which character, and the ravages of the bar- 
is of frequent occurrence in the Hebrew barian foe. So perfectly is the allegorical 
Scriptures, when sufferings and misery veil woven throughout, that most corn- 
are the subjects of discourse. Comp. mentators have been able to discover 
Is. viii. 22, Ix. 2 ; Jer. xiii. 16 ; Amos nothing more than natural locusts in the 
V. 18 ; Zeph. i. 15. In the present passage. At the time in which the 
instance, however, there was a smgular prophet delivered his message the locusts 
propriety in adopting the language, since covered the land ; they were before his 
the prophet was just going to introduce eyes ; the idea of them had so taken 
an fulegory founded upon the fact, that possession of his mind, that, considering 
swarms of locusts had come over the the striking resemblance which they 
land, and intercepting, by their density, bore to an invading army, nothing was 
the light of the sun, had occasioned an more natural tlian to exhibit the latter 
universal darkness. See on ver. 10. in sensible images taken from the scene 
Some interpreters have stumbled at the by which both he and his hearers were 
apparent incongruity of comparing the surrounded. And, accustomed as they 
coming affliction with the "V^f aurora^ had been to the parabolic style of pro- 
since the idea usually suggested by the phecy, they could have been at no loss 
figurative use of that term is joy, or to discover, that when in this part of 
prosperity; but as this idea is not ex- his discourse he appeared to speak of 
clttsively conveyed by the use of it, as locusts, it was not natural but political 
it is also employed to express the cer- locusts he had in view. While the de- 
taifUVf Hos. vi. 3, and suddenness of cidedly future aspect of the calamity, 
anything, Hos. x. 15, so here the ob- chap. i. 15, ii. 1, proves that it had not 
vious points of comparison are merely taken place at the time the words were 
the suddenness and extent of the change delivered, a comparison of the language 
produced by the diffusion of the rays in the concluding part of verse 2, with 
of light, without any reference to the that employed chap. i. 2, equally proves 
nature of the change itself. that a plague of locusts could not have 

Joel now proceeds to introduce and been intended. We must^ therefore, 

describe the nostile army of the Assy- with the alteration of a single word, 

rians in the same terms in which he had adopt the language of Jerome, " dum 

metaphorically described the locusts, locustas legimus, Assyrios coyitamus," 

104 JOEL- [chap. II. 

3 Before them fire devoureth, 

And behind them a flame burneth ; 

Before them the land is like the garden of Eden, 

But behind them a desolate wilderness : 

And there is no escape from them. 

4 Their appearance is like the appearance of horses, 
And they run like horsemen. 

5 They bound like the rattle of chariots on the tops of the mountains ; 

Tliat the Assyrian invasion under Sen- been killed, or taken prisoners ; but it 
nacherib, and not that of the Chaldeans is also used of fruits of the earth which 
under Nebuchadnezzar, is meant, ap- have not been destroyed, Exod. x. 5. 
pears from the immense number of the The contrast between the beauty of 
army, its entire destruction in the land Paradise and the desolation of a desert, 
of Palestine, and there being no refer- is exquisitely forcible and affecting, 
ence whatever to the captivity in 4. The allegory now becomes special 
Babylon, the omission of which is un- and minute in its features, which are 
imaginable, on the supposition that the selected from the phenomena and opera- 
latter of the two invasions was intended, tions of an invading army, the subject 
The army of Sennacherib must have of which it is to be understood; but 
been the largest that ever entered Pa- having the invasion by the locusts as its 
lestine, since only that division of it basis, and therefore presenting these 
which invested Jerusalem, amounted to prominently to view, and comparing 
nearly 200,000 men, Is. xxxvii. 36. It them to the army, which is thus stu- 
was marching forward to the conquest diously concealed. On this principle 
of Egypt, and, like a swarm of locusts, there is no difficulty in accounting for the 
covered the whole land. All the fortified particle of comparison, so liberally used 
cities of J udah were taken. Is. xzxvi. 1; in this and the following verses. So 
the cultivated fields and vineyards were strong is the resemblance of the head of 
trodden down or consumed, xxxvii. 30 ; the locust to that of a horse, that they 
and nothing short of utter destruction are on this account called cavaletles by 
seemed to await the inhabitants. The the Italians. This feature Theodoret 
design of the Divine Spirit, to whose thus notices : cc tls djcpi^cGr Karldoi rrfv 
infinite mind the future event was Kt(]>aKrjv rijs dxpidof, (rtjiodpa rfj tov 
present, in dictating the prediction in tTrTrov €oiKv7av €vp^(r€i. In Rev. ix. 7, 
the language here employed, appears to the locusts are compared to horses har- 
have been, to deepen the impressions nessed for battle : ra ofjMKOfiara t^v 
produced by the plague of locusts, and cucpibrnv ofioia tirirois tJToifjLaa-fihois etc 
thereby to excite to that repentance and iroktfiov. Such comparison is very 
amendment of life, which alone could common among ,the Arabs. The point 
secure to the Jews the continuance of of comparison in the second member of 
their national blessings. the parallelism, is the swiftness with 

3. A description of the desolate state which cavalry advance to the attack, 
to which Judea was to be reduced, in 5. i^ is used of the rapid and bound- 
language borrowed from that given of ing course of chariots over a rough sui> 
the drought, chap. i. 19. t^, before face, Nab. iii. 2. See also Rev. ix. 9. 

himy and T^, behind him, are used to ,, t t « 

express universality; ubicunque. Comp. v .. 1^ ^^ >r 

1 6hron. xix. 10. ^This construction is ^S^^^^^^ voh^remque currum. 
confirmed by what follows : rro^ D3 IJorace, Carm. i. 34, 7. 

'fi np^HTft, and there is no escape from " vacuos dat in aera saltus 

them, or, more literally, in reference to Succubiturque alte, similisque est cur- 
Mem. 7m^ properly signifies those who rus inani.'' 
have escapea in war; who have not Ovid. Metam, iu 165., 

CHAP. IT.] JOEL. J 05 

Like the crackling of the flame of fire devouring the stubble ; 
Like a mighty people arranged for battle. 

6 Before them the people tremble ; 
All faces withdraw their colour. 

7 They run like mighty men ; 
They scale the wall like warriors ; 
They all march in their courses, 
They break not their ranks. 

8 They press not each other : 
They march on, each in his path ; 
Though they fell among the missiles, 
They break not up. 

9 They run eagerly through the city ; 
They run upon the wall ; 

Speaking of the noise made by a swarm by locusts, we cannot have a better proof 

of locusts, Forskal says: ** Transeuntes , , * i. , • 

grylli super verticem nostrum sono **^*" **^® ^^^^^^ proverb: ^ djsA 

marnas cataractae ferebant." To the _!l -..^..- t -it sl ^i i 

«ime effect Morier: "On the Uth of •i^f^\> ""'re terribk than the locusU. 

June, whfle seated in our tents about 7 — 9. Here the description quite 
noon, we heard a very unusual noise, excels in the graphic. The corn- 
that sounded like the rustling of a great pari^on to warriors is admirably carried 
wind at a distance. On looking up, we out. First, their rapid advance upon 
perceived an immense cloud, here and the city is specified ; next, their scaling 
there transparent, in other parts quite the walls in the most regular order; then 
black, that spread itself all over the sky, their consentaneous encounter with the 
and at intervals shadowed the sun." It troops of defence, their invulnerability, 
is, however, not improbable, that the their progress through the streets, their 
sound here referred to is that produced climbing the walls, and entering the 
by the large hind legs of the locust in windows of the houses, are set forth in 
leaping. The comparison at the end of terms of singular and appropriate beauty, 
the verse, is to the clashing of arms, and ^,^ * i. t jsj-^ i -a \ 
the touting of an army on the point of ^* ^^"^^ ^' ^^'^ ^neravtt, kuc. 
engaging in battle. fis9u», has here the signification of break- 
6. ^^, they tremble^ from ^, to turn ina up the order or regularity with which 
roundf twist onetelf, writhe with pain ; a body of troops proceed when marching 

then to tremble. Arab. JU, med. Wau *° ^^« ^^J±^\' Abenezra and Kimchi 

^ ' » compare rw, to pervert^ turn asiaej which 

to be turned, "Ww^, warmth, ruddiness comes nearly to the same thing. LXX. 

of countenance. Arab. .U astuavit, ckjcXiVo»o-c. Syr. ^O^JfiJ. Gesenius 

efferbuit. ynv^ y^?, to withdraw their thinks the verb is here used in a sense 

ruddiness, or colovr, i.e. to change colour, cognate with the significations in Kal 

grow pale with terror. Nah. ii. 11. SiTid HlphW, to give or take a pledge ; hui 

Comp. ^, to turn pale. The ancient the idea. o£ exchangej change, is not clearly 

versions concur in rendering the words, brought out. The regular military order 

every face like the blackness of a pot ; de- with which the locusts advance, has been 

riving the last word from "W ; hence "WiB, frequently described. *AfiaatS€VTov ydp 

pot, without M. Of the terror inspired i) cucpls, cor-parcvci fiiv ytip ^( iv^ 


106 JOEL. [chap. II. 

They go up into the houses; 
They enter the windows like a thief. 

10 Before them the earth trembleth. 
The heavens shake, 

The sun and the inoon are darkened, 
And the stars withdraw their shine. 

11 Jehovah uttereth his voice before his army ; 
Surely his camp is very large ; 

Surely it is mighty, executing his order ; 

€VTaicr&9 K€k€va'fiaTos* <l>aa\ di avrds enemy, from vM, to send or cast forth ; 

oToixribov that, koX <as Iv rd^i diurrao- but it u also frequently used of the 

Bai, Kol tjKiOTa luv ^ovoatbiC^a-Oai, Wfp- j r^ *i. a r \ 

/ ' j/\ * '^ »\\ '\ «_ . ' j\ sword. Comp. the Arab. ,^JUmi artna. 

UTTtiv oe ovTcos aXki^Aas, o>a-av€i Kal ^ C^ 

ddeXipaif <f>vaeo>s avTrjs ^pa^cvovo-jyr to to, is of somewhat difficult determi- 

d)iXaXXi/Xoi^. Cyril. The testimony of na'tion. The ground idea seems to be 

Jerome, as an eye-witness in Palestme, is that of mediation, a being, or doing any- 

peculiarly valuable : " Hoc nuper m hac ^;i,-,j^ between two ; hence T^a b^ri, to 

provincia vidimus. Quum enim locus- ^^ke supplication for any one, tie. by 

tamm aemina venirent, et aerem, quo interposing between him and the party 

inter ccelum et terram est, occuparent, to whom the supplication is addressed. 

tanto ordine ex dispositione jubentis Dei Xo this the signification derived from the 

Yolitant, ut instar tesserularum, quse m . , ^ , 

pavimentis artificis figuntur manu, suum ^'^^^' *^' P^^' "^^^'y approximates, as 

locum teneantf et ne puncto quidem, ut occurring in the Hebrew. Between, or 

ita dicam, ungueve transverso declinent among, will suit most of the passages in 

ad alteram,** Morier also remarks on which the word occurs. See Winer and 

those which he saw : " They seemed to Crednen Taking n^ as a collective 

be impelled by one common instinct, noun, the meaning of Tfr&n "iv^ ^3, will 

and moved in one body, which had the be to fall among the missiles, i. e. to light, 

appearance of being organized by a or come down among them; and referring 

leader." Comp. Prov. xxx. 27, f« "^l^^ W2a» to the whole swarm, what it ex- 

fe y^h «5i2 n|rw, tJiere is no king to the presses is, that they are not broken up, 

locusts, yet they go forth, all of them or interrupted in their course. Compare 

dividing, i; e. tiiemselves into regular a similar use of ti^, /o6rea^, Dan. xi. 22. 

companies or swarms, with all the dis- TV^ in the city, i. e. any city or town that 

cipline of a well-ordered army, pm, may lie in their way. Credner's appeal 

signifies so to press upon one as to com- to chap. iv. [iii.] 17, in proof that Jeru- 

pel him to move from his place. Not- salem is specifically meant, cannot be 

withstanding the immense crowds of the sustained, since that part of the prophecy 

locusts, not only does none of them break relates to a totally dififerent subject. Tlie 

the ranks by deviating from the straight scene is rather the land of Judah, with 

course which they pursue, but none its fortified cities, which were overrun 

forces his fellow from his rank. Their and plundered by the Assyrian troops, 
watchword may be said to be onward; 10, 11. Though the language here 

for they never turn back. If they enter employed may in part admit of a literal 

houses, they go straight through them, application to the obscuration of the air 

and out at the opposite side. Thus by the locusts, yet it is, as a whole, to be 

Abulphargius relates in his Chron. Syr. regarded as a specimen of the highly 

p. 134 : ** postquam a latere meridionale wrought hyperbolical, which forms one 

domos intraverant, a latere septem- of the more distinguishing features of 

trionale egrediabantur. n^, properly Hebrew poetry, nvp Mp, the voice of 

means any missile weapon thrown at an Jehovah, is here, as frequently, thunder. 

CHAP. II.] JOEL. 107 

Surely the day of Jehovah is great, and very terrible : 
Who can endure it ? 

12 Now, therefore^ saith Jehovah, 
Turn ye to me with all your heart, 

And with fasting and weeping and mourning; 

13 And rend your hearty and not your garments, 
And turn to Jehovah your God ; 

For he is pitiful and compassionate, 
Long-sufferingy and of great mercy. 
And repenteth of the evil. 

14 Who knoweth ? He may turn and repent, 
And leave a blessing behind him — 

An offering and a libation. 
For Jehovah your God. 

and not any word of command, as some 13. The prophet resumes his address, 

have imagined. Comp. Exod. ix. 23, and founds upon the call of Jehovah, 

29, 33 ; Pa. xviii. 14; JPs. Ixxvii. 18, 19. contained in the preceding verse, an ex* 

The locusts are called the ^, army of hortation to sincere inward repentance, 

Jehovah, with further reference to the which he supports by encouragements 

numbers and power of an army. One of deduced from the benignity of the divine 

the laws of Mohammed is thus expressed: character. Rending the garments was 

, usual on occasions of great mourning, 

JacJijdil Si^ IpU JWl IJCuJ y, see Gen. xxxvii. 29, 34 ; ISam.iv. 12; 

kT . r. , .*„ r , ^ \ 1 Kings xxi. 27 ; Ezra ix. 3, 5 ; Is. 

Ye thaa not ktU the loeuiUyjfor they are ^^^xvii. 1. This custom obtained not 

the army of God Almtghty. Damur. And ^^jy ^mong the Hebrews, but also among 

^\J\ i^,, Lord of thelocutts, is one ^^e Babylonians, Persians, Egyptians, 

J^ •> Greeks and Romans, nj^^, is neither 

of the names of God among the Moham- the plague of locusts, nor the invasion of 

medans. The entire description closes the Assyrians, but the calamities in 

with the brief but pointed interrogation, general which God brings upon man- 

v^ np. Who can endure it ? to which the kind. This interpretation the preceding 

implied answer is, None. Comp. Mai. context requires. 

iii. 2, Swa drm "rtotp n^, and Jer. x. 10, 14. The question vi\> n?, who knoweth, 
tog^ D^ ^*ry A, while it suggests the idea of the great- 
12. Jehovah himself is here intro- ness of the sin to be pardoned, also con- 
duced, urging the necessity of immediate veys that of the possibility of such pardon, 
humiliation. n^Droa^, is intensive. The « . ^^> *^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
^ is that of consequence, deducing an ^^.^. ^.^^^^ .^ ^^.j d&(Ppo^i, aUe 
argument from what had preceded ; Di is ir'Bnrai ^r » 
augmentative and emphatic. a< usually ^, ^.y % ,^ j ^^ ^ g^^^ 
in Joel; and rnw has special reference 'n'u te r f r- 
to the existing circumstances of the Haoliv '»•" 
persons addressed, and the instant atten- ^ ^ * ri. ^ - -qq 
tion which the divine message required. 

The combination marks strong feeling in God's leaving a blessing behind him, 

the speaker, and the urgent nature of presupposes his return to visit his people 

the subject to which it is introductory, in mercy. The first-fruits of prosperity 

It is to be connected with ^u^, and are due to Him through whose blessing 

not with ri)p] dh^, it is conferred. 

108 JOEL. [chap. II. 

15 Blow ye the trumpet in ZioD| 
Appoint a sacred fast ; 
Proclaim a day of restraint. 

16 Assemble the people : convene a sacred assembly ; 
Collect the aged ; gather the children, 

And those that suck the breasts ; 

Let the bridegroom come forth from his chamber, 

And the bride from her nuptial bed. 

17 Between the porch and the altar^ 

Let the priests, the ministers of Jehovah, weep ; 

And let them say, Have pity, O Jehovah ! upon thy people, 

And deliver not thine heritage to reproach, 

That the nations should rule over them. 

Why should they say among the people. 

Where is their God ? 

18 Then Jehovah will be jealous for his land, 

15, 16. Comp. ver. i. and chap. i. 14. of liketiing, or of exercUtng rule or 

Here the distribution into classes is more dominion. In fact, the verb is nowhere 

minute than in the latter of these pas- used either with or without the prepo- 

sages. The mourning was to be univer- sition in the signification of deriding, 

sal. The nen, was the bridal couch, It is the noun alone that is thus employed 

richly provided with a canopy, curtain?, in the forms WpJ pa, rrrj, wi?, a^, to be, 

&c. Root FjEn, lo cover, protect. See set, give, &c. to a derision, Ezek. xvi. 44, 

for the force of the reference to the last forms no exception. The ancient ver- 

class mentioned, Deut. zxiv. 5. sions all agree in the translation, that 

_ ^ j_ A , I I . ^^« heathen should rule over them, LXX. 

17. Djw, Arab. J^I, pnor, anterior; rov Kardp^at o^^tSp tOyrj, Targ. B^«>^ 

the TToovaos, or porch, before the temple» _ ,*.^ %^ ^ k *" f^ ^ 

more strictly taken. It was an hundred «^^ ^> Syr.|v.^v^, Ji^OiJ^kO 

and twenty cubits high, twenty broad Vulg. «^ rfomiiiifn/ttr e« nationes. Hexap. 

from north to south, and ten long from |. . i .. v. 

east to west. The rjin, altar, was that Syr. |V . ^n\ (!▲> ^0(71:^ ^OOOUO. 

of burnt-offering in the court of the Thus also Kimchi, Abenezra, Leo Juda, 

priests. Here, with their backs toward Junius and Tremellius, Jewish-Spanish, 

the altar, on which they had nothing to Lyranus, Drusius, Calvin, Newcome, 

offer, and their faces directed towards Dathe, Boothroyd, and Hengstenberg ; 

the residence of the Shekinah, they were and there does not appear to be any 

to weep, and make supplication on behalf reason why it could ever have been ren- 

of the people. nr\a opiqb, Jarchi, Seeker, dered otherwise, but for the influence of 

Michaelis, Rosenmiiller, Justi, Credner, the hypothesis, that the preceding part 

Winer, Gesenius, Maurer, Noyes, of the prophecy relates to locusts, and 

Hitzig, and Ewald, render, that the not to political enemies. " Ideo ridiculum 

nations should make a proverb of them; est quod muliiputant contexti sermonem 

but such construction is totally unauthor- de locustis : illud prorsus alienum est a 

ized by Hebrew usage. In upwards of Prophet» mente." Calvin, in loc, 
fifty instances, in which }*^ occurs in 

the Hebrew Bible, it is never once used 1^- ^Prt Arab. Uj, valde rubuit; in 

in the sense of employing derision, or Plel Mj?, to be jealous, from the redness 

satirical language, but unitormly in that or flush by which the face is suffused, 

CHAP. II.] JOEL. 109 

And take compassion upon his people ; 

19 Yea^ Jehovah will answer, and say unto his people. 
Behold ! I will send you the corn, 

And the new wine, and the oil, 

And ye shall have abundance thereof ; 

And I will no more deliver you to reproach among the nations. 

20 I will also remove the Northern from you. 
And drive him into a dry and barren land; 
His van towards the Eastern sea, 

And his rear towards the Western sea ; 

when a person is under the influence of the'reeions of Arabia, the Lybian deserts, 
passion. and the Sahara of £gypt; so that ac- 
19, 20. In the former of these verses, cording to the ustu loqiiendit they cannot 
respect is had to the removal of the be meant by the term here employed, 
calamity, from which the Jews were Indeed, so much has this been felt by 
suffering at the time the prophecy was some of those who have advocated the 
delivered; in the latter, that of the hypothesis, that locusts are intended, 
foreign enemy by whom the country was that they have been under the necessity 
to be invaded. The article is placed of having recourse to far-fetched expe- 
before ]3^, xtfrm, and yy^., to give them dients, in order to support it. Justi, 
prominence, as the principal objects contrary to all analogy, proposes to ren- 
which had suffered from the locusts, and der, *' the locusts that march northwards," 
which were now to be restored. The or to explain the term north of what is 
term 7^03^, the Northern, Northlander, dark, hostile, or barbarous; which Con- 
or, as Coverdale renders. Him of the struction of the meaning is, in part, 
North, is of prime importance in the adopted by Hitzig. Maurer, on the other 
interpretation of the prophecy. It has hand, setting aside these and other 
been urged against its having any refer- ., , . . .t * i. • • 
ence to the locusts, that they visit Pales- methods, has recourse to the Arab.^, 

tine from the south, and not from the deposuit excrementum, andithencedednceB 

north ; but this objection can scarcely be for '3^c», the signification of stercoretu, 

regarded as valid, since, though they do or, in case this derivation should not be 
not usually come from that quarter, yet • . ^. j j 

they may be carried by a south wind approved, to ^, decorttcare radendo, 

across Arabia Deserta, and then, when and considers the reference to be either 

to the north of Palestine, be driven south, xo the injurious influence of their dung 

or south-west into that country. That, on the trees, herbage, &c. or to their 

however, which determines the question, stripping them of their verdure, 
is the addition of the patronymic ' to On the supposition that by '3to»n, the 

|to3, indicating that the North was not . Northern, the Assyrians are meant, every 

merely the quarter whence the subject of difficulty vanishes. And that they may 

discourse came, but that its native country ^ith the strictest propriety be so termed, 

lay to the north of Palestine: just as jg proved by Zeph. ii. 13: "And he 

'pp'jnn, the Temanite, means the Southern, will stretch out his hand fO^_, upon the 

or he who dwells to the right of Pales- North, and destroy jtsyria, and will 

tine ; nsQ, a native Egyptian ; in Arabic make Nineveh a desolation, and dry as a 

wilderness." The Jews were accustomed 

jC«, a Meccite,A>jX^ a Medinite, i.e. to call Assyria and Babylonia the North, 

^ ^ " and the North country, because they lay in 

a native or inhabitant of Mecca and thatdirection from Palestine. "QusBres, 

Medina. Now it is agreed on all hands, quisnam hie Aquilonaris? S. Hieron. 

that the native country of the locusts is Theodor. Remigius, Albertus et Hugo 

no JOEL. [chap II. 

And his odour shall come up. 

And his stench ascend, 

Because he hath done great things. 

21 Fear not, O land ! rejoice and be glad. 
For Jehovah doeth great things. 

22 Fear not» ye beasts of the field ! 

For the pastures of the desert spring up, 

For the tree beareth its fruit ; 

The fig-tree and the vine yield their strength. 

23 Rejoice, ye sons of Zion ! and be glad in Jehovah your God ; 

accipiunt Sennacherib, quern Dominus, fuit, at aeram qaoque cornimperet, et 

longd fecit k Jerusalem : quia dum earn pestilentia tarn jumentorum, quam homi- 

obsideret, angelus Domini una nocte per- num gigneretur. it?^ and rjip, face and 

cussit centum octuaginta quinque millia end are here used in the military sense 

militum, itaque eam fugere compulit. of van and rear^ and cannot, without 

4 Reg. xix. 35." — A Lapide. violence, be interpreted of the swarm of 

The geographical specification which locusts, and a brood which succeeded 

follows m the verse is designed to express them, nsrr^, is a aira^ Xty, comp. nsY, to 

the universality of the destruction of the , ^ . .. . , * l - iv^ 

Assyrians. They were to be dispersed *« /«»*» putrid, to eUnk. Arab, ifes*^^ 

in every other direction but that from ^ordet. Giving an account of the locusts, 

which they had come. By ';t)Tgri w, the Thevenot says, " They live not above six 

^<w/tfm^tfa, is meant the Asphaltic lake; months, and, when dead, the stench of 

by tVtn«n oni, the Western Sea, the Medi- them so corrupts and infects the air, that 

terranean ; and by rTagtf>i rro yn«, a dry a often occasions dreadful pestilences." 

and desolate Umdj the deserts of Arabia, xhe concluding words of the verse cou- 

Literally the words '3^7^,; and ]VtTMn, yey the idea of moral agency, and can 

signify what is before and behind, and ^ith no propriety be interpreted of the 

are applied geographically in reference locusts, ntoj Y^, LXX. ifieyaXvv€ 
to the Orientals reckoning the different ' • 

auarters according to the positions of rAlfpya avrov. Svr. |^*-svVr> V Y^-j^ ^]. 
front and rear, right and left, while they 

face the east, which is with them the he exalted himself in acting. The phrase 

{)rincipal point of the compass. The is obviously used here in a bad sense, and 

anguage of the prophet is figurative, the indicates the pride of the Assyrians ; 

metaphor being still borrowed from the comp. 2 Kings xxi. 6, where n\tz}9b 77^7, 

locusts, which perish when blown by a a similar idiom, occurs. As employed in 

storm into the sea, or the sandy desert, the following verse of our prophet, it is 

Jerome refers to a similar scene, which placed in antithesis with the sense in 

literally happened when he was in Pales- which it is here used, and is to be dif- 

tine. " Etiam nostris temporibus," he ferently understood : viz. of the great 

says, " vidimus agmina locustarum ter- things that God would do for his people, 

ram texisse Judseam, quae postea vento comp. Ps. cxxvi. 2, 3. 
surgente in mare primum et novissimum 21 — 23. In these verses there is a 

precipitata sunt." And he immediately beautiful gradation. First, the land, 

adds, what illustrates the statement of which had been destroyed by the enemy, 

Joel relative to the ascending of the is addressed in a prosopopoeia ; then the 

stench : " Cumque littora utriusque irrational animals which had suffered 

maris acervis mortuorum locustarum from the famine ; and lastly, the inhabi- 

quas aquae evomuerant, implerentur, tants themselves. All are called upon 

putredo earum et foetor in tantum noxius to cast off their fears, and rejoice in the 

CHAP, il] JOEL. 1 1 1 

For he giveth you the former rain in due measure ; 
Yea, he causeth the heavy rain to descend for you — 
The former and the latter rain as before : 

happy change which Jehovah would begins with these inferior blessings, and 
effect Desolation, barrenness, and afterwards, in ver. 28, proceeds to treat 
famine, would disappear, and times of of those which are spiritual. Secondly, 
prosperity and happmess return. |^*s *j|, the repetition of the same term, rn^o, im- 
Sons of Zion, properly the inhabitants of mediately after, where, as all allow, it 
Jerusalem, but here evidently used to must be taken in the acceptation of rain. 
denote those of the land generally, of And thirdly, the peculiar force and co- 
which Jerusalem was the metropolis, and herence of the words, rrnDrrrv), and 
Zion the centre of religious influence. vS^p^ rrfto atja. The emphasis given to 
r^ns? nito, is rendered in the Targ. fo^^ ngto, by prefixing not only the article n, 
O^y your teacher in righteoumets ; which but also the determinating particle dh, 
Abarbanel explains, rrrro rrwon Irpo wm shows that the prophet had some imme- 
pB»» "TW nrawan nun m na^ Tnn rw. And diate and definite object in view, which 
he is the king Meisiahf who shall teach we cannot imagine to have been any 
them the way in which they should walk, other than the autumnal rain, which was 
and the works that they should do. The indispensable any year, and more espe- 
same, or a similar construction of the cially after such a season of drought, to 
words is found in the Vulg. Rufinus, prepare the ground for nourishing the 
Jarchi, Pagninus, Munster, Leo Juda, seed. It must have been an object of 
Castalio, the Jewish-Spanish, Remigius, universal and anxious desire, and has, in 
Rupertus, Vatablus, Ribera, Mercer, consequence, a high degree of import- 
(Ecolamp. Luther, and most of the early ance and prominence allotted to it in the 
Lutheran interpreters ; and, among the text See on the force of n^ the Lex- 
modems, Pick and Hengstenberg, the icons of Lee and Gesenius. The same 
latter of whom contends for it at con- consideration will account for the form, 
siderable length, and decidedly considers and the particular signification of rT,M^ 
the passage to be one of the Messianic in this place. The ^ is to be taken ad- 
prophecies. That ^rm signifies teacher, verbially, as pointing out the rule or 
18 beyond all doubt, see 2 Chron. xv. 3 ; measure according to which the rain was 
Job xxxvi. 22 ; Is. ix. 15, xxx. 20 ; and to be bestowed, which is declared to be 
from the occurrence of the word in this ^^^i so that the meaning will be, in just 
place in connexion with m^, righteous- quantity, adequately, in the proportion 
ness, which is so frequently referred to suitable to the exigency of the case, 
the Messiah both in the Old and New pys, the root from which this noun is de- 
Testaments, there is something very rived, signifies to be ^tft^, rt^A^; to come 
plausible in the application of the term up to certain claims, to be what a person 
to him who is specially called by Malachi or thing ought to he. Comp. Lev. xix. 36, 
n^ xSnsf, The Sun op Righteousness, where P^ is used of weights and mea- 
cbap. iv. 4, t. e. the author of that illu- siu-es that were exact, or came up to the 
mination or knowledge which has right- demands of the law. Some propose to 
eousness for its object To such interpre- render n;ns^, bountifully, but this would 
tation, however, there appears to me to be give the Chaldee rather than the Hebrew 
the following insuperaUe objections : — signification. Ewald translates, the early 
First, it is repugnant to the circumstances rain /or yt»/i/?ca^to;i, and explains it of 
of the context ;" non videtur tamen ferre the Jews being again accounted right- 
hunc sensum circumstantia loci." Calvin ; eous by God. To the objection of Hengs- 
who says of the reason adduced in support tenberg, that if iinto in the first half of 
of it, that it would be out of place to give the verse does not designate a different 
such prominence to merely temporal divine benefit from rn^ in the second, 
blessings : *' sed ratio ilia est nimis fri- an idle tautology will ensue, it is only 
gida;" and goes on to show that, in accord- necessary to reply, that the words occur 
ance with the custom of the prophets, Joel in parallelism, and that in the second 

112 JOEL. [chap. II. 

24 So that the floors shall be fuU of grain, 

And the vats shall run over with new wine and oil. 

25 Thus he will make good to you the years 
Which the swarming locust hath devoured, 

The licking locust, the consuming locust, and the gnawing locust, 
My great army which I sent against you. 

26 And ye shall eat plentifully and be satisfied. 
And shall praise the name of Jehovah your God, 
Who hath dealt wondrously with you : 

And my people shall never be ashamed. 

27 Then shall ye know, that I am in the midst of Israel, 

instance nYo is merely a resumption for wttroa is similarly used ; and for |Ta5irj, 
the sake of dividing the D(| mentioned in the sense oi former, 1 Sam. zvii. 30 ; 
immediately before into its two regular Hagg. ii. 3. Thus the LXX. Syr. Vulg. 
divisions, the /onntfr and the /fl^^er. The Arab. One of Kennicott's MSS. and 
term elsewhere used for the former or perhaps another, reads t^«Jw}3. The el- 
autumnal rain, which falls from the lipsis of 3 is not infrequent in the Hebrew 
middle of October until the middle of Scriptures. 

December, is nji», lit. the waterer, being 24. Here the happy results of the 

the Benoni Participle of rrr, to dart, plentiful and seasonable rains are set 

easif or scatter, as drops of water, rn^, forth. The i in ^^\ is consequential, 
however, which is the Hiph. Participle 

of the same verb, does occur in the same 'S'^, comp. the Arab. ^^, propulit, 

nr^HoJ: ^Mere"^: Z f <^-J- -i'«^'>M-«. to ca^e to 
l,,tUr or yernal rain is also explained. fi^^\ '"J^'^ 'T'' ^"^ % "" °" I"- '': ^• 

The reading rrfr, which isVound in- J\ ^'" ** P~P^«' ''" "'f™ '""«'? 

« J r *i c -T. v^ • * i, 4U the plasiie of locusts descnbed m chap. i. 

stead of the former rnta m twenty-three * ,®_ n u j u* j 'fu ^ 

XiTcc • • 11 • 1 cannot well be doubted. The names, 

MSS., originally m eleven more, now in ., u i j • jo* * j 

.1 • ^ T "^ 1 rri i_ 1 J though placed m a different order, are 

three, m the Jerusalem Talmud, and as ., f. / .., ., ., ?/. j 

Ken in the margin of two of De Rossi's '4*""'=»' '^'^ ,*»''« **" , '^^^'^^■ 

Codices, is in favour of the rendering ^hey are called Gods great army a 

/. 1 . ., . f II .1 1 ^ name still eiven to them by the Arabs. 

raviu which is that of all the early ver- « 1 1 tu i. *i. 

' , . -ui u • • ♦ J See on ver. 11. Though the scourge 

r"':„- ^^ r^ ^ w>l^ *"* T^ t, •"ted only one year, yet a. they not 
n emendahon. Wuh respect to the , ^J^^^^ ^^^ '^{^^^ ^uce of 

latter occurrence of the word, there is no ^^ ^^^ ^> ^ ^,^ ^^^^ ^J^^^ ^^ j^ 

variety of reading. D^a, Arab. ^|AMb>-* <^tore for future years, there is no im- 

r propriety in the plural form of 0*3^, 

corpus, et omne id quod longum, largum years. The term is used metonymicaliy 

et projfundum est ; Chald. the body : ap- for the produce and supply of years, 

plied to such rain as is heavy, or violent. The loss of these Jehovah promises to 

and pours down as it were in a body, recompense or make good by not only 

The verbs ]n^ and Ti^^, are prophetic fumisning the Jews with an abundance 

futures. To render ]VA<rQ, in the. first of temporal enjoyments, but affording 

month, would involve a contradiction, them the delightful experience of his 

since only one of the two rains could presence and favour as their covenant 

happen in that month. It seems, there- God. This promise is amplified in 

fore, necessary to suppose an ellipsis of 3, verses — 

the participle of comparison, and read 26, 27, In which the future prosperity 

fti>tr^^ as formerly, OT as in former times, of the Jewish church is descnbed in 

Comp. Jer. i. 22; Jer. xxxiii. 11, where terms, which obviously characterise the 

CHAP, n.] JOEL. 1 IS 

And that I, Jehovah, am your God, and none else ; 
And my people shall never be ashamed, 

28 And it shall come to pass, afterwards, 
That I will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh ; 
And your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, 
Your old men shall dream dreams, 

Your young men shall see visions ; 

29 And even upon the male and the female servants 
I will pour out my Spirit in those days. 

period which succeeded that of the TTirr, " Because it is said, And ye shall 
Babylonish captivity. The divine re- know that I am in the midst of you. 
compense was not merely to cover the What he says is, Now ye know, but 
evils sustained by the ravages of the not with a perfect knowledge, for ye 
locusts ; it was to extend to those which will again commit sin before me ; but 
both the Assyrians and the Chaldeans after this knowledge there shall come a 
were to inflict upon the nation. This time when ye shall know me with a 
interpretation is confirmed by what im- perfect knowledge, and shall sin no 
mediately follows respecting the out- more, namely, in the days of the Mes- 
pouring of the Holy Spirit. By God's siah." That the two phrases are iden- 
Deing in the midst of his people, is tical in meaning* clearly appears from 
meant the special manifestation of his a comparison of Jer. xlviii. 47, witli 
presence in the communications of his xlix. 6. See on Is. ii. 2. ^|Di^ signifies 
favour. The resumption of ^>f in *3tn, to pour otUf to communicate in a plentiful 
forms a beautiful anadiplosis. and abundant manner, and is here used 
28, 29. The prophet now proceeds to with the greatest propriety to denote the 
predict the impartation of richer gifts in larger and richer supplies of divine in- 
future times tnan those temporal bless- fluence, which were to be afforded to 
ings which had just been promised to the church under the gospel dispensation, 
the Jews. ]3T!C^y afterward, LXX. rm, spirit, means here the influences and 
uera ravra, Hengstenberg would place gifts of the Holy Spirit, as m numerous 
m antithesis with ]^vi»n|, ver. 23, which other passages, in which the Spirit is 
he tenders first; but the latter phrase said to be put, given, &c.; and these 
has reference to what had already taken communications are described in Ian- 
place, and was not future to the time of guage which shows that they were both 
the prophet. pT!n^) though indefinite, to be more general and more special in 
is nearly equivalent in force to nnnH their character. In a more general 
D*Q^, Is. ii. 2, as appears from its having point of view, they were to be bestowed 
been rendered by the apostle Peter upon '>^|'^t all flesh, i. e. mankind ge- 
cv raii iaxarais i^fiipais, in the last nerally, without distinction of nation or 
datfs, Jarchi, ki^ thp^, in futurity : country. To restrict this phrase to the 
Abenezra, •Tr»^H!*nnMia3nnHita»"ro*'i'roM Jews, as is done by Abcnezra, Kimchi, 
rrm pn p mw tdm no^ p dm "o* parr rroo 'ti Albo, Hitzig, and others, is irreconcilable 
jcnm rrrwa, <* Rabbi Jeshua saith, All with Scripture usage, according to which 
this is a prophecy of the future; and it constantly signifies mankind gene- 
Rabbi Moses the priest saith, If so, rally, or the whole human race ; just as 
why does he say after Mtt.^ but it is . j Ia i . t r 
the same as, and U shall come to pass in >» Arabic,^ and^Ujl signify homo, 
the latter days:" in which interpretation , ^^ , . ,„^ . ««n« j 
Kimchi concu™, adding, Drt^*^no«« ^ humanum genus, and Adam is called 

niy«? rorr M^ TTin nro TOM .--M bMTW a-ipa nj *j) I a^ father of flesh, i.e. of 

TO iMBsrm M^ no^ rwT tiv xoirrco pi Ma* mankind. Credncr would have the 
rw rm yvm rwhQ »d y^^w rroKin rrm^ vnm phrase to include the animal creation, 


114 JOEL. [chap. 11. 

30 And I will show prodigies in the heavens and in the earth. 

Blood and fire, and columns of smoke. 

than which no construction could be 24,31,39; which psMages furnish itri- 
more preposterous in such connexion, king illustrative examples of the fulfil- 
or more at variance with other passages ment of the prophecy of Joel. See also 
in which the communication of the in- 1 Chron. xxv. 1 — ^3 ; and Mede's works, 
fluences of the Spirit are limited to the Book I. Discourse xvi. That we are 
human family. The influence, of which fully warranted to interpret it of the 
universality is here predicated, is the extraordinary supernatural gifts which 
saving energy which is exerted by the were vouchsafed m the apostolic age, is 
Holy Spirit, in commencing, carrying placed bevond doubt by its allegation by 
on, and consummating the work of reter, in justification of the phenomenon 
grace in the souls of men. It accom- which took place on the day of Pente- 
panies the presentation of divine truth cost, tovto core, this » the fact pre- 
to the mind, and removes the obstacles dieted by Joel, Acts ii. 16. The quo- 
which the force of innate depravity talion was the more apt, since the words 
opposes to the reception of the gospel, of the prophet had just been read in the 
See my Lectures on Divine Inspiration, pentecostal service of the Synsurogue. 
pp. 526 — 530. Besides the influence See my Biblical Researches and Travels 
which was thus to be vouchsafed for the in Russia, p. 326. nio-^, dreamt, and 
purposes of salvation, the prophet spe- ^^t vUiotu^ belonged to the different 
cifies that which should be more limited modes in which God revealed his will 
in its communication, consisting in the to the prophets. Numb. xii. 6 ; 1 Sam. 
miraculous endowment of a certain xxviii. 6, 15 ; Jer. xxiii. 25 — 28; Dan. 
number of Jews, of different classes vii. 1, 2. See my Lectures on Inspi- 
and conditions, with the knowledge of ration, pp. 147 — 165. Though no ex- 
divine things, and the ability infallibly press mention is made of dreams in the 
to communicate them to others. The apostolic writings, yet repeated reference 
persons on whom these gifts were to be is to vitiont. See Acts ix. 10, 12, x. 3, 
conferred are their " sons and daugh- 17, xi. 5, xvi. 9, xviii. 9, xxvi. 19 ; 
ters;" their "aged men," and their 2 Cor. xii. 1 ; Rev. ix. 17. ox\, and even, 
"youths;" their "male" and " fe- indicates a rise in the prophecy, wl.ich 
male servants;" terms which are mani- was intended to exclude none, not even 
festly designed to teach that their the lowest and most despised "servantu," 
bestowment was to embrace persons of from a participation in the large bestow- 
difierent classes, ranks, and conditions ment of divine influence. In beautiful 

^f Kfi» LM1 A V I * • J' -A harmony with this feature of the pro- 

01 lire. Kaa, Arab. \jo, tndtcatntt an- ^x^^ :i •v • i •»• T i 

^ ' . ' * pnecy is the special recognition of ol 

nunciavif, Eth. inn* locuttts est, wrooxoi, the poor, in the New Testament. 

Tinp : -«--^ «*, ^*.««. i. S'^TSii^rrw^rtti Su^n^^ 

used not merely to denote the foretelling of which, in general, they were to be 

of future events, but to express the partakers, was not merely that which 

giving of utterance to divine truth under consisted in the miraculous gifU, but al^^o 

a miraculous impulse, or the pretending that ordinary and saving influence which 

to such impulse, whether the utterance is experienced by all believers. What 

was made in the way of direct com- incontrovertibly proves that the prophecy 

munication, as was the case when the includes both a more ordinary, and a 

prophets addressed their hearers, or by more extraordinary or miraculous divine 

the rehearsal or singing of sacred hymns agency, is the extension given to it by the 

under extraordinary divine impulse, as apostle Peter, Acteii. 38,39; where he 

when Miriam sung at the Red Sea, teaches that it was to comprehend " all 

Exod. XV. 20, 21 ; or when the sons of thatare afaroff;"i.e. the Gentiles, "even 

the prophets and Saul prophesied, 1 Sam. as many as the Lord our God shall call." 

X. 5, 6, xix. 20—24. Comp. Acts xix. 6, 30, 31. In connexion with this period 

XXI. 9; 1 Cor. xi. 4, 5, xiv. 1, 5, 6, 22, of the rich enjoyment of divine influence, 

CHAP. II.] JOEL. 115 

31 The sun shall be turned into darkness. 
And the moon into blood, 
Before the great and the terrible day of Jehovah come. 

Joel introduces one of awful judgment, 0*2?f3to, prodigietf whatever objects are 
called aautmalTtnirff*, the day of Jehovah, unustial, portentoust or nuraculouSf in 
the precursors of which he describes in their character. The word is most pro- 
very alarming language. That the de- bablya derivative from ri|^ Arab. Conj.iii. 
stniction of Jerusalem and the Jewish 

polity is intended, most interpreters are ^y em'muitt to be conspicuous, admi- 
agreed; but there exists a diversity of 

opinion respecting the character or the rable, wonderful, LXX. rtpara. It 
language, some taking it literally, as frequently occurs in combination with 
setting forth physical prodigies, such as ^^ni<. oTfiuia, signs, nVtp^n, only occurs 
those which Josephus relates to have once besides, and, as here, in construc- 
taken place before the destruction of tion with p^, viz. Song iii. 6; where, 
Jerusalem, and tremendous massacres however, nineteen MSS. and originally 
and conflagrations in different parts of another read nV\t^, without the Yod, 
the country ; while others maintain which is doubtless the more correct or- 
that it is symbolical, and consequently thography, the Yod having been inserted 
18 to be figuratively explained. The as a help (to the pronunciation. There 
latter position is more in accordance can be little doubt that it is derived from 
with the style of prophecy, in which we ton, to be erect, whence 1^, the palm- 
not only find a fixed set of symbols, but tree, from its tall and erect growth, 
also, very frequently, an accumulation Comp. the Chaldee rn^, a column of 
of images is introduced for the purpose 

of producing a more powerful effect on smoke; iWiPn, Arab. .yJlJ and ijyJSi tur- 
the mind. See on Is. xiii. 10, xxxiv. 

3 — 5. The heavens and the earth, ris ; and -^t to rise like a column. The 

therefore, mean the political world, wiih phrase will,' therefore, be equivalent to 

its civil and religious establishments ; ^ n^, of which we have the singular 

the sun and moon, the higher and supe- |iJ -viai, Jud. xx. 40. LXX. arfiido 

nor ruling powers ; while the other Kanvov ; but in Song iii. 6, crT€X«x»7 

images are employed to denote the xanvov. Vulg. vaporem fumi, Targ. 

disastrous prognosticatory changes that ||iii pro;, columns of smoke^ the singular 

were to happen in relation to both, of which is used Jud. xx. 40. Tan- 
Comp. Matt. xxiv. 29 ; Mark xiii. 24, 25 ; 

Luke XX. 25—27, where the subject is chum : JC^ Jl ,U-»yJl id^\, pillars 
the same as that exhibited by Joel, and J^ w * 

the symbolical language in a great mea- ^f gj^oke ascending up. Those who are 

sure parallel. Similar images are used familiar with the account given by Jo- 
by pagan writers, when describing the gpphus of the disorders, convulsions, 
forerunners of civil wars, as, for instance, excesses, and rebellions, which preceded 
Lucanus, Pharsal. lib. ver. 529 :— the subversion of the Jewish state, will 

« Superigne minaces readily admit, that the figurative Ian- 

Prodigiis terras implerunt, rethra, guage here employed most appropri- 
pontum. ately sets forth the awful circumstances 

Ignota obscurse viderunt sidera'noctes, of the inhabitants of Palestine at that 

.£^entemque polum flammis, coeloque period. To render more prominent the 
volantes, tremendous nature of the final judg- 

Obliquas per inane faces, crinemque ment of the Jews, when their city and 
timendi. polity were destroyed, it is not merely 

Slderis, et terris mutantem regna called http dV, but kJstJ ^""f? Pj^ D\», the 
cometen. great and fearful day of Jehovah ; terms 

Fulgura fallaci micuerunt crebra se- which are employed by the prophet 
reno, Malachi, iv. 5, (Heb. iii. 23,) in reference 

Etvarias ignis denso dedis aere formns." to the same event. 

116 JOEL. [chap. II. 

32 And it shall come to pass, 

That whosoever shall call upon the name of Jehovah shall be 

delivered : 
For in Mount Zion, and in Jerusalem shall be the escaped. 
According as Jehovah hath promised, 
Together with those who are lefk, 
Whom Jehovah shall call. 

32. The phrase nJrrD^Mng, usuallv fiivav, jt. r.X. Euseb. lib. iii. cap. v. 
means to invoke Jehovah accoreUng to hit ^^, is a collective noun, signifying 
true character, and designates such as those who have escaped; in other words, 
he would regard in the light of accep- 17 cV 'UpoaoXvfiois cjucXi/o-mi, " the churcb 
table worshippers ; but» on comparing m Jerusalem" as Eusebius phrases it in 
the quotation of the words with direct the above quotation, who not only made 
reference to our Saviour, Rom. x. 13, their escape from the impending calamity, 
with Acts ix. 14, 1 Cor. i. 2, it appears but from the " untoward generation" to 
to be here employed as a periphrasis for whicb they had belonged, Acts ii. 40 ; 
those Jews who should embrace the faith Is. iv. 3 ; so that the meaning is, not that 
of the Messiah, and render to him as there should continue to be deliverance 
7t\7Vf Jehovah, the same supreme worship for those who remained in Zion and Je- 
which had been rendered to God by their rusalem during the infliction of the 
pious ancestors. From the passage just punishment, but that those who resided 
quoted from the Acts, it is clear that the there should make their escape from it, 
disciples of Christ were characterised as having previously been delivered from 
invoiers of his name, i. e. as his wor- the condition of those on whom it was 
shippers, before they were called Chris- inflicted. The words njr td^ t^s, refer 
tians. The prophecy contains a gracious to the promise just made, uyyp}, tO' 
promise, that, however terrible might be gether with those that have been left, from 
the final catastrophe in which the un- 
believers should perish, provision would T?^> Arab. dJii, atfugit, vagatusguefuit, 
be made for the safety of those who be- 

lieved in the Messiah. And church his- ^jj^, and 4>. jft, aufugens, to flee, make 

tory records its fulfilment; for, on the -^ "^^ 

approach of the Roman army, the chris- one's escape, survive a slaughter, or any 

tian inhabitants of Jerusalem took to other calamity. The reference seems 

flight, in compliance with the Saviour's not to be to converted Gentiles, as 

warning, and retiring to Pella, on the Schmidius, Michaelis, Holzbausen, and 

eastern side of the river Jordan, found others interpret, but to those Jews who 

there a- safe asylum, while the devoted did not perish in the national judgments, 

city was being besieged and destroyed, but were called into the church of Christ. 

— ov fuv aXXd Kaj rov \aov ttjs iv 'Upo- MTjJ, as employed in the last clause of the 

<ro\vfU}Ls iKKkfja-ias, Kara rtva xprjcfiov verse, signifies to call, in the sense of 

Toir avToBi boKifiois di' an-0KaXt;^6tt>f efiectually prevailing upon any one to 

BoBtvTa vp6 rov woXifiov, fitTavaaTfjpot choose and participate in the blessings of 

rrjs irS\«os, Kainva Trjs wtpaias vokiif the divine kingdom. Comp. EaXco), as 

olKflv K€K€\€V(rfuvov, wtWav avTtjvovo' used by Paul, Rom. viil. 28, 30, ix. 24 ; 

liaCovcTLV tp u rSv €h Xpiarov ircm- 1 Thess. ii. 12. tnj7, the Participle here 

0r€VK6rav dn6 ttjs *Upov<raKijfi pLtjtaKur- denotes the future. 

CHAP. III.] JOEL. 117 


Id thifl chapter the prophet returns from the parenthetic view which he had ex- 
hibited of the commencement of the Christian dispensation, and the overthrow 
of the Jewish polity, to deliver predictions respecting events that were to transpire 
subsequent to the Babylonish captivity, and fill up the space which should inter- 
vene between the restoration of the Jews, and the first advent of Christ. He 
announces the judgment to be holden on their enemies after the return to Judea, 
1, 2 ; specifies the reasons why they were to be punished, and expressly mentions 
by name the neighbouring nations of Tjrre, Sidon, and Philistia, 3 — 6 ; promises 
the restoration of those Jews whom these states had sold into slavery, while they 
are threatened with slavery in return, 7, 8 ; summons the nations to engage in 
the wars in which they were to be destroyed, 9 — 15 ; shows, that since these 
convulsions were brought about by the providence of Jehovah, whose earthly 
throne was at Jerusalem, his people had no ground for alarm, and would expe- 
rience his protection, 16, 17; predicts times of great prosperity to them, 18; 
and concludes with special denunciations against Egypt and Idumea, with whose 
fate is placed in striking contrast the protracted existence of the Jewish polity, 

1 Fob, behold ! in those days, and at that time. 

When I shall reverse the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem, 

2 I will gather all the nations, 

And bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat, 
And will plead with them there, 

1,2. Mm nsa^ noD? csn^^l, is a double twenty-five of Kennicott's MSS.; hot 

mode of expression, employed to give the frequent occurrence of n^f a^, in 

greater prominence to the period. That which the Kal form is to be taken causa- 

the ** days and time " here specified, tively, shows that there was no necessity 

are not identical with the period spoken for the emendation. See Ps. xiv. 7, 

of in the last five verses of the preceding liii. 7, cxxvi. 7 ; Is. Hi. 8. Some in^ 

chapter, is evident from their being con- terpret the phrase of a general resto- 

nected by the relative conjunctioniQiH, ration to circumstances of prosperity, 

with the following words, which relate without any reference to previous circum- 

to. the restoration of the Jewish state, stances of actual captivity, as in the case 

% at the beginning of the verse, is pro- of Job xlii. 1 ; but considering its 

perly rendered foTf and refers back to common application to the return from 

chap. ii. 21 — 27, in which verses times Babylon, and the express mention of the 

of great temporal prosperity are pro- scattering of the nation among the 

mised to the Jews. With this prosperity heathen, ver. 2, it seems more natural to 

was intimately connected the punishment refer it to the same event in this place, 

of the nations by which they had been That the restoration of the Jews from 

afflicted ; and, accordingly, such punish- their present dispersion is meant, and 

ipent forms the subject of the present that the judgments to be inflicted on the 

diapter. Instead of aitii$, the Keri sub- nations are those which are predicted, 

stitutes 3*^, in which it is supported by Rev. xvi. 14, 16, is rendered impossible 

118 JOEL. [chap. III. 

On account of my people, and Israel mine inheritance. 
Whom they have scattered among the nations, 
And have divided my land ; 

3 And have cast lots for my people. 
And given a boy for an harlot. 
And sold a girl for wine, 

That they might drink. 

4 And truly, what are ye to me, O Tyre and Zidon ! 
And all the coasts of Philistia ? 

Will ye retaliate upon me ? 

by the introduction of the Tyrians, Si- x^^pav rrjv Kpltrttb^, The nations to be 

donians, Philistines, &c. verses 4 and 19, punished are restricted, ver. 2, to such 

since these statesall received their punish- as should have scattered the Jews, and 

ment prior to the advent of Christ. By occupied their land. Comp. chap. ii. 17. 

'^f^^^T^'Slfthe valley of Jehothaphaty %ome 3. The Jews were frequently treated 

understand the narrow valley through in the most ignominious manner by their 

which the brook Kedron flows, between enemies. Such conduct is here affect- 

the city of Jerusalem and the mount of ingly set forth. That it was customary 

Olives. To this valley or glen, in which to cast lots for those who were taken 

is the celebrated burying- place of the captive, see Obad. ver. 11 ; Nah. iii. 10. 

Jews, the Rabbins have appropriated The giving of a boy for a whore, does 

the name, and maintain, that in it the not mean the exchange of the one for 

final judgment of the world is to be held ; the other, but the payment of the captive 

— ^a conceit in which they have been fol- for an act of sensual indulgence ; just as 

lowed by many Christian writers, as well the selling of a girl for wine, means 

as by the Mohammedans. Others sup- giving her in compensation for a draught 

pose it to be a designation of the valley, of it Comp. Gen. zxzviii. 17; comp. 

otherwise called n^ p^j^, ih9 valley of also Deut xxii. 18, where ns^i pr^, the 

blessing, 2 Chron. xx. 26 ; but as neither hire of a whore, is coupled with l^ ^rnp, 

of these localities at all comport with the the price of a dog ; and the Arabic 
magnitude of the subject treated of by 

the prophet, we have no alternative but proverb, c^^V ^Ij <•«>)> ^^ son of a 
that of considering the words, not as ^* *. j \^* 
constituting a proper name, or the name whore hired with oil. Meid. xciv. Char* 
of any specific locality, but as symbolical den mentions that when the Tartars came 
in their import, and designed to charac- into Poland, they carried off all the chil- 
terise the theatre of the bloody wars dren they could, and; finding at length 
that took place after the Babylonish cap- that they were not redeemed, sold them 
tivity, by which the hostile nations con- at the low price of a crown. In Min- 
tiguous to Judea had signal vengeance grelia, he adds, they sell them for pro- 
inflicted upon them. They literally sig- visions, and for wine, 
nify, the valley where Jehovah judgeth, 4. Among the nations bordering on 
and mean the scene of divine judgments, the country of ihe Jews, which had ren- 
The term valley appears to have been dered themselves particularly obnoxious 
selected on account of such locality to the divine wrath, were those on the 
beins mentioned in Scripture as the west, for which see on Is. xxiii. and 
usual theatre of military conflict. This xiv. 28. ^ dpm np □!}, and truly what 
view of the subject is supported by the are ye tome? Think ye that I make any 
Targ. in which the words are not re- account of you ? or that ye can succest- 
tained, but translated >^ yf^ T?^* the fully oppose yourselves to me ? The in- 
jMn of the dittribuUon of judgment, terroeation is altogether different in 
and by the translation of Theodot rfjv meanmg, as it is in form, from the idiom 

ciJAP. III.] JOEL. 119 

If^ indeed, ye retaliate upon me, 

Speedily and swiftly I will bring your retaliation 

Back upon your own^head. 

5 • Because ye have taken away my silver and my gold ; 

And my goodly objects of delight 
Ye have carried into your temples ; 

6 And have sold the sons of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem 
To the sons of the Javanites, 

That they might be removed far from their own border. 

7 Behold ! I will rouse them from the place 
Whither ye have sold them ; 

And bring back your retaliation 
Upon your own head ; 

8 I will sell your sons and your daughters 
Into the hand of the sons of Judah, 

RP^ ^V^t what have we in eommon ? with highly esteemed by the Jews are more 
which Kiinchi compares it. rM^, cir- probably meant ; since it does not appear 
euiUy dittricte. Comp. Josh. xiii. 2, that ever the enemies specified by Joel 
where the word is rendered coa«/« in our plundered the temple at Jerusalem, 
version. Tliey were properly provinces, though express mention is made of the 
of which there were five in number, each plunder of the royal palace by the Phi- 
governed by apD, prince^ or hrd. ^, listines, &c., 2 Chron. xxi. 17. Comp. 
all, before n^3, expresses contempt Hos. xiii. 15; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 19. It 
DI4, is not here correlate with n, in Vwin, was customary to hang up or deposit in 
but puts a fresh case for the sake of ar- the idolatrous temples, as presents dedi- 
gument. The case supposed, however, cated to the gods, certain portions of the 
was true in fact. The interrogative n as- spoils taken in war. Arrian, ii. 24. Cur- 
sumes here the form of the article, as in tins, iv. 2. 

several other places. See on Amos v. 25. 6. D\31^ ^3^, the tone of the Javaniiee^ 

Vol, signifies to do good or evU to any one ; i. e. the Grecians. Comp. vUv 'AxaiSy, 

then to recomp^nff him, either with good of Homer; and see on Is. Ixvi. 19. 

or evil ; to reward, retaliate. The mean- Credner, Hitzig, and some others, think 

ing here seems to be, that if these bor- that the prophet refers to Javanites of 

dering states, taking advantage of certain Arabia Felix, mentioned Ezek. xxvii. 1 9 ; 

untoward circumstances in the history of but the reasons they adduce in favour of 

the Jews, attempted to revenge the vie- their opinion are insufiicient to establish 

tories gained over them by the latter, the point. In Ezek. xxvii. 13, Javan is 

they should be dealt with in the way of mentioned, along with Tubal and Me- 

divine retaliation. Jehovah here speaks shech, as trading in the persons of men 

of what was done to his people as done with the merchants of Tyre. Slavery 

to himself. Comp. Zech. iL 8; Matt, formed an important article of Phoenician 

XXV. 40. rnnp ^, is an asvndeton. Comn. commerce, and equally so of that carried 

Is. v. 26, where the order of the words on by the Greeks, to whom the former 

is reversed. might easily convey the Jewish captives. 

5. As in the preceding verse God had So famous did the island of Delos become 

identified himself with his people, so here as a slave mart, that sometimes 10,000 

he speaks of their property as his. Some were bought and sold in a sioele day. 

suppose the precious vessels belonging to 7, 8. cr^i^, Sabeane; Pococke's Arab, 

the temple to be intended by trjferfnpnp, ti i i i 

but the articles of private property most MSS. ^^1 JAI, the people of Jemen. 

120 JOEL. [chap, hi. 

And they shall sell them to the Sabeans, to a distant nation ; 
For Jehovah hath spoken it. 
9 Proclaim ye this among the nations ; 
Prepare war; rouse the mighty; 
Let all the warriors approach ; let them come up. 

10 Beat your coulters into swords. 
And your pruning-hooks into spears ; 
Let the feeble say, I am mighty. 

11 Hasten and come, all ye nations around, 
And gather yourselves together ; 

Thither cause thy mighty ones to come down, O Jehovah ! 

12 Let the nations be roused, let them come up 

See on Is. Ix. 6. As the Sabeans traded ordinary implements of husbandry would 

with India, it is not improbable that be converted into weapons. 

t^^distantf may be designed to include 

that part of the East ; though it is said " ■ squalent abductis arva 

of the Queen of Sheba, that she came colonis, 

/k t&v nepdrmv r^i yrjsi Matt xi. 42. Et curve rigidum falces conflantur in 

This prophecy was fulfilled before and ensem." 

during the rule of the Maccabees, when Virgil. Georg, i. 507. 

the Jewish affairs were in so flourishing 

a state, and the Phcenician and Philistine ** Sarcula cessabant, versique in pila 

powers were reduced by the Persian arms ligones, 

under Artaxerxes Mnemon, Darius Factaquederastripondere cassis erat." 

Ochus, and especially Alexander and his Otnd. Feist, i. 699. 

successors. On the capture of Tyre by 

the Grecian monarch, 13,000 of the in- 11. X^, a aira( Xcy. in all probability 

habitants were sold into slavery. When the same in signification with v^vr, to 

he took Gaza also, he put 10,000 of the 1m*ten. The ancient versions follow the 

citizens to death, and sold the rest, with LXX. who render, avifaBpoiCeaOt. 

the women and children, for slaves. 

Favourable, on the other hand, as he Arab. iiiU> vitam duxit, vixit; hence 

was to the Jews, there can be no doubt ^^ 

that he ordered the liberation of such of the idea of liveliness^ activity ^ agility t &c. 

them as were captives in Greece. nn:rt, is the Imperative in Hiphil of nro, 

9. n^ii, this, refers to what immediately to descend^ go or come down. The place 
follows : the assembling of the different whither, is the scene of warfare, the 
nations, in order to engage in the wars valley of Jehoshaphat, implied in Tt&f^ 
in which, in succession, they were, as which, with the n is frequently the same 
political slates, to be subdued and perish, in signification with op. The abrupt 
vSiS, is not simply to prepare, as Kimchi transition to Jehovah has a powerful 
explains it, but to prepare by the use of effect Whatever might be the individual 
religious rites and ceremonies, such as the views of those engaged in the conflict, 
heathen employed when they undertook they were the instruments of Divine 
a military enterprise. wrath, and are on this account called the 

10. Here a state of things is presented "mighty ones" of Jehovah. Comp. 
to view, directly the opposite of what Is. x. 5 — 7. 

was to exist in the days of the Messiah, 12. To eive prominence to the in- 

Is. ii. 4 ; Micah iv. 3. Such was to be terest which God had in what was to 

the extent of the conflict, that, in the take place, the metaphor is here changed 

lack of a sufficient number of arms, the into that of a judicial process, in which 

CHAP. III.] JOEL. 121 

To the Yalley of Jehoshaphat ; 

For there I will sit to judge all the nations around. 

13 Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe ; 
Come, descend, for the wine-press is full, 
The vats run over ; 

For their wickedness is great. 

14 Multitudes! multitudes 
In the valley of decision ! 

For the day of Jehovah is near, 
In the valley of decision. 

15 The sun and the moon shall be darkened^ 
And the stars shall withdraw their shine. 

16 For Jehovah shall roar out of Zion, 

he acts as judge, and gives a just deci- 14. D\b)Dry cr^rr, muUitudei^ multUudeM, 

sion against the enemies of his people, a Hebraism for immense multitudes. This 

For w^ pp9, see on yer. 2. H ere, as rendering is preferable to that of tumuUs, 

in that verse, the nations to be punished In the preceding verses, the nations are 

were those y^B^, circumjacent to Judea. called upon to assemble, and here the 

13. The prophet now employs meta* prophet, beholding them congregated Jn 

phors taken from the harvest and the obedience to the summons, breaks out 

vintage, which strikingly express the into an appropriate exclamation in regard 

havoc and destruction effected by war: to their number, ynn, Piscator, the 

the one denoting the slaughter or cutting Geneva English, Calvin, Leo Juda, 

down of armies, and the other the effu- Michaelis, Justi, Holzhausen, and Cred- 

sion of their blood. The same images ner, take in the sense of threshing* 

are similarly employed, Is. xvii. 5, 6, Kimchi, TanchUm, Abulwalid, Newcome, 

Ixiii. 2 ; Lam. i. 15 ; and especially Rev. and some others, render excision ; but 

. ,, „^ . . ,, 1 ^ \ \ the LXX.Theodot. Syr. Targ. Theodore*, 

XIV. 14—20. "yxg, a sickle, Arab. JaA«, D^the, Rosenmiiller, Gesenius, Hitzig, 

^v i: Maurer, Ewald, and Furst, translate the 

Syr. ^^^• An Arab, the root, 0<sf ^ord by decision or judgment, which 

. .n /* , fwn . i_i r *i. 1? * seems more in keeping with the name of 

signifies to CM/. TJe sickles of the East, the valley, and tte idea of a judicial 

as represented on Egyptian monuments, ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ 12. Comp. for the 

pretty much resembled ours, only some ^ ^ti^n to determine, decide, as at- 

of them were smaller and had more the ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 1 ^ ^^ 40 ; 

appearance of a knife hooked at the i^. ^.Ig. The meaning is the decision 

end. ^17 from T?, to descend, some take ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^,^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^i^^ ^y^^ 

to be used here m the acceptation of the .^ ^^^^^^^ ^j^^ repetition of T^Tfn pos^, 

Arab. 4>., calcaviL Thus the LXX. heightens the effect. 

Sr ^ 15. A figurative mode of representing 

vartirs. But as in order to tread the the removiS of the political rulers of the 

grapes it was necessary to go down into world. Comp. chap. ii. 10, 31. 
the wine- press, it seems better to abide 16. These words, as Chandler properly 

by the ordinary signification of the remarks, seem to intimate very plainly, 

Hebrew verb, and to consider the action that at least part of the judgments here 

of treading to be implied, rather than threatened to be executed upon the 

expressed. At the close of the verse the neighbouring nations, should be executed 

metaphor is dropped, and the cause of by the Jews themselves. They doubtless 

the thing signified is boldly presented refer to the victories obtained by Matta- 

to view. thias, and his sons the Maccabeans. As 


122 JOEL. [chap. hi. 

And utter his voice from Jerusalem, 
And the heavens and the earth shall shake ; 
But Jehovah is a refuge for his people, 
A stronghold for the sons of IsraeL 

17 And ye shall know that I Jehovah am your God, 
Dwelling in Zion, my holy mountain : 

Then shall Jerusalem be holy ; 
Foreigners shall invade her no more. 

18 And it shall come to pass in that day. 
That the mountain shall drop new wine, 
And the hills shall flow with milk, 

And all the channels of Judah shall flow with water, 
And a fountain shall go forth from the house of Jehovah, 
And water the valley of Acacias. 

king of the Jewish nation, Jehovah had 18. A splendid figurative represent 

bis residence in Jerusalem, whence he tatiou of the extraordinary prosperity 

caused his power to be exerted to the to be accorded to the Jewish people 

discomfiture of his enemies, and the de- after the destruction of their enemies, 

liverance and protection of his people. ,wn n^ •» • -n i s I *: t 

Comp. P^ xviil. 13; Hab. iii. fo. 11. ^"^ Tanchum m Pococke, sJJJ^^ 

jj^. to roar, is iiroperly UMd of theUon, ^-j^f^) i_^^\ itfl. •• meta- 
but 18 metaphorically applied to God, to J»^j V J'^ 

express the terrible majesty with which phorical language, denoting abundance 

he encounters his foes. Comp. Jer. of plenty and blessings." Comp. Is. 

zxv. 30; Amos i. 2, iii. 8. xxx. 23 — 25,xliv. 3, and especially Amos 

17. STP, is here, as in Is. Iii. 6, Ix. 16 ; ix. 13. 

Hos. ii. 20, to be taken in the accep- ,,«,,. . i ^. . n • 
tation of experiencing, knowing by ex- Flumina jam lactis, jam flumma nec- 

perimental proofs of the divine kinaness. „, tans ibant, 

ThU the Jews did in the deliverances Flavaque de viridi stillabantiliceinella 
effected on their behalf, after the return ^^' Metam, i. Ill . 

from the captivity, especially on the Kai totc di) X9pav fitydkffp $€09 dp- 
death of Antiochus Epiphanes, and in ^pda-i dcoa-cc 

the enjoyment of their national and re- Kal v^p y^ koI bkvbpa Koi acnrera 
ligious privileges, till the termination of Sptfifiara yairis 

their polity. That the strong language Awo-ovaiv Kapwov tov dkrfBiPou dvBpto' 
at the close of the verse does not imply woio-i 

a state of immunity from invasion, to oZi'ov koI /tifXtror yXvjcca)^, Xcvjcov t* 
which there was absolutely to be no end, ydXcucror 

will appear on comparing Is. Hi. I, and KalcriTov.owfpcaTi/SporoIyicoXXicrroi^ 
Nab. 1. 15. See my note on the former dnayray, 

of these passages. From the death of Sibyl, Orae. 

Antiochus till we coming of the Messiah, 

no hostile power -should take possession D^\^ Vn3, the valley of SkiUim, L e. Aco" 

of the holy city. To express the perfect ciaa. lliere was a place of this name 

immunity from idolatry, by which Jeru- in the country of Moab, Num. xxv. 1, 

salem should be characterised, vhj7, hoH- xxxiiL 49; Josh. ii. 1 ; but most inter- 

neas in the abstract, is used. Comp. preters think that the v^Uey is meant 

Obad. 17. By ont, strangers, or bar- through which the Kidron flows to the 

bariofUf foreign enemies are meant. Dead Sea. Consistency of interpretation 

CHAP. III.] JOEL. 123 

19 Egypt shall become desolate, 
And Edom a desolate wilderness, 

For the violence done to the sons of Judah, 
Because they shed innocent blood in their land. 

20 But Judah shall be inhabited for ever. 
And Jerusalem to successive generations. 

21 And I will regard their blood as innocent, 
Which I have not regarded as innocent ; 
And Jehovah shall dwell in Zion. 

requires us to understand this part of MSS. and four of De Rossi's, with eight 

the verse figuratively of the most desert more originally, read V^. Among these 

and arid spots, such as the acacia is fond are four Spanish MSS. two of which 

of. Fertility was to go forth from the De Rossi characterises as accuratissimi, 

presence of Jehovah into the whole land. The pronominal affix in os^m, refers to 

Viewed in this light, there is no incon- the Jews spoken of immediately hefore. 
gtuity in representing the water as ex- 20. 3^9, is used passively, as in Is. 

tending even across the Jordan, however xiii. 20. Q^ and iAti i^i, are to be 

impossible it might be as a physical limited by the subject of which they are 

phenomenon. Comp. Ezek. xlvii. 1 — 12; predicated. Thus the state of desolation 

Zech. xiv. 8. during the seventy years* captivity in 

19. The wrongs done to the Jews Babylon, is said to be D^, for ever, 

by the Egyptians and Idumeans, which Jer. xviii. 16. 

the prophet here declares were to be 21. In the words *n^3 ^ dot n?^^i, 
avenged, were those committed at dif- there is an ellipsis of t^, after uoi^ the 
ferent times after the captivity. Pales- affix in which refers to the Jews, not to 
tine suffered greatly during the wars their enemies. Almost all the inter- 
between the Syrian and Egyptian kings, preters have stumbled at *n^3, the verb 
especially in the reign of Ptolemy Epi- here employed, but they have generally 
phanes, when they exposed themselves got over the difficulty, by giving to it the 
to the indignation of that king by signification of ^fnpgs., / have avenged — a 
siding with Antiochus the Great. In signification which nowhere attaches to 
the time of Cleopatra also, her son La- it in the Hebrew Bible. For the dif- 
thyrus gained a victory over the army ferent explanations see Pococke. nps, 
of Alexander Janneus, in which the Jews . , ... j ^ • •• -, 
lost unwards of thirty thousand men ; ^^^' ^' ?«''"*» ^^ndtu fuU, u. and 
and wno, to increase the terror of his 

name, massacred the women and children, iv, mundavU, Syr. in Pael, aacrificavitf 

cut their bodies in pieces, and boiled the lihavit. In Niph. the Heb. verb signifies 

flesh. The Idumeans, though less for- to be morally pure, to be free from pun- 

midable, never omitted any favourable ishment ; in Piel, as here, to regard, pro- 

opportunity that offered of showing their nounce, or treat at innocent^ to pardon, 

hostility to the Jews. The condition to The words were doubtless suggested by 

which both these countries were speedily vpp^ Di in the preceding verse, and are to 

reduced, and in which they have re- be rendered, / wUl regard their blood as 

mained to the present day, verifies the innocent^ which I have not regarded at 

prediction here delivered. Instead of innocent ; i. e. I will pardon those whom 

mcoaJ^, a number of MSS. exhibit the I have treated as guilty. My people, 

synonymous rrady, — nw 'ja Don, the whom I have punished on account of 

violence of the tons of Judah, is the their apostasies, I will henceforth regard 

Genitive of object, meaning the violence with favour and love. The affix d in 

done to them. Comp. Chad. 10. ^3 is D91, corresponds to the same in D^, 

spelt «*P4 here and Jonah i. 14; but in ver. 19. — p^, the Participle used with 

tne present text, nine of Kennicott's futurity of signification. 

— 1 



Amos, (Heb. VhD^, burden, a word purely Hebrew, and not of 
Egyptian origin, and the same as Amasis or Amosis, as Gesenius 
conjectures,) was, as we learn from the inscription, a native of 
Tekoah, a small town in the tribe of Judah, at the distance of about 
twelve miles south-east of Jerusalem. The country round being 
sandy and barren, was destitute of cultivation, and fit only to be 
occupied by those addicted to pastoral life. Among these our 
prophet was originally found; and, though it was counted no 
disgrace in ancient times, any more than it is at the present day in 
Arabia, to follow this occupation, kings themselves being found in 
it, (2 Kings iii. 4,) yet there is no reason to suppose that Amos 
belonged to a family of rank or influence, but the contrary. No 
mention is made of his father ; but too much stress is not to be laid 
upon this circumstance. That he had been in poor circumstances, 
however, appears from the statement made chap. vii. 14; from 
which also it is incontrovertible, that no change of circumstances 
intervened, which may be supposed to have been more favourable 
to mental culture, but that he was called at once to exchange the 
life of a shepherd for that of a prophet. 

Though a native of the kingdom of Judah, he discharged the 
functions of his office in that of Israel — a fact which is to be 


accoiinted for, not, as Bertholdt conjectures, on the ground of some 
personal relations, but by an express Divine commission to occupy 
it as the scene of his labours. Eichhom ingeniously supposes the 
reasons of his selection to have been, that the appearance of a 
foreign prophet was much more calculated to excite attention than 
that of a native, and that such a prophet was more likely to com- 
mand respect than any belonging to a kingdom in which impostors 
and fanatics abounded. 

The time at which he prophesied is stated in general terms, 
chap. i. 1, to have been in the reigns of Uzziah^ king of Judah, 
and Jeroboam II. king of Israel, the former of whom reigned 
B.C. 811 — 759, and the latter B.C. 825—784, but in which of these 
years he was called to the office, and how long he continued to 
exercise it, we are not told. Even if any dependence could be placed 
upon the Jewish tradition, Joseph. Antiq. ix. 10, 4, and Jerome 
on Amos i. 1, that the earthquake mentioned here, and Zech. xiv. 5, 
took place when Uzziah attempted to usurp the sacerdotal functions, 
we should still be unable to fix the exact date, since it is uncertain 
in what year the attempt was made. 

That he was contemporary with Hosea, appears not only from 
the dates assigned in both their books, but from the identical state 
of affidrs in the kingdom of the ten tribes, which they so graphi- 
cally describe. Whether he flourished also in the days of Isaiah 
and Micah cannot be determined. 

As we have already found from the prophecy of Hosea, idolatry, 
with its concomitant evils, effeminacy, dissoluteness, and immo- 
ralities of every description, reigned with uncontrolled sway among 
the Israelites in the reign of Jeroboam the son of Joash. It is 
chiefly against these evils that the denunciations of Amos are 

The book may properly be divided into three parts : First, sen- 
tences pronounced against the Syrians, the Philistines, the PhoD- 
nicians, the Edomites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Jevirs, and 
the Israelites, chapters i. and ii. Second, special discourses 
delivered against Israel, chapters iii. — vi. Third, visions, partly of 
a consolatory, and partly of a comminatoiy nature, in which refer- 
ence is had both to the times that were to pass over the ten tribes, 


previous to the coming of the Messiah, and to what was to take 
place under his reign, chapters vii. — ^ix. 

In point of style, Amos holds no mean place among the prophets. 
The declaration of Jerome, that he was imperitus sermone, has not 
been justified by modem critics. On the contrary, it is universally 
allowed that, though destitute of sublimity, he is distinguished for 
perspicuity and regularity, embeUishment and elegance, energy and 
fulness. His images are mostly original, and taken from the 
natural scenery with which he was familiar ; his rhythmus is 
smooth and flowing; and his parallelisms are in a high degree 
natural and complete. In description, he is for the most part 
special and local ; he excels in the minuteness of his groupings, 
while the general vividness of his maimer imparts a more intense 
interest to all that he delivers. In some few instances, as in 
chapters iv. vi. and vii. the language approaches more to the prose 
style, or is entirely that of narrative. 

From chap. vii. 10 — 13, it appears that the scene of his ministry 
was Bethel. Whether he left that place in consequence of the 
interdict of Amaziah, the priest, we know not. According to 
Pseudo-Epiphanius, he afterwards returned to his native place, 
where he died, and was buried with his fathers ; but no dependence 
can be placed on the statement. 


AAer a chronological and general introduction, ver. 1, 2, tbis chapter contains a 
heavy charge, accompanied with denunciations, against the Syrians of Damascus, 
3 — 5; the Philistines, 6-— 8; the Phoenicians, 9, 10; the Idumeans, 11, 12; 
and the Ammonites, 13 — 15. 

1 The words of Amos, who was among the shepherds of Tekoah, 
which he saw concemiTig Israel, in the days of Uzziah, king 

of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam, the son of Joash, king 
of Israel, two years before the earthquake. 

1. With the exception of the book of and goats, distinguished by certain 

Jeremiah, that of Amos is the only one marks, and to be derived from igs, to 

of the prophets commencing with Ti?, pricks or mark with punctureSf and so to 

**Thewordsof—."Comp. however, Hag. distinguish by such marks. By others, 

1. 1 2. The meaning is, the subjects or it is more properly referred for illustration 
matters of oracular communication which 

he was employed by the prophetic Spirit to ^be Arab. dJo, genus oviutn deforme 

to deliver, and which were now, under . , i... i... 

the influence of the same Spirit, com- «' hrempety and JU), owam, Ja>, appeU 

mitted to writing. Their divine origin latarum pastor. From the disesteem 

IS cleariy determined by what is added, j^ ^hi^h puch animals were held, arose 

rnn ifij, " which he saw, i.e, which were 

supernaturally presented to his mental the proverb, Jaa! ^^ (JjJ, more vile 

vision. See on Is. i. 1. The preposition .-, .. xt aT^^i. 

^ in OTSlJ, does not denote SislSnction, ^ <** ^ikad. At the same time, as 

intimating that Amos was greater in J''*"^ "f"' "If "'•"f «; *«? 7« ''^P' 

point of wealth or respectability than "» great numbers. In both instances m 

the rest of the shepherds, as Kimchi "'''?'! '•"' '""> ««"'?• " »««"?» ^'^ ^ 

would have it, hut simply that he was of V*^ '» " "")'« K^"«"» acceptation. Aq. 

their number ; he belonged to their con- «» ^"♦/'"oWotf ; Symm. and the fifth 

dition of life, and followed their occu- ^^'V." "'t '«,««•'. Jheexplanationof 

pation. The phrase triijn njj expresses, 9?"' " ?*" '"*P' = *'^1 yyowv a.,roXo j 

fn fact, nothin|more than TfeJ fm.'^Comp. »'^P «<» »ro.,«i..Ko« ««'^ " «• >'*Mo«« 

for similar usage 1 Sam. xix.24; Ps. *'^,'6patu^tvot. Ihe LXX. tv A«ca- 

" ' pdfL, mistaking it for the name of a 

cxviii. 7 ; and ihe Arabic jjljo . ^ U j. P'**« where they supposed the prophet to 

*^* • 41/^ J have been when he received his Divine 

tr5 occurs only here, and 2 Kings iii. 4. communications. The ruins of Jlpi^ 

By some it is supposed to denote the , ._ 

shepherd or keeper of a species of sheep Arab. cy«, Teku'a, Dr. Robinson found 

CHAP. I.] AMOS. 129 

2 And he said : 
Jehovah roareth from Zion, 

And uttereth his voice from Jerusalem ; 
The pastures of the shepherds mourn, 
And the summit of Carmel withereth* 

3 Thus saith Jehovah : . 

For three transgressions of Damascus, 

covering an extent of four or five acres destroying the poetical force of the Ian- 
on an elevated hill, not steep, but broad guage. Comp. Jer.xxv.30; Jobxxxvii.4. 
at the top, about two hours distant from "^ in ^^, marks the apodosis. For 
Bethlehem. On* approaching it, he de- crvSn rrt«p, comp. wpjn\M3, Ps. xxiii. 2. 
scribes the landscape as rocky and V^, Michaelis, Justi, and others, take to 
sterile, yet rich in pasturage, as was tes* be the Carmel, now called by the Arabs 
tified by the multitude of the Hocks. i ^ ^ ? i • i v ^ .^ 
(Palestine, ii. pp. 181, 182.) The sur- J^' ^"'''""'' ^^'""^ ^'^' "^*' ^"***' ""^ 
rounding region, especially that in the Juttah, between two and three hours to 
direction of the Dead Sea, is called the south of Hebron; but though the 
v^n '^I'p, 2 Chron. xx. 20, and 17 tptfio£ mountainous region about that place was 
0€K»dy 1 Mace. ix. 33. In this pas- more in the proximity of the prophet, 
turing district, our prophet originally yet the established scripture reference to 
tended his flocks, and collected the syca- the fertility of the celebrated Mount 
more figs. For the dates here specified, Carmel in the tribe of Asher seems to 
see the Introduction. The prophecy is entitle the latter to the preference. In 
specially directed against Israel, or the fact, there does not appear to be any 
kingdom of the ten tribes, though that mountain deserving the name in the hill 
of Judah, and likewise several foreign country of Judah. The hill of Maon, 
states, are also expressly denounced. We which is close by, is not less than two 
possess no data by which to fix the year hundred feet higher than the site of the 
in which the earthquake, here mentioned, ruins of the castle of Kurmul. See 
occurred. Zechariah, chap. xiv. 5, refers Robinson, ut sup. pp. 193 — 200. Besides 
to it as having happened in the days of the identical phrase, ^t^? vMi, the mm* 
Uzziah, but he does not specify the year, mit of Carmel, which again occurs 
According to Josephus, it took place on chap. ix. 3, in immediate connexion with 
occasion of the invasion of the sacerdotal the sea, is employed in application to the 
office by that monarch, Antiq. ix. 10, 4. western Carmel, 1 Kings xviii. 42. 
As earthquakes are by no means un- 3. Here begins a series of minatory 
common in Palestine, it must have been predictions against different states, which 
unusually severe to entitle it to the spe- extends to chap. ii. 8, where it merges 
cialityofreference here employed. Some in a continued denunciation of judg- 
interpret vk9^ of a civil commotion, but ments directed almost exclusively ae;ainst 
without sufficient ground, as the con- the Israelites. Instead of proceeding at 
nexion Zech. xiv. 4, 5, shows. once to charge the ten tribes with the 
2. Zion, or Jerusalem, being the cen- flagrant evils of which they had been 
tral point of the theocracy, was the special guilty, Amos commences with the 
residence of Jehovah, to whom the Syrians, and, after exposing their wicked- 
judgments afterwards denounced, are, in ness, and that of the Philistines, the 
highly figurative language, immediately Phcenicians, the Edomites, the Ammo- 
referred, y^f commonly employed to nites, the Moabites, and the Jews, he 
express the roaring of the lion, is here comes to his proper subject, on which he 
used to set forth the awful character of dwells throughout the rest of the book, 
those judgments. Dathe, stumbling at Having roused the indignation of those 
the boldness of the figure, renders, among whom he prophesied against sin 
Java ex Zione dira prottunciat ; thereby as exhibited in others, he charges it 


ISO AMOS. [chap. !• 

And for four, I will not reverse it ; 

Because they threshed Gilead with sledges of iron ; 

4 But I will send a fire into the house of Hazael, 
And it shall devour the palaces of Benhadad. 

5 I will also break the barrier of Damascus, 
And cut off the ruler from the valley of Aven, 

home upon themselves. Each of the by the verb. Bp. Lowth proposes to 
eight predictions is ushered in by the render, "I will not restore it;" but with- 
solemn nirn no^ na, thus saith Jehovah ; out sufficient authority, n^ l^, " to 
and consists, in part, in a repetition of reverse the captivity," is the phrase em- 
the same symmetrical stanzas, with an ploved in such case. In the phrase, *' I 
intermixture of matter, varying according will not reverse," is a litotes — the mean- 
to the nature of the subjects treated of! ing being, " I will certainly execute." 
Interpreters differ in regard to the precise For Damascus, which, as the metropolis, 
meanmg of the use made by our prophet is put for the kingdom of Syria, see on 
of the numerals three and four. Similar Is. xvii. 1. The cruel treatment of the 
formula are frequent in Hebrew. See inhabitants of Gilead here referred to, is 
£xod. XX. 5 ; Job v. 19, xxxiii. 14, 29; that to which they were subjected by 
Prov. XXX. 15, 18, 21; Eccles. xi. 2; Hazael and Benhadad, 2 Kings x. 32, 33. 
Is. xvii. 6 ; Mic. v. 4. Comp. the rpis xiii. 3 — 7, both of which princes Amos 
Koi TfTpdKis of Homer ; the terque qua-^ mentions by name, ver. 4. It consisted 
ierque of Virgil ; and the ter et quater of in their being thrown before the thresh- 
Horace. The notion, that the two num- ing sledges, the sharp teeth of iron in 
hers are to be added, so as to bring out the rollers of which tore and mangled 
the perfect number seven, and thus to their bodies. See on Is. xxviii. 27, and 
express the completeness or full measure comp. 2 Sam. xii. 31, where we find the 
of the iniquity, is not borne out by same punishment inflicted by David, by 
Hebrew usage. That the numbers are the law of retaliation. Ttcsr^^ the LXX. 
to be taken literally, as in Prov. xxx. render vploo-i o-idi/poir, and add unwar- 
where there is an enumeration of each rantably, rasivyafrrpl €xova-as; Sjrmm. 
of the particulars, is equally out of the and Theod. rpoxoU aibrjpoU. ^\ to 
question ; the specification of the prophet thresh, is the very term used in the bis- 
being, in each case, limited to a single torv of the transaction, 2 Kings xiii. 7. 
act of wickedness. Nor can the con- Gilead comprehended the whole of the 
struction be admitted, I have not pun- territory beyond the Jordan, belonging 
ished Damascus, &c. on account of three to the tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the 
transgressions, but on account of a fourth half tribe of Manasseh ; and as it bor- 
I will punish her ; since u^"^ ^, ob- dered on the kingdom of the Syrians, 
viously connects with both numerals, was particularly exposed to their attacks. 
The only satisfactory mode of explication 4. The Benhadad here mentioned 
is, to regard the phrase as intensively was the son and successor of Hazael, and 
proverbial, and designed to express mul- not the king of that name whom Hazael 
tipliedorreppated delinquencies, of which succeeded. Comp. 2 Kings viii. 7, 15, 
the last, as the most atrocious, is uni- with xiii. 3, 24. A similar prediction 
formly described. The noun to which was afterwards delivered by Jeremiah, 
the suffix in U)^ relates, is not ex- chap. xlix. 27, from which and from 
pressed, either before or after the verb, Hos. viii. 14, it is evident that the phra- 
on the principle, that the subject referred seology employed by Amos here, and 
to would naturally suggest itself to the verses 7, 10, 12, 14, chap. ii. 2, 5, is not 
mind of the reader. It is anticipative peculiar to that prophet 
of the sentence of punishment delivered 5. According to the testimony of a 
in the following verses. Comp. Num. nJtive, whom Michaelis consulted, there is 
xxiii. 20, in which is an ellipsis of tlie a most delightful valley called Oon, about 
uoun n^, the idea of which is expressed four hom-s distant from Damascus, 

CHAP. I.] AMOS. 131 

And the sceptre-holder from Beth-Eden, 
And the people of Syria shall go captive to Kir, 
Saith Jehovah. 
6 Thus saith Jehovah : 

For three transgressions of Gaza, 
And for four I will not reverse it ; 
Because they effected a complete captivity. 
To deliver it up to Edom. 

towards the desert, which has given rise See on Is. xxii. 6 ; and for the accom- 

to a proverh, ** Have you ever been in plishment of the prediction in the suc- 

the valley of Oon ?" meaning, Have you cessful expedition of Tiglathpileser, king 

ever been in a place of delieht? As, of Assyria, 2 Kine^s xvi. 9. The version 

however, this has not been connrmed by of the LXX. is here extremely faulty, 

any traveller, most expositors are inclined as the slightest comparison with the 

to refer the place to what is otherwise original will show, 
calledl^a^ r^ "thevalleyof Lebanon." ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

or AAAiJtt ^l Bukd'uj between the ridges .. .i "1 r lu c • • i 

^^v"» » o the southernmost of the five prmcipal 

of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. Here are cities of the Philistines, which formed 

the celebrated ruins of the temple of the capitals of so many satrapies of the 

fiaalbec, the Syrian Heliopolis, to which same names. It was situated at the dis- 

the LXX. have expressl^r referred pw, tance of about an hour*s ioiuney from 

AveUy only pronouncing it |^m, On — Ik. the south-east coast of the Mediterranean, 

wfdtov 'Qv ; just as they have rendered from which it was separated by low hills 

the latter word when it is employed to and tracts of sand. It was built upon a 

denote the city of the same name in hill, and strongly fortified, as the name 

Egypt, which was dedicated to the sun. imports. The modern city is built partly 

The Hebrews in Palestine, to express on the hill, but mostly on the plain below; 

their abhorrence of the idolatrous wor-. and according to Dr. Robinson, contains 

ship practised at both places, pronounced a population of about 15,000 souls. It 

the word p^, Aven^ wuich properly sig- must have been a place of high an- 

nifies nothingness, vanity, and hence an tiquity, for its name occurs in the gene- 

idol, on account of its inutility. Comp. alogical table, Gen. x. ; and it occupied 

with the present passage Ezek. xxx. 17. so commanding a position, that it formed 

a^ does not here denote inhabitant, or the key to P^estine on the south. It 

inhabitants generally, but as the parallel stands here by synecdoche for the whole 

i&^ "^f^, sceptre^hdder, shows, one who of Philistia. By np^ re*^, we are neither 

sits upon, or occupies a throne — a judge, to understand, with the LXX. alxfJM- 

prince, or king — ^the person exercising Xaaiap roi; SoXoofM^v ; nor with Justi, <* a 

authority in the district specified. For holy or pious captivity ;" nor with Grotius 

the latter phrase, the cKrfvrovxos of and Michaelis, captivitatem pacificam ; 

Homer may be compared. fj9 it|, Beth- but the immense number of captives 

Eden was, in all probability, the locality which were carried away from Juuea in 

in the mountains of Lebanon, which the reign of Ahaz, 2 Chron. xxviii. 18. 

Ptolemy, v. 15, calls Ilapadeto-of ; where The capture was indiscriminate and uni- 

the royal family had a palace, and where versal ; none escaped. Comp. for the 

one of its members usually resided, phrase Jer. xiii. 19. What aggravated 

The name is still given to a delectable the guilt of the Philistines was, that they 

valley to the west of Damascus. The did not treat the Jews as prisoners of 

Aram, or Syria, here referred to, is that war, but sold them as slaves to the Edo- 

of which Damascus was the capitAl. By mites, who were their bitterest enemies, 

1^?, Kir, is meant the river ana region of and would treat them with the utmost 

the Cyrus in Iberia, now called Kur, cruelty. They were doubtless conveyed 

132 AMOS, [cHA?. I, 

7 But I will send a fire into the wall of Gaza, 
And it shall devour her palaces ; 

8 And I will cut off the ruler from'Ashdod, 
And the sceptre-holder from Ashkelon ; 
And will turn back my hand upon Ekron. 
And the residue of the Philistines shall perish, 
Saith the Lord Jehovah. 

9 Thus saith Jehovah : 

For three transgressions of Tyre, 
And for four, I will not reverse it ; 
Because they delivered up a complete captivity to Edom, 
And remembered not the covenant of the brethren. 
10 But I will send a fire into the wall of Tyre, 
And it shall devour her palaces. 

to Petra, the great emporium of com- days of our prophet, as narrated ia the 

merce, and there sold to such as might latter of the above passages. It is also 

purchase them. Comp. Joel iii. 4 — 6. omitted Zeph. ii. 4, 5. ^ X*^^* ^'^ 

7. ^jiire, is here metaphorically used turn the hand upon^ means to exert one's 
for war, m carrying on wnich, however, power anew, whether in the way of 
it is often employed as one of the mo9t favour or of hostility. Here it is ob- 
destructive elements, Comp. Num. viously to be taken in the hostile sense. 
xxi. 28; Is. zxvi. 11. No part of Philistia was to remain un- 

8. For the meaning of 3vS^^, see on visited by Divine judgments. Comp. 
ver. 5. Three others of the principal Jer. xlvii. 4; Ezek. xxv. 16. In which 
cities of the Philistines are now threat- of the reductions of the Philistines, the 
ened, 'i^'^, Ashdodj for which see on prediction received its fulfilment, we 

. cannot determine. One of these took 

Is. XX. 1 ; ff^, Arab^ ^^/A«*^. -^'**- place during the reign of Uzziah, 

7 . . .^ Ai.^ 2 Chron. xxvi. 6, 7; another in that of 

ton, occupying a .trong position on the n^^u^h 3 King, xviii. 8; they wer. 

top of a ndge of rock, which encircle. ,ft^,„^ wcceXly reduced hy'Psam- 

L''ndt.u;TS:rGLri:^?rve tr. -.ici». kin. of EgyV by NeLh^J. 

in the direction of NN.E.,- and m ^rS^i^ hy rii^anT" '"' 

Ekron, now called by the natives JiU, ^; ^ ^J™"?"^ ^^^^''g® i« .^J^*"® brought 

> against the rhcemcians, with the super- 

AhtTf the most northerly of the five, and added aggravation of a breach of an- 

at some distance inland from the line of cient faith. Comp. Joel iii. 4 — 6. The 

hills which run along the coast of the dtim nna, covenant of brethren, includes 

Mediterranean. See Dr. Robinson's the terms of friendship and mutual as- 

Palestine, iii. 21 — 25. The reason why sistance which were agreed upon between 

Gath, the remaining city of the five, is David and Hiram, 2 Sam. v. 1 1 ; and 

not mentioned, is assigned by Kimchi to afterwards between Solomon and the 

be, its ha\nng been already subdued by same monarch, 1 Kings v. See espe- 

David ; but as it was afterwards occupied cially ver. 12, (Heb. ver. 26,) where it 

both by the Syrians, 2 Kings xii. 17, and is expressly stated, that cn»3^ rrja vttOJ, 

the Philistines, 2 Chron. xxvi. 6, it seems "they two made a league,'* or covenant* 

more natural to refer its omission to the 10. For Tyre, and the accomplishment 

fact of its reduction by Uzziah, in the of this prediction, see on Is. xxiii. 

CHAP. I.] AMOS. 133 

11 Thus saith Jehovah : 

For three transgressions of Edom, 

And for four, I will not reverse it ; 

Because he pursued his brother with the sword. 

And did violence to his pity. 

And his anger tore continually, 

And he retained his wrath for ever, 

12 But I will send a fire into Teman, 

And it shall devour the palaces of Bozrah. 

13 Thus saith Jehovah : 

For three transgressions of the sons of Ammon, 
And for four, I will not reverse it ; 

11. For Edom, and the fulfilment of feminine, must be pointed !T^» but this 

the prophecy here pronounced against it, would require rn^ to be the subject in- 

see on Is. zzxiy. 5. The guilt of the stead of the object, which would be in- 

cruelties exercised by the Idumeans upon tolerably harsh. Comp. for the sentiment, 

the Jews was greatly aggravated by the and an elliptical form of the phraseology, 

circumstance of their original relation- Jer. iii. 5. The Hebrews speak of 

ship, Obad. 10, and the unrelenting per- keeping a quality, whether good or bad, 

petual character of their hatred, nnt) when they would express its prolonged 

t3«prn, lit. to tpoU, or destroy compassions ; or continued exercise. See Neh. ix. 32 ; 

i. tf. so to repress all the tender feelings Dan. ix. 4. 

of pity, as to become hardened against 12. lliat^^r^, TVinan, was a city, seems 

objects of distress. Compare the phrase, evident from its being mentioned along 

no^ rvT^, to destroy wisdom^ Ezek. with rns|, Bozrah, for which see on 

xxviii. 17. The LXX. Ital. Arab. Is. xxxiv. 6. Though Jerome speaks of 

Doderlein, Dathe, Vater, Justi, and some it as a region, he mentions, in his Ono- 

others, take crcm, in the sense of Dm, masticon, a town of this name, at the 

the womb, and explain it either of preg- distance of five miles from Petra. On 

nant females, or of the fruit of the womb, the map of Burckhardt and Grimm, it is 

i.e. children; but the plural is never placed to the south of Wady M€Ua. It 

used in this acceptation. Aq. oirKdyxva was doubtless the principal place in the 

avTov ; Symm. airKdyxva idia. The district inhabited by the descendants of 

^ Teman, one of the grandsons of Esau, 

root orn, Arab. >©*•«, Syr. y>^.. signifies Gen. xxxvi. 11, 15, who were celebrated 

' -^ ^ ^ on account of their superior wisdom, Jer. 

to love, in Piel, to regard with tender xlix. 7. Comp. Obad. 8, 9, and Baruch 

qffectian, to cherish feelings of compas- iii. 22. Eliphaz, one of Job's friends, 

Murn towards any one. The n in f^not^. was a Temanite. The reason why no 

is generally considered to be an instance mention is made of Sela, or Petra, Cred- 

of a paragogic in the third person, ner thinks is to be found in the fact, that 

but it is preferable to construe it as the it had already been captured by Ama- 

pronominal feminine affix, agreeing with ziah, 2 Kings xiv. 7, of whose conquests 

rn^ in the nominative absolute. The in that direction advantage was taken 

absence of the Mappic forms no objec- by his son Uzziah, ver. 22; 2 Chron. 

tion, as there are several instances of xxvi. 2. 

its omission where we might have ex- 13. ]to? *2^, the Ammonites, descend- 

pected it The accent on the penul- ants of Lot, Gen. xix. 3, occupied the 

timate favours this construction, being territory on the east of the Jordan, be- 

occasioned solely by the absence of the tween the rivers Jabbok and Amon, but 

Mappic. The verb, to be taken as a more in the direction of the Arabian 

134 AMOS. [chap. i. 

Because they ripped up those who were pregnant in Gileadi 
That they might enlarge their border. 

14 But I will kindle a fire on the wall of Rabbah, 
And it shall devour the palaces thereof; 
With a shout in the day of battle, 

With a tempest in the day of the storm. 

15 Their king shall go into captivity, 
He and his princes together, 
Saith Jehovah. 

desert. That portion of country which derived from Ptolemy Philadelphus. It 

lay alone the Jordan, of which they had j^ ^^^ y^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ i. ^^ 

possessed themselves, onginalJy belonged '' {j^^^ 

to the Amorites, which accounts for its the same given to it by Abulfeda in his 

being given to the tribe of Oad, Josh. Tab. Syr. p. 91. By nmp, is meant the 

xiii. 25. They frequently annoyed the tremendous shout which eastern armies 

Hebrews, but were repelled by David give at the commencement of battle, 

and several of his successors. For the partly to excite their courage, and partly 

sake of plunder, they joined the Chal- to strike terror into the enemy. Comp. 

deans on their invasion of Judea; and, Ezod. xxxii. 17; Josh. vi. 5, 20. Thus 

even after the captivity, they evinced the the Iliad, iii. 1, &c. — 

same hostile disposition. They were .* \ * > / a « » « y 

severely cha8ti«e/by Judas Maccabeus, ^"fV «'«! >^^l»t6«> 3^ ,y«M<«wa<r., 

1 Mace. V. 6, 7. Justin Martyr speaks of « ^^ot""©** « , , « , • 
them as stiU a numerous people in hh ^''7' t^" ,«^°yro r, ^voirj, r urav, 
flay, AfiiMViratv coTi wv fro At) irXnoov. »tj ' \ ^ ' \ 

Dili. ciTTryph. p. 347. Ed. Paris, 1615. """ "'P '^"W T"'^""' *'"-^ 

The atrocious cruelty here charged upon *^P, hurricane^ and nD^, storm or tempest, 

the Ammonites, appears to have formed mark the resistless force of the onset, 

no unusual part of the barbarities prac- and the utterly destructive consequences 

tised by the ancients in war. Comp. resulting from it. That they are poet- 

2 Kings viii. 12, xv. 16; Hos. xiii. 16, ically applied to the warlike operations 
(Heb. xiv. 1 ;) and my note on the last against Rabbah, is clear from n^ cff, 
passage. See also 1 Sam. xi. 2. The the day of storm^ being parallel with 
object of the Anmionites was to effect •ipri^ dt^, the day of battle, 

an utter extermination of the Israelites 15. ^fjQ, their kwig^ the Syr. and Vulg. 

inhabiting the mountainous regions of have understood of Malcam or Milcom, 

Gilead, in order that they might extend i. e. Moloch, an idol of the Ammonites 

their own territory in that direction. and Moahites ; but the LXX. and Targ. 

14. n|i, Bdbhahy i.e. "the Great," support the common rendering, whicn 

was the metropolis of the country of the Tito, his princes, following, would seem 

Ammonites, the extensive ruins of which absolutely to require. It is true, this 

have recently been discovered by Seetzen term might be taken figuratively to 

and Burckhardt on the banks of the river signify priests, as in Is. xuii. 28 ; and 

Motet Amman, which empties itself into such interpretation might appear to be 

the Jabbok. The fidl form of the name countenanced by the occurrence of v^, 

was ]^^3^n|i, Deut iii. 11, hy which it his priests, in the parallel prophecy of 

was distinguished from Rabban of Moab, Jeremiah, chap. xlix. 3; but the use of 

^nd a city of the same name in the tribe y^, his princes, immediately after by that 

of Judah. It is called *Pafia6afiava by prophet, shows that, if the former term 

Polybius and Stephen of Byzantium; oe not an interpolation, it denotes the 

but it otherwise went among the Greeks idolatrous priests who were in attendance 

by the name of ^tXadA^a, which it upon the king, just as the princes were 

CHAP. II.] AMOS. 135 

the chiefs and civil officers about the or it may have been inserted in the Greek 

court. 02 i€p€is avrcSy, which the LXX. text by some copyist before these other 

have added in Amos, and which is copied versions were made. The combination 

in the Syr. and Arab., was probably of Dn^, princes, with'vCW, j*td9^t chap, 

borrowed from the passage in Jeremiah ; ii. 3, confirms the above interpretation. 



In this chapter we have the continuation of charges and denunciations against 
different nations, as the Moabites, 1 — 3; the Jews, 4, 5 ; and finally, the Israelites, 
who were to form the principal objects of the prophet's ministry, 6 — 8. Amos 
then proceeds to insist on their ungrateful conduct, notwithstanding the ex- 
perience which they had had of distinguished favours at the hand of God, 9 — 13 ; 
and the futility of all hopes of escape which they might be led to entertain, 

1 Thus saith Jehovah : 

For three transgressions of Moab, 

And for four, I will not reverse it ; 

Because they calcined the bones of the King of Edom. 

2 But I will send a fire into Moab, 

And it shall devour the palaces of Kerioth ; 
And Moab shall die in the tumult, 
At the shout, at the sound of the trumpet ; 
3 I will cut off the judge from the midst thereof, 
And kill all the princes thereof with him, 
Saith Jehovah. 

I. For Moabf see on Is. xv. The victim while living, but pursued him even 

particular act here charged against the into the regions of the dead. Comp Is. 

Moabites is nowhere recorded. Michaelis xxxiii. 12. 

is of opinion, thai reference is had to 2. f^*?i?t Kerioth; LXX. r&v iroKtfov 

2 Kings iii. 27 ; but the prince there avr&v ; Targ. M^, the fortress or citadel; 

spoken of was the son of the king of in all probability, the chief city, elsewhere 

Moab, and not the future heir to called ^^'W., Kir-Moah^ and here put 

the Idumean throne. The wickedness in the plural, to describe its size, or 

appears to have consisted in a wanton appearance, as comprehending more than 

violation of the sanctity of the tomb, by one. Comp. Jer. xlviii. 24, and on Is. 

the disinterment and burning of the xv. 1. ]w^, here means the tumult of 

royal remains. It was indicative of an battle. Is. xiii. 4 ; xvii. 12. 

enmity which was not satisfied with 3. From the circumstance that lOC^, 

inflicting every possible injury upon its judge^ and not "^^ king, is selected to 

136 AMOS, [chap. ii. 

^ Thus saith Jehovah : 

For three transgressions of Judah, 

And for four, I will not reverse it ; 

Because they have despised the law of Jehovah, 

And have not kept his statutes ; 

And their false deities have caused them to err. 

After which their &thers walked. 

5 But I will send a fire into Judah, 

And it shall devour the palaces of Jerusalem. 

6 Thus saith Jehovah : 

For three transgressions of Israel, 
And for four, I will not reverse it ; 
Because they sold the righteous for money, 
And the poor for a pair of sandals : 

describe the chief magistrate of Moab, it are meant, and the word is so rendered 

has, not without reason, been supposed, here in the Vulg. The LXX. have taken 

that, at the time the prophet wrote, or, the same view of it, rendering it fjuaraiaf 

at least, at the time to which his projphecy vanities, Comp. for this acceptation 

refers, a change had taken place m the Ps. xl. 5. IdoLs were so called because 

government of that country ; out whether their pretensions an d oracles were founded 

It was occasioned by the extinction of the on falsehood, and because they deluded 

royal house, or the appointment of a with false hopes those who worshipped 

ruler by a foreign power, it is impossible them. Instead of being weaned from 

to decide. The reference which some their attachment to the gods which their 

have made to Ps. ii. 10, in proof that ancestors had, at different times, served, 

judge and king are identical, is not in the Jews became increasingly addicted 

point; for, though the terms as there to them, and thereby brought upon 

used are so far synonymous, that they themselves the punishment inflicted by 

both designate persons high in office, yet Nebuchadnezzar, 
there is an obvious distinction both as it 6. The prophet, having secured the 

respects the degree of their rank, and the attention of the Israelites by his predic- 

nature of the offices with which they tions against those communities which 

were invested. The connecting of the they regarded with feelings of hostility, 

princes with Moab (17*^) and not with comes now to his proper subject, which 

the judge (^^) as in chap. i. 15, goes to was to charge upon themselves the guilt 

confirm the view just given. which, in various ways, they, as a people, 

4,5. The charges brought against the had contracted, ^tfnjto'), Israel, i.e. the 

Jews differ from any of the preceding, in Israelites, consisted, after the revolt in 

the crimes which they involve having the time of Rehoboam, of the ten tribes, 

been committed directly against God, whose capital was Samaria, and whose 

and not against man. They had become worship, originally that of Jehovah, 

weary of his service, abandoned his under the visible imacfe of the golden 

worship, and addicted themselves to calves, speedily merged in the basest and 

idolatrous practices. Between the syno- most licentious idolatry. *i?p, to sell, has 

nymes here employed there is this no reference, as some have thought, to 

difference of meaniue : nnhn, law, stands the conduct of a corrupt judge, who for 

for the institute of Moses generally, of money gives a verdict against the 

which the moral code formed the basis; innocent, the term never being used to 

D*^, statutes, for the ceremonial and express any such act ; but describes the 

judicial enactments. By D^^s, lies, idols selling of a person into slavery. They 

CHAP. II.] AMOS. 187 

7 Who pant for the dust of the earth on the head of the poor, 
And turn aside the way of the affiicted ; 

A man and his father go in to the same damsel^ 
In order to profane my holy name* 

8 They stretch themselves upon pledged garments^ 
Close to every altar ; 

And drink the mne of the amerced 
In the house of their gods. 

9 Yet it was I that destroyed the Amorite before them, 
Whose height was as the height of the cedars, 

even deprived the poor of their liberty more atrocious from its having been 

for the most paltry consideration. Comp. committed in a heathen temple, witli the 

chap. viii. 6. cr^va, sandak, are greatly express design, as the prophet states, of 

inferior in value to shoes, consisting domg indignity to Jehovah. See Gesenius, 

merely of soles of leather or wood, Lex. in )9q, A) 2. 

fastened by two straps to the feet, one of 8. To retain pledged raiment over 

which passes over the forepart of the foot, night was expressly prohibited by the 

near the great toe, and tlie other round Mosaic law, Exod. xxii. 26, 27, as it 

the ankle. deprived the owner of his covering : to 

7. ffftf, signifies to breathe hard, to stretch oneself upon it in an idol's temple 

panty eagerly to desire, which well suits was a s^reat aggravation of the crime, 

the connexion, so that there is no neces- cr^, jSedged, lit. bound, held in bondage, 

sity, with Houbigant, Newcome, and i . 

others, to change the verb into »1^, to from tan, to bind, Arab. 0^9 Syr. 

attack, bruise, 8rc. The meaning of the „^ ^ j , .^ t* * i r *i. 

prophet is, that the persons whom he |1dq^^^6»/«»». It was not unusual for the 

describes were so avaricious, that, after heathen to sleep near the altars of their 

having robbed others of their property, gods, that they might obtain communica- 

and reduced them to a state of poverty, tions in dreams ; but as it was customary 

they even begrudged them the small to eat in a recumbent posture, the 

quantity of dust which they had cast on stretching here referred to would rather 

their heads in token of mourning. Comp. seem to nave respect to participation 

2Sam. i. 2; Job ii. 12. ^, as in v^t^, is in idolatrous feasts, especially as the 

elsewhere used in the acceptation of on drinkine of wine in the temples is 

or upon, and is here the more appro- specified in the following line. c^39 |t!, 

priately adopted, on account of the more the wine of the amerced, means wine 

usual preposition ^ having just been purchased with money exacted by the 

employed. Comp. chap. viii. 4. ^ ni^n, imposition of fines, n^i, for nm, as 

to turn, or thrust aside as to the way ; frequently. Regardless of the sufferings 

i. e. to turn any one out of his right of those whom they oppressed, the 

course, into a trackless reeion, where he apostate Israelites revelled in sensual 

can expect nothing but inconvenience, indulgences. 

perplexity and danger; here, to render 9. ^in ^^, is strongly adversative, and 

the afflicted still more miserable. From introduces the contrast between the 

the reference made in the following Divine conduct and that of the Israelites, 

verse to idolatrous deities and altars, it The signal benefits which, as a nation, 

IS most probable that *t^^, the damsel they had received from Jehovah, ought 

here spoken of, was not an ordinary or to have attached them for ever to his 

common strumpet, but one who pro- service. The conjunction and pronoun 

stitutedherselfinhonourof Astarte,atone are repeated for like effect, verse 10. 

ofhershrines. LXX.n)vai;n)yfraid(0'in7i'. ^7^^, the Amorites, are here taken in a 

Such an act of daring profligacy was the wide sense, as including all the inhabitants 


138 AMOS. [chap. ii. 

And who was strong as the oaks ; 
I destroyed his fruit above, 
And his roots beneath. 

10 It was I also that brought you up from the land of Egypt, 
And led you in the desert forty years, 

To inherit the land of the Amorite. 

1 1 And I raised up of your sons to be prophets, 
And of your young men to be Nazarites. 

Is it not even so, O ye sons of Israel ? 
Saith Jehovah. 

of Canaan, on account of their being the t^nviip, is partitive, indicating that some 

largest and most powerful of the nations or certain persons out of the number were 

which occupied that country. Com. Gen. selected. The Divine condescension in 

XV. 16, xlviii. 22. In a more special the selection of any of their race to fill 

point of view, they inhabited both sides the offices here specified, laid them under 

of the Jordan, and particularly the additional obligations to devote them- 

mountains afterwards possessed by the selves to the service of the true God; 

tribe of Judah. Their gigantic height and not only was thereby a distinguished 

and extraordinary strengUi, to which honour conferred upon them, but such 

reference is frequently made in the institutions fiirnished them with the 

history of the Hebrews, are here beauti- means of religious instruction, and 

fully compared to cedars and oaks, the examples of holy living. For Dvv^p, the 

most majestic and sturdy trees of the prophets, see on Hos. xii. 11. D^, 

forest. The Hebrew as well as the Nazaritetf LXX. i^iatriuvos, €ls dyiaa-- 

profane poets, often compare men to fiov, from "^^^ to separatet set oneself 

trees. Comp. Ps. xxxvii.35, xcii.l2 — 15; apart, abstain, were a class of persons 

Isa. X. 33, 34 ; Ezek. xvii. 3, xxxi. Six- among the Hebrews who orainarily 

teen MSS., originally twelve more, and bound themselves by a voluntary vow to 

now ^ve ; ^ve of the oldest editions, and abstain either for a time, or for the whole 

the Rabboth read Dp^9^, *< before you," period of life, from wine and all in- 

instead of D7<^j *' before them" but toxicating liquors, and everytliing made 

these authorities, tmder all the cir- of the produce of the vine; and not to 

cumstanees of the text, are insufficient shave their head nor touch any dead 

to warrant an alteration. body. Sometimes persons were, before 

10. Jehovah goes back to still earlier, their birth, devoted by their parents to 
but no less remarkable displays of his this abstinence ; as in the cases of 
kindness to the nation, showing that from Samson, Samuel, and John the Baptist, 
the commencement of its history he had For the law of the Nazarite, see Num. vi. 
been its benefactor. Comp. Jer. ii. 6. and Winer's Realworterb. The object 
nV9, to come or go vp, is always used in of the institute appears to have been, to 
Hebrew in reference to local or political exhibit to the view of the nation the 
elevation, and not, as Rosenmiiller power of religious principle operating in 
asserts, to the North. The circumstance the way of self-control, indifference to 
that many of the regions or places to sensual gratification, and an entire con- 
which persons are said to have gone up, secration to the service of God. The 
lay to the north of those from which they importance which was attached to it in 
came, is purely accidental ; whereas the a moral point of view, is evident from 
propriety of the use of the term lies in those who thus exercised themselves in 
the fact of the mountainous character of self-denial being classed along with the 
the land of Canaan, while Egypt and prophets. Respecting the undenlable- 
the intervening regions were low and flat, ness of the fact a pointed appeal is made 

11. The prepositive o in D3'>3ai9, and at the close of the verse. 

CHAP. II.] AMOS. 139 

12 But ye made the Nazarites drink wine, 
And ye charged the prophets, 
Saying, Prophesy not. 

13 Behold, I will press you down, 

As the cart presseth which is full of sheaves. 

14 And refuge shall &il the swift, 

The strong man shall not exert his strength, 

15 Neither shall the mighty deliver himself; 
He that handleth the bow shall not stand. 
And the swift-footed shall not escape ; 

Neither shall he that rideth the horse deliver himself. 

16 And he that is courageous among the heroes, 
Shall flee away naked in that day, 

Saith Jehovah. 

12. What could have been more and Viilg. c'ye^ KvXia vwoKdroi vfi^vt 
flagrant than to tempt the pious to break ego slridtho subler vos^ though advocated 
their solemn vow, and attempt to induce by some, are less appropriate. Newcome 
the inspired ambassadors of Jehovah to translates the latter liemistich thus : 
withhold the communications of his will? "As a loaded corn-wain presseth its 

1 3. Here commence the denunciations sheaves ; " but irp^ is the objective case 
against the apostate* Israelites. The to ^^!l!;p<?} and not to \t^. As the object 
Participle PTO, after njn, is future of the verb, supply y^MrrriH. 

in signification. See on Is. vii. 14. pt» 14 — 16. Every attempt to resist or 

occurs only here as a verb ; but that it escape from the evils that were coming 

signifies to press, oppress, &c.| is clear upon the nation, would prove utterly 

from the signification of the derivatives fruitless. This sentiment is expressed 

n;^, Ps. Iv. 4, and n^D, Ps. Ivi. 2, as under various forms, which are obviously 

well as from the connexion in which it accumulated for the sake of effect. ^ at 

here occurs. Comp. jnst, and the Syr. the beginning of ver. 14, is not merely 

* .* ^ conjunctive, but marks the consequence 

^qv,, angustiatus est: j^^, angustta, ^^ result. Verse 15th is wanting in 

I some of Kennicott and De Rossi's MSS. 

pressura. Comp. also the Ar. jlc, and in the Arab. ; but the omission is no 

,. ., . ,. .^ I .J ,. doubt owing to the homoioteleuton of 

rettnuU, tmpedtmt; Jjil^, accidentm this and the preceding verse ; just as. for 

fortuna, qu€e impediunt hominem. The the same reason, the words corresponding 
verb IB used transitively in both instances, to VsS93iDyDn<b at the end of ver. 14 are 
according to the ordinary signification of omitted in the Alexandrian copy of the 

its contents, nnn is to be taken in the Prov. xxx. 30 ; D"^ n^, the most 
sense of down, as in Job xl. 12. nb is beautiful of women, Song i. 8, v. 9, vi. 1 ; 
pleonastic. The renderings of the LXX. tvXoyrifiivrj iv yvvai^lv, Luke i. 28. 

140 AMOS. [chap. III. 


The prophet resumes the subject of the Divine goodness towards the Hebrew 
people, and grounds upon their misimprovement of it, the certainty of their 
punishment, ver. 1 ; he then, in a series of pointed and appropriate interrogations, 
illustrates this certainty, 3 — 6 ; which he follows up by a vindication of his 
commission, 7, 8. Foreign nations are then summoned to witness the execution 
of judgment upon the kingdom of Israel, which would be signally severe, 9 — 15. 

1 Hear ye this word, which Jehovah speaketh against you, sons 

of Israel, 
Against all the family which I brought up out of the land of Egypt; 
Saying : 

2 Only you have I known of all the families of the earth. 
Therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities. 

3 Will two walk together 
Except they be agreed ? 

1. Instead of V^ '3^ <<«on« of Israel," ii. 19. The Israelites alone were ac- 


reading is supported by the LXX. and they enjoyed, was the degree of punish- 

Arab. versions. Both forms are employed men t which their ungrateful and rebellious 

in the book of Amos, but the former is conduct merited. 

the less frequent; which awakens the 3. In this and the three following 

suspicion that the latter has been intro- verses, a series of parabolic interroga- 

duced here by way of correction. That tions are employed, highly calculated to 

the phrase is intended to include the produce conviction in the minds of those 

whole Hebrew people, is evident from to whom they were addressed. They 

the words which follow in apposition, are familiar indeed, but so much the 

and describe the distinguished favour more appropriate and forcible. Instead 

conferred upon the entire race of Jacob, of nsS^, the LXX. Arab, and Vulg. read 

nrr^tfo, Eth. fliLdl, to spread out, a '^^^^^^t.^ apparent reference to the 

. ., 7 ^ u 71 u • 1 J • Signification of »X >n the precedmg verse. 

irwe, ov elan ; but here obviously used in rp^^ • _ • '& s.'*^ c ^ c 

a national sense, as in Jer. viii?^3, xxv. ^^"^ P""»*^ signification of tT,, Syr. 

9 ; Micah ii. 3. ^O, condixit, cmutUuUy Arab. Acs* 

2. PT, to know, is here emploved in *' *^^^ 

the sense of knowing with the idea of significami affecturum alicui quidt is to 

volition, or goodwill ; to acknowledge, vohU, point out, appoint a time or place ; 

regard, care for, and by implication, to hence in Niphal, ^o meet by appointment; 

show favour to, Comp. Ps. i. 6, cxliv. 3 ; to do anything by common consent ; to be 

and ytvcoo-Kco, John x. 14, xv. 17 ; 2 Tim. agreed. This last seems to be the accepta* 


4 Will the lion roar in the forest 
When he has no prey ? 

Will the young lion cry out from his den. 
Except he have taken it ? 

5 Will the bird fall into an carth-snarei 
And there is no gin for it ? 

Will the snare spring from the ground, 
When nothing whatever is caught ? 

6 Shall the trumpet be blown in a city, 
And the people not tremble P 

Shall there be evil in a city. 

And Jehovah hath not inflicted it P 

tioxi in which the verb is to be taken in two different modes of hunting his prey, 

this place : for to render, How can two When not very hungry, he contents 

set out upon a journey, except they meet himself with watching behind a bush for 

by appointment? would express that to be the animal which is the object of his 

impossible, which is very often true in attack, till it approaches, when, by a 

fact. Interpreters are divided in opinion sudden leap, he attacks it, and seldom 

respecting the persons to whom the misses his aim ; but if he is famished he 

number Q?3V>, itco, refers. Munster and does not proceed so quietly, but, im- 

some others think, that the prophets gene- patient and full of rage, he leaves his 

rally, or Joel and Amos in particular, are den, and fills, with his terrific roar, the 

meant; yatablu8,Drusius,Liveley, New- echoing forest. His voice inspires all 

come, Bauer, RosenmtQler, Ackermann, living beings with fear and dread ; no 

and Maurer, explain it of God and the creature deems itself safe in its retreat : 

prophet; while Clarius, Grotius, Danseus, all flee, they know not whither, and by 

Marckius, Lowth, Harenberg, and Dahl, this means, fall into his fangs, rnn, the 

are of opinion that God and Israel are Honf and not Tpp, ihe young Uon^ is the 

intended. The last construction of the nominative to the verb "p^. The certainty 

passage best agrees with the bearing of destruction is the point at which the 

of the other interrogations. Between prophet aims in the similitude. 

Jehovah and his apostate people there 5. Between rq? and fH^ there is no 

could no longer be any fellowsnip ; and essential difference. The sense would 

instead of the blessings which accrued to have been the same had the latter word 

them from such fellowship, they had now been omitted, and we had simply read, 

nothing to expect but punishment. As i^pjn; but the insertion of the synonym e 

they had walked contrary to him, so he gives more force to the sentence, nb 

would now walk contrary to them. They connects with ii^, as its antecedent, 

had broken his covenant, and must take n^ is to be taken as the future of Kal, 

the consequences. and regarded as expressing the sudden 

4. The lion is quiet till he sees his spring of an elastic snare, or net, which, 

prey, but roars at the sight of it, and on the bird's touching it, suddenly rises 

thereby inspires it with such terror, that and incloses it. Instruments were pre- 

it is deprived of the power of escape, pared by the providence of God for the 

In like manner the young lion, which capture of the Israelites, which would 

has been weaned, and is just beginning certainly do their work : there would be 

to hunt for prey, will lie silent in nis den, no escape. 

till it is brought near, when the smell of 6. The prophet here closes his interro- 

it will rouse nim from his quiet. Poiret, gatory appeals ; — first, by a reference to 

in his Travels in Barbary, Strasb. 1789, the effect produced upon the inhabitants 

vol. i. p. 283, states, that the lion has of a city by the sounding of the tnimpet, 

142 AMOS. [chap. in. 

7 Surely the Lord Jehovah inflicteth nothing, 
Except he reveal his purpose 

To his servants the prophets. 

8 The lion hath roared, who will not fear ? 

The Lord Jehovah hath spoken, who will not prophesy ? 

Proclaim ye in the palaces of Ashdod, 
And in the palaces in the land of Egypt, 
And say : 

Assemble yourselves on the mountains of Samaria, 
And behold the great commotions within her, 
And the oppressions in the midst of her. 

as a signal of war ; and then, by directly 8. With reference to what he had 

ascribing the infliction of temporal expressed ver. 4, and in keeping with the 

calamities to Jehovah, as the punisher of mode of representation which he hod 

sin. For ns^ in the sense of temporal employed chap. i. 2, Amos formally 

evil, or calamity, see Gen. xix. 19, xliv. announces the awful character of the 

34, Exod. xxxii. 14 ; Ezek. vii. 5. Arab, messaee he had heard from the Lord, 

\i . . , .. >!,... and the impossibility of withholding 

JL, experimentum, cahimitus, afflictto. ^^ communication. The roar of thi 

7. Though the infliction of punish- lion is loud and terrific, especially in the 

ment on his guilty people was determined solitary forests which form his proper 

in his holy and righteous counsel, yet domain. See on ver. 4. 

Jehovah would not proceed to execute it 9. v*P^, cause it to be heard, pubUsh 

until he had^given them full warning, and ye! Those are addressed who had 

afibrded such of them an opportunity of intercourse with the places here specified, 

escaping as should repent and return to and had thus an opportunity of conveying 

his service. He thus mixed mercy with the message. Comp. o oKoiSoip €t«rarc»* 

judgment. *i^d, Theod. BovX^, counsel, "Epxovl Rev. xxii. 17. For jlshdod, 

J c ««» A V . see on chap. i. 8. It is here used 

purpose, decree; from tdj, Arab. Sm»^, synecdochically for the whole of PhUistia. 

posuit, firmiter statuit ; to found, lay a Instead of i^i^a, the LXX. have read 

foundation, establish apian, ordain. It '"'^^h cy *Aar<rvpioif, which Seeker 

is rather, I imagine, on this acceptation attempts to justify ! For n^3tpnM ^ ^Sf*qtfTi^ 

of the verb that the idea of purpose or comp. KTfpv^are cVi r&v dtf/xdroy, 

c?6cree is based, than upon that of a divan. Matt. x. 27. It was, and is stilJ, cus- 

or an assembly of persons, sitting and tomary in the East to assemble on the 

deliberating on couches: butseeGesenius flat roofs of the houses. To the princes 

in "rtD. As the Divine plan or purpose and courtiers thus assembled on their 

is necessarily secret till it be revealed, palaces, as well as to all within hearing, 

hence the acceptation secret came to be the invitation was to be conveyed, 

attached to the word. In this verse a There is something exceedingly forcible 

high honour is vindicated to the pro- in these heathen rulers, &c. being called 

phetical office. The holy men of God to witness the enormities that were 

were, by inspiration, entrusted with a practised in Samaria. If their judgment, 

knowledge of the Divine purposes, in so pagans as they were, could not but be 

far as it was necessary for them to divulge unfavourable, what must be the judgment 

them to the world, n^, is the frequent- of the holy and righteous God ? What 

ative future, indicating what God is the punishment which he must inflict? 

accustomed to do, and is best rendered Nothing can be more graphic than the 

by our present. For the sentiment, description of the position which these 

comp. Gen. xviii. 17, foreigners were to occupy. They were 

CHAP, 111.] AMOS. 143 

10 For they regard not the practice of rectitude, 
Saith Jehovah, 

That amass rapine and spoil in their palaces. 

11 Therefore thus saith the Lord Jehovah : 

There shall be an enemy, and that around the land ; 
And he shall bring down thy strength from thee, 
And thy palaces shall be plundered. 

12 Thus saith Jehovah : 

As the shepherd rescueth from the mouth of the lion 
Two legs, or the portion of an ear, 

to aaaemh\e'(nc^'yi^, upon the mouniains 11. i?, the LXX., who are followed 

of Samaria, '(f^, Samaria, the me- by Aq. and the Arab., preposterously 

tropolis of the kingdom of Israel, was render Tvoop, Tyre ; one of De Rossi s 

built on a round hill, near the middle of MSS. reaoB i^, and one of Kennicott's, 

a large valley, surrounded by mountains "ts. The Syr. Chald. tribulation, which 

on every side, by which it was completely has been adopted in many modem 

overlooked. From these elevations versions. Thus Dathe, Hesselberg, 

Sersons might distinctly see what was Dahl, Justi, and Hitzig. But Calvin, 

one in the city. That n^ai ntKiip and Newcome, Michaelis, Struensee, Bauer, 

DiTvaSv are intimately connected, and are Rosenmuller, Vater, and Noyes, translate 

both to be referred to the rich and emmy^ which better suits the connexion, 

powerful inhabitants of Samaria, appears as it supphes a proper nominative to the 

evident from what is stated iu the fol- verb T]^, immediately following. Comp. 

lowing verse. The latter term is properly ^ j • • ., a t - . 

the Pahul Participle, oppressed, but is " *° derivation, the Arab.^, nocuit, 

here used as a noun, as in Job zxxv. 9 ; noxaaffecit, UbsU, The words, fvtrj tx^ '^ 
Eccles. iv. i. Comp. the forms ^], are abrupt and elliptical, but, for this 
dweliingyTCpfrs^^ kingdom. very reason, possess more point. At 
10. «X ^t ^^y ^^^ 7^*> ^ not in- *», supply nin, hV, or the like. ^^ in ww 
tended to express simnle ignorance, but has the force of et guidem, or itque. The 
that state of mind which is hostile to readins^^p^ suggested by Houbigant, con- 
the entertainment of knowledge. The sidered probable by Newcome, and ad op- 
magnates of Samaria had no regard for ted by Bauer, is altogether unsustained by 
the practice of what was just and right, any example of a similar case in verbs 
but the contrary, nnba, rectitude, that whose second and third radicals are the 
which is straight, in opposition to what same, y^ 3^3p is equivalent to ywp^^, 
is crooked, distorted, or morally wrong. 2 Kings xvii. 5, where the invasion by 
Comp. Is. XX vi. 10, xxx. 10, lix. 14. Shalmaneser is described. t9, strength, 
"ycdyvi^ violence and desolation, mean,hy denotes whatever Samaria confided in, 
a metonymy of the cause for the effect, or made her boast of, such as her 
what has been obtained by violating the treasures, fortifications, warriors, &c. 
rights and desolating the property of All was to be brought down into the 
others. Such spoils they accumulated valley, and what was capable of being 
in their palaces, but they should not removed, carried away by the enemy : 
enjoy them. On the contrary, as the i,e. Shalmaneser, the king of Assyria. A 
prophet shows in the following verses, just retribution for the spoliations which 
they should be plundered and carried her inhabitants had committed, 
away by the enemy. Dathe well 12. A very appropriate image is here 
expresses the meaning of the verse: borrowed from a scene in pastoral life, 
"Recle factis nequaquam delectantur, such as the prophet himself may have 
inquit Jova, sed thesauros in sedes suas witnessed. Nothinfi" but a mere remnant 
congeruntvi atque injuria par tos." of the Israelites should with difficulty 

14* AMOS. [chap. III. 

So shall the sons of Israel be rescued, 
Who sit in Samaria on the comer of a bed, 
And in Damascus on that of a couch. 

13 Hear ye, and testify against the house of Jacob, 
Saith the Lord, Jehovah, the God of hosts, 

14 Surely in the day when I punish the transgressions of Israel, 

escape from the enemy. Although a lion correspond to what had been expressed 

may not be induced to quit his prey, if in the comparison of the fragments left 

he 18 hungry and has but just seized it, by the lion. Besides, nHQ signifies the 

Is. xxxi. 4; yet if he has almost devoured outer or extreme corner, and not the 

it, leaving nothing but what is here speci- inner, which is regarded as the seat of 

fied, no difficulty would be found in effect- honour, so that the observations of 

ing a rescue. For^T«n '9pVT,comi>. tppv- Harmer, chap. vi. Obs. xxx., are totally 

o-^i^i' cico-ro/MiTopX«ovror, 2Tim. iv. 17; Inapplicable, even if there were much 

1 Sam. xvii. 34, 35. ^ occurs only this point in them. The words are elliptical, 

once, but signifies a pari or piece ; from and the parallelism, expressed in full, 

Vt|, to separate. There is a species of would stand thus : 
goat in the £ast, the ears of which are npp nMp^ f"^^?^ d*?^ 

often a foot in length, and broad in * ^crco n^i P^T? mif^ 

proportion ; so that more importance The persons referred to are the sick and 

would be attached to them by the shep- infirm poor, who had nothing left but the 

herd, than would be the case with us m side or part of a couch, and whom the 

the West The concluding words of the king of Assyria would not think it worth 

verse have greatly perplexed interpreters, his while to be at the trouble of removing. 

Most of tho modems explain p<^? of the All the rest, the robust and active, the 

silk stuff manufactured at Damascus, opulent and powerful, should be carried 

which, from the name of the place, is into captivity. For the fulfilment see 

called damask, and render ^sr^ P^l^ in 2 Kings xvii. 5, 6, xviii. 9 — 12. The 

damask couches. What has been supposed reason why Damascus is mentioned 

to confirm this explanation of the term is along with Samaria, is, that, at the time 

the occurrence of the same word in of the Assyrian invasion, that city was in 

Arabic, only with the letters, or similar the power of the Israelites, having been 

, .^ ^ , ... I.. . conquered by Jeroboam II. See2Kinsr8 

letters, transposed, as ^^^^JU>,^j^UuJ, xv. 28. On the conquest, no doubt 

,>U>, &c., allsignifying«7^. Gesenius Se^J^Se? '" '^" ''° '"^'' '''"' 
has a long article on the word in his 13. The same persons are here address- 

Thesaurus, p. 346 ;butfail8in establishing ed, who were summoned from Philistia 

the point of identity. Instead of pi^i and Egypt to witness the enormities 

with iy//m, upwards of twenty of De practised in Samaria, ver. 9. They were 

Rossi's MSS. read, or haveread, ptpo"? with now to testify to the facts of the case, that 

Sin ; which reading is also that of the punishment to be inflicted upon the 

eighteen printed editions, and is the inhabitants might be seen to have been 

proper orthography of the name of richly deserved. ? Tyn, as frequently 

Damascus. What a{)pears to have means to testify against any one. njrr ;3tm 

originated the above view of the word n^«n vftjj, LXX. Kwptop o Sci/ o 

was the idea, that as the wealthy and navroKpara>p : an accumulation of Divine 

voluptuous inhabitanu of Samaria are appellatives for the purpose of striking 

supposed to be intended, there was a awe into the minds of the guilty, 
special propriety in adverting to the 14. Signal vengeance was to be taken 

sumptuousncss of the couches or sofas on upon the place whence all the evils which 

which they reclined. But this idea is spread through the ten tribes originated, 

totally alien from the bearing of the Jor Bethel, see on Hos. iv. 15. From 

passage, which requires something to the term na^on having the determinative 

CHAP. IV.] AMOS. 145 

I will punish the altars of Bethel ; 
The horns of the altar shall be cut down, 
And they shall fall to the ground. 
15 I vill also smite the winter-house with the summer-house, 
The ivory mansions shall perish, 
And the great houses shall come to an end, 
Saith Jehovah. 


article, rendering it emphatic, while ^, properly toothy but used specially of 
n^3Tp in the plural also occurs, it may the tusk of the elephant ; ivory, LXX. 
be inferred that at 3ethel, besides the oIkoi i\t<f>dvTivoi, By ivory houses are 
great altar erected by Jeroboam, there not meant houses or palaces composed of 
was a number of lesser ones at which that material, but richly ornamented 
sacrifices were offered. Comp. Hos. viii, with it. The ancients used it for 
11, z. 5. The ^TJP^, horns, were four decorating the ceilings, panels, doors, 
projecting points in the shape of horns &c., of their rooms, by inlaying it with 
at the comers of ancient altars. They other costly articles. See 1 Kings xxii. 
may be seen in the representations of 39 ; Ps. xlv. 9. Odys. iv, 73. Diod. Sic. 
those dug up by Belzoni in Egypt. As iii. 47. Pausan. i. 12. 4. Od. ii. 18. 1. 
they were ornamental, the action here All these sumptuous palaces in which the 
described was designed to express the leaders of the people rioted, and indulged 
contempt in which the altar would be in all manner of profaneness, were to be 
held by the Assyrians. completely destroyed. F|V?, to come to 
15. Eastern monarchs and princes, as an end, cease. The rendering of a^l=i3 
well as others of the great, have summer D^?}, by " large houses," is more agree- 
as well as winter residences. The latter able to the connexion than that of 
are in cities and sheltered situations; the "many houses," though this is equally 
former in forests, or upon mountains, expressed by the phrase. 


Tills chapter contains a continuation of the denunciation pronounced against the 
Israelites, at the close of the preceding, 1 — 3; an ironical call to them to 
persevere in their will-worship, which was the primary cause of their calamities, 
4, 5 ; an enumeration of the different judgments with which they had been 
visited, but which had effected no reformation, 6 — 11 ; and a summons to them 
to prepare for the last and most awful judgment, which the omnipotent Jehovah 
was about to inflict upon them, 12, 13. 

1 Hear ye this word, ye kine of Bashan ! 
That are in the mountain of Samaria ; 

1. 7^, Bashan, was celebrated for the Deut. xxxii. 14 ; Ps.xxii. 12; Ezek.xxxix. 
richnessof its pasturage, and its excellent 18. It lay on the east of the Jordan, 
breed both of large and small cattle, between Hermon and the mountains of 


146 AMOS. [chap. iv. 

That oppress the poor ; that crush the needy ; 
That saj to their master. 
Bring now, that we may drink. 
2 The Lord Jehovah hath sworn by his holiness : 
Behold, the days are coming upon you. 
When ye shall be taken away with hooks, 
And your posterity with fish-hooks. 

Gilead, and extended eastward as far as sound of which strongly expresses the 

the cities of Salchah and Edrei, which it character of the action which they are 

included. Some are of opinioni that by intended to describe. It signifies to 

p^^nrfn^y the kim, or cowaofBashan,the break, eruah, doth in pieces. Comp. the 
proud and luxurious females of Samaria * . . 

are intended; and that they are in- Arab. ^^, ccntudH, fregit. ]S"i« m 

troduced on account of the corrupting cm'M, though plural in form, is singular 

influence which, through their husbands, in siffuification, and means the king of 

they exerted on the state of public affairs. Israel, whom his courtiers and others. 

Of these may be mentioned, most of the indulging in their compotations, im- 

Rabbins, Theodoret, Liveley, Orotius, portune for fresh supplies of wine, 

Michaelis, Vater, Dahl, Justi, Gesenius reckless of the oppression and rapine by 

and Winer. Others, as the Targ. Jerome, which it might be procured. Comp. 

Munster, Calvin, Vatablus, Clarius, Hos. vii. 5. n suffixed in HHf^n, is the 

Drusius, Dansus, Mercer, Marckius, ri directive, or optative. 
Harenberg, Dathe, Rosenmiiller, and 2, 3. ^ is pleonastic. It is surprising 

Maurer, maintain that the prophet has that so judicious an interpreter as Calvin 

the princes and rulers in view, whom he should attempt to vindicate the rendering 

describes in this debasing language, in of Vsh;^, hit sanctuary, when that of his 

order to set forth the effeminacy, wanton- holiness is so natural and proper. Comp. 

ness, and obstinacy of their character. Ps. Ixxxix. 36, and Ix. 8. Jebovab 

At first view the former exposition might appeals to all that is involved in the 

appear to recommend itself for adoption ; innnite excellence of his moral character 

but I am induced to give my adhesion for the certainty of his punishing sin. 

to the latter, chiefly on the ground, that The Nominative to vie; is the enemy, 

it is scarcely possible, otherwise, to understood; but as the verb is put in the 

account for the repeated intermixture of impersonal form, it is best rendered 

masculine forms with the feminine, passively. Doderlein and some others 

Thus we have Wtpnq5, on»3*iM, n^w, DJ'^, object to the adoption, in this place, of 

Qpn^, all occurring very closely together, hooks and Jish-hooks^ as the signification 

Now, though it must be admitted that of n^a? and rmirfrcD^ as too violent a 

there are instances in which the gender change of the figure ; and propose that we 

is neglected, as in Ruth i., yet none of should retain the primary acceptation of 

them will bear comparison with the thorns, which they think is more in 

present case. On the principle, that keeping with the idea of cows. They ac- 

males are the real, and females the cordingly render the passage : ''Ye shall 

figurative subjects of discourse, it is easy be driven into thorny districts, and 

to perceive how the genders would be among the gloomy thorn bushes." There 

used just as the one or the other were is, however, no necessity for supposing 

prominently in the mind of the prophet, that the prophet had the alleged idea in 

Some translators suppress the figurative his mind when he delivered the words, 

language altogether, as Dathe : Audite but the contrary ; and as fishing and 

hoc, DOS divites et poterttes Samaria ; bat Aooi^s are else where employed figuratively 

such practice is quite unwarrantable, as in reference to human beings, there can 

it destroys the effect of the prophetic be no real ground for rejecting such 

mode of representation. rn2»n, one of tropical application of the disputed terms 

those onomatopoetic verbs, the very in this place. See 2; 

CHAP. IV.] AMOS. 147 

3 And ye shall go out through the breaches, 

Each one right before her ; 

Ye shall even be thrown out of the palace, 

Saith Jehovah. 
^ Come ye to Bethel, and transgress ; 

At Gilgal, multiply transgression ; 

Bring your sacrifices every morning. 

Your tithes every third year. 
5 Offer incense of the leavened thank-offering ; 

Proclaim the voluntary offerings : publish them abroad ; 

For ye love to have it so, O ye sons of Israel, 

Saith Jehovah. 

Is. xxxvii. 29; Jer. xvi. 16 ; Ezek. xxix. viz. that ficnn stands for f^^'T^, a palace ^ 
4. JTO rrft^ each one right before her, u j i n *i. a i. ^ i x. 

means, in a captive stite, not being ox citadel Comp.the Arab, ^^yb, a/o//y 

permitted by the enemy to turn to the edifice, a pyramid. Changes in letters of 

right or the left. xr^ptfTt^ is pointed the same organ are not infrequent in 

njpo^pn in De Rossi's Spanish MS. Hebrew, as p», TH; ]^Qw, jSon ; nnj, 

marked 23, which punctuation has been nr6 ; tw, ^m ; &c. xhe n at the end is not 

adopted in Hahn's small printed edition, the feminine termination, but simply 

Comp.^l^, Dan.viii. 11. It is supported paragogic, as in ns^, Job xxxiv. 13, 

by the LXX. Svr. Symm. Vulg. and xxxvii. 12; Is. viii. 23; and nDinn, 

Arab, all of which versions exhibit the Judges xiv. 18. The noun will thus be 

passive, n at the end of the verb is that the accusative absolute, and the con- 

of the fuller form of the pronoun n^W, struction will be, " cast down as to the 

the fragment of which is used as a suffix, palace" i.e. from it, over its walls, or the 

It occurs but seldom in the preterite. Of like. The place in which the princes 

n^tenrri almost every possible interpreta- had rioted, and in the strength of which 

tion has been given. LXX. ro ^por ro they confided, should afford them no 

'Pc/ifuxy ; Cod. Vat. 'Pofifidv ; in many safety. 

of the MSS. of Fiamin. Nob. *Apiiavd. 4, 5. The language of these verses is 

.« ««A that of the keenest irony. The Israelites 

Syr. •-JrP^li 'ia^. Chald. '3VT7 rpra, were addicted to the worship of the 

golden calf, and to that of idols, whereby 

the moun/aifu of Armenia. Vulg, ArmofU they contracted guilt before Jehovah, 

Arab, after the LXX. JU>)J| Aj^ Aq. »°d exposed themselves to his judg- 

-/ ^ • • ments ; at the same time they hypo- 

'Ap/Miya Zpos. Symm. ^EpftrjviaVf doubt- critically professed to keep up the 

less for Apfjktviav. Theod. lipos Mova. observance, of certain feasts which had 

Edit, quint. vyfnjXov 5poff. Luther and been appointed by Moses. For Gilgal, 

Vater, Ilermon. Michaelis, Stniensee, as a place of idolatrous worship, see on 

Dathe, Bauer, De Wette, Armenia. Hos. iv. 15. The opinion of Abenezra, 

Justi and Hezel, Harem. Volborth, Net. approved by Rosenmiiller and Maurer, 

Uitzig takes it to be a corruption of that by onp^ irp^, we are to understand 

n^^OTiTT, Hadadrimmonf which he ex- every third day, seems forced and 

plains of a place near Samaria where unnatural. That the words by them- 

Adonis was worshipped. Newcome cuts selves might have this meaning is un- 

the knot, and renders "will utterly questionable; but the idea of /iM«« being 

destroy it." The only satisfactory solii- brought every third day is inadmissible, 

tion of the difficulty presented by this even into a passage so strongly ironical 

Slifo^ \ty. is that of Kimchi, which is as the present. I cannot doubt that the 

approvea by Gesenius, Winer, and Lee, prophet has in view the enactment 

148 AMOS. [chap. IV. 

6 And though I have given you cleanness of teeth in all your cities. 
And want of bread in all your places, 

Yet ye have not returned unto me, 
Saith Jehovah. 

7 And though I have virithholden the rain, 
Three months before the harvest ; 

And have caused it to rain upon one city, 

But upon another city I have not caused it to rain ; 

One portion was rained upon, 

And the portion upon which it rained not, withered : 

8 And two or three cities wandered to one city, 
To drink water, but have not been satisfied, 
Yet ye returned not to me, 

Saith Jehovah. 

9 I have smitten you with mildew atid much blight ; 

Your gardens, your vineyards, and your figs, and your olives, 

recorded Deut. xiv. 29> xxvi. 12. C3^;;, of which they persisted in their wicked 

days^ mean) here, as Lev. xxv. 29 ; courses, is emphatically marked by the 

Judges xvii. 10, the fullest complement declaration^ t njrr t3«p 't» ona^^, yet ye 

of days, i.e. a y^ar. "^^i? is most probably returned not unto me, saith Jehovah, 

the infinitive, used for the second plural Such repetition gives great force to the 

of the imperative ; or it may be the reprehension. Q^ fi^}^ cleanness ofteethy 

second singular of the same. There is and DnJ TDh, lack of breads are synony- 

no necessity for attaching to f!pn, the mous ; both expressing the famine with 

meaning of violence, though Gesenius which the nation had been visited ^, 

would justify it, on the ground of ^prr to me, the Chald. paraphrases, ^pn^, to 

being used, Ps. Ixxi. 4, to designate an my worship, or service, 
oppressor ; and because the rendering of 7, 8. The famine was followed by the 

the Chald* in this place is c^^m, rapine or judgment of drought, which at once pro- 

oppression. It is not impossible that duced sterility, and cut off the necessary 

the translator mistook ypn for Dpn, which supply of drink for man and beast. The 

has this signification. The point of ram that had been withheld, was the 

reference is doubtless the ordinance. Lev. v)ip^, vernal^ or latter rain, which falls in 

vii. 13, that, besides the unleavened cakes, the latter half of February, the whole of 

the Hebrews were to offer '* leavened March and April, and thus precedes the 

bread" with the sacrifice of thanksgiving, harvest, as here stated. See on Hos. vi. 

What the Israelites, therefore, are sup- 3. Whatever rain fell was exceedingly 

posed to be in the habit of doing was, so partial and insufficient. Instead of TpT;)n, 

far as the material of the thing was con- the reading "^^PH is found in two MSS. 

cemed, not contrary to the law, but in and is supported by the renderings of the 

strict accordance with its requirement. LXX. Arab, and Vulg. The textual 

For D^orwii, comp. p^r?? *Q?, Jer V. 31. reading must be taken impersonally. 

6. From this verse to the 11th in- Q^, cities, stands for their inhabitants, 

elusive, Jehovah describes the different Compare for a lengthened and graphic 

corrective measures which he had em- description of the judgment here specified, 

ployed for the purpose of effecting a Jer. xiv. 1 — 6. 

change in the Israelites, and at the close 9. A bad harvest, arising from the- 

of each mentioned in the series, the destruction of the corn by the blighting 

obstinate impenitence, under the influence influence of the east wind (|^cr^, scorching. 

CHAP. IV,] AMOS. 1 19 

The locust hath devoured ; 

Yet ye have not returned unto me, 

Saith Jehovah. 

10 I liave sent among you the plague, such as that of Egypt ; 
I have slain your young men with the sword, 

Together with your captive horses ; 
And I have made the stench of your camps to come up into your 

nostrils ; 
Yet ye have not returned unto me, 
Saith Jehovah. 

11 I have overthrown some among you, 
As God overthrew Sodom and Oomorrah ; 

And ye have been as a brand snatched from the burning ; 
Yet ye have not returned unto me, 
Saith Jehovah. 

bUuHnfff from *]?$, to scorch ; Chald. ^7^, Arab. Syr. and Vulg. It is translated in 

the Targ., and is to be retained, as an 

to bum; Arab. ^^^IamI, nigery LXX. intensive particle, adding force to the 

preceding verb. Comp. the somewhat 

nvptaaii, Arab. Ver. a^^^], the Simoom,) similar use of the Greek «cal. 

V-^ 11. ^ in tDD^ is used par litively : inter, 

and the mildew, or smut, f^, Arab, among, or the like ; indicating that the 

subverting was not total. avr'»j ro§np3, 

Jjjl,rubiffo. ntevi, the infinitive abso- like God's overthrowing.- properly' the 

Hiphil participle, but construed as an 

lute of rni in Hiphil, with the force of an infinitive. Comp. Deut. xxix. 22 ; Is. xiii. 

adjective, or an adverb. This word some 19; Jer. 1. 40; 2 Pet. ii. 6; Jude 7. 

improperly connect, as a construct noun, ^^T^} which stands for the affix of the 

with the following substantives, ou, a first personal pronoun, Newcome im- 

name given to the locust. See on Joel properly converts into a superlative, and 

i. 4. renders, " the great overthrow ! " Ills 

10. Though the plague has from time remark on n^, as sometimes the sign of 

immemorial been endemic in Egypt, and the genitive case, is likewise totally 

might so far be described as ^s?^ HI) inapplicable, as in the present case it 

the way of Egypt ; yet comparing Is. x. can only mark the accusative. To what 

26, in which the same phrase is used as physical phenomena reference is here 

here, it obviously means, (» ^Ae f'^yp/iafM specifically made, it is impossible to 

were treated, or as God punished them determine, owing to the absence of all 

with the plague. See £xod. ix. 3, &c. historical data. Some think the earth- 

L^ V^ '21^ , lit. the captivity of your quake, mentioned chap. i. 2, is intended ; 

horses: i.e. those taken and destroyed but this is altogether out of the question, 

by the enemy. See 2 Kings xiii. 7. since the prophecy was delivered two 

till the LXX. render Iv irupi, having yearsbefore that event. From the allusion 

read v)m^, which is the pointing of three to fire, it has been deemed probable, that 

of Oe Rossi's MSS., and of three others some of the cities of the Israelites had 

originally ; as also of the Brixian edition, been burnt, either by lightning from 

Aq.aanpiav, The1intDD3>?i^, Houbigant, heaven, or by the army of the king of 

Dahl, and some others would cancel, on Syria. At all events, that the language 

the ground of its harshness, and its not is not to be understood figuratively is 

having been expressed by the LXX. evident from the close connexion of the 

150 AMO& [cuAP. IV. 

12 Therefore, tlius will I deal with thee, O Israel ! 
Forasmuch as I will do this to thee. 

Prepare to meet thy God, O Israel ! 

13 For, behold ! it is He that formed the mountains ; 
And created the wind ; 

And declareth to man what is his thought ; 
That maketh the morning darkness, 
And walketh upon the heights of the earth ; 
Jehovah, God of hosts, is his name. 

verse with those preceding, each of which national calamity ; but this was all that 

describes a separate physical calamity, could now be expected, 

and closes, as this one does, with a 13. To give full effect to the preceding 

reprehension ofthe impenitence by which call, one of the most sublime and mag- 

the nation continued to be characterised, nificent descriptions of Jehovah, to be 

npiicp ^^iiM, a brand snatched from the met with in Scripture, is here introduced. 

burning, is proverbial, and expresses the Tho participial form of the five verbs 

narrow escape from utter extinction employed by the prophet greatly en- 

which had been experienced. Comp. haiices the beauty of the passage ; but it 

Zech. iii. 2; and ICor.ii. 15: avror oi cannot be successfully imitated in a 

a»Bif(T€Tai, ovrat b^ cor btd irvf}6s, translation. Some have doubted whether 

12. All the means that had been nn does not here signify aptrU, rather 

employed to reform the Israelites having than wind; but it seems more natural to 

proved ineffectual, they are here sum- take the term in tlie latter acceptation, 

moned to prepare for the final judgment, on account ofthe close coherence of this 

which was to put an end to their clause of the verse with that immediately 

national existence. To this judgment preceding. The rendering of the LXX. 

reference is emphatically made in the anayytXKap €h dvBpvnovf rov xpiurov 

terms n3, thus, and i^, this. There is avrov, announcing to meti his anointed, 

a brief resumption of the sentence de- has originated in their mistaking M?np 

livered verses 2 and 3. That by fan for ^rr^. Theodoret, in commenting 

any such/7r«/7(ira/ion is intended as would upon the version, thinks Cyprus is in- 

involvegenuineanduniversal repentance, tended, and not Christ, as we may other- 

by which the threatened jud^ent might wise imagine the fathers would expound 

have been averted, cannot oe admitted it. By ^n^ is not meant God's thought, 

in consistency with the bearing both of or his purposes, as some have taken it, 

the preceding and the following context, but the thoughts or meditations of man. 

The removal ofthe Israelites, as a nation, of which alone the verb rrip and its 

is denounced as certain, and inevitable, derivatives, when applied to intelligent 

It is rather to be understood as ^pn, beings, is used, nioi^ is followed by a 

prepare thee, 3 ex. xlvi. 14. God is now double accusative : that of the material 

coming against you as the avenger of out of which the thing is made, and that 

your wickedness. Consider how you of the matter into which it is converted. 

shall meet, or endure the infliction. It must, however, be observed, that 

Comp. Ezek. xxii. 14 ; Heb. x. 31. In- upwards of twenty of Kennicott*& MSB. 

dividuals might by repentance obtain the read, or have read, rem, which is the 

forgiveness of their personal transgres- reading of the LXX. and Arab. Accord- 

sions, and thus have their minds brought ing to this construction, the passage 

into a state in which they would enjoy must be translated thus : " He that 

support and comfort in the midst of maketh the aurora and the darkness." 

CHAP, v.] AMOS. 151 


After giving utterance to a brief elegy over the prostrate and helpless condition of 
the kingdom, which had just been predicted, 1 — 3, the prophet introduces Jehovah 
Btill addressing himself to the inhabitants; calling upon them to relinquish their 
superstitious and idolatrous practices, and return to his service, 4 — 9. He then 
adverts to the picture of wickedness which the nation exhibited, 10 — 13 ; repeats 
the call to cultivate habits of piety and righteousness, 14, 15 ; describes, in 
plaintive strains, the destruction that was coming upon the land, 16 — 20 ; exposes 
the inutility of ceremonial rites when substituted for moral rectitude, or combined 
with unauthorized worship, 21 — 26 ; and expressly threatens the Israelites with 
transportation into the East, 27. 

1 Hear ye this word, which I utter concerning you — 
A lamentation, O house of Israel ! 

2 The virgin of Israel is fallen ; 
She shall rise no more ; 
Prostrate upon her own land, 
There is none to raise her up. 

3 For thus saith the Lord Jehovah 
The city that went out by a thousand, 

1. Tq^ is properly an elegy , or song of it consists merely of the plaintive ex- 
mourning and lamentation, from ^, in clamations contained in verse 2. Com- 
Piel, to compose or chant such a song. It pare the beautiful lament of David on 
consisted of plaintive effusions poured the deathof Jonathan, 2 Sam. i. 17 — 27. 
forth by mourning relatives, or by per- 2. The Israelitish state is called nV^na, 
sons hired for the purpose, at fwierals ; a virgin, because it had never been sub- 
and was distinguisned for the tender, dued by any foreign prince. See on 
pathetic, broken and exclamatory nature Is. xxiii. 12. The passages, Jer. xviii. 
of the expressions of which it was com- 13, and Lam. ii. 13, which Rosenmiiller 
posed, as well as the touching features adduces against this interpretation of the 
of the subject which they were designed term, are not in point, since both refer to 
to embody. Of this mode of composition the character which Jerusalem sustained 
the Hebrew prophets frequently avail previous to the deplorable condition to 
themselves, especially Jeremiah, who, which she had been reduced by the 
besides introducing it into several of his violence of the enemy. It cannot, there- 
prophecies, has left us a whole book of fore, be regarded as merely synonymous 
n^Ti?, elegies, or lamentations. SeeLowth, with na, £aughter, as idiomatically ap- 
Lect. xxii. For the introduction of the plied to describe the inhabitants of a 
present subject, com p. ^ or ^ rn^. m^, city or state. This brief, but touching 
£zek. xix. 1, xxvii. 2, xxxii. % and the elegy, describes the utterly prostrate and 
common oracular forms m^, ^t^ vm, helpless condition to whicn tne Assyrians 
&c. Some are of opinion that the elegy were to reduce the kingdom of tne ten 
thus introduced extends to the end of tribes, 
the chapter, but it is far more likely that 3. The depopulated state of the country 

152 AMOS. [chap. v. 

Shall have an hundred left ; 

And she that \vent out by an hundred. 

Shall have ten left 

To the house of Israel. 

4 For thus saith Jehovah to the house of Israel, 
Seek ye me, and live. 

5 And seek not Bethel ; 
And go not to Gilgal ; 

Neither pass through to Beersheba ; 
For Gilgal shall surely go into captivity, 
And Bethel shall come to nought. 

6 Seek ye Jehovah, and live, 

IS here affectingly depicted. ^9,^ the city, Dr. Robinson fell in with its niins on 

stands by metonvmy for its inhabitants, the north side of a Wady of the same 

The LXX. rj iriXiv «( iji i^eiropruovro name, but found nothing bearing the 

X(XiOi| and so the other ancient versions, marks of high antiquity, except two 

nK^^n, that went out, is used elliptically wells, one of which he ascertained to be 

for Tvaircf) nM»H*n, thai went forth to war. forty-four feet and a half in depth to 

The population or size of a city was the surface of the water, and the other 

estimated according to the number of forty-two feet. As it lay in the extreme 

warriors it could furnish, llius the south of Palestine, the verb im^, to pan 

Scholiast on Iliad ix. 383, 384 : ov to over, or through, is most appropriate. 

irKaroi r&v nvK&v 6tk(i a-€fialv€iv, oCb^ From this verse, and from chap. viii. 14, 

yap afia irdvras i^tkvai <f>rfa-lp' d\ka to it appears to have been a place of idol- 

fU'v€6os TTJs iroAcor, km to wXfidos t&v atrous resort, but wherein the idolatry 

dpop^p, consisted we are not told. In ^Jn 

4. While the divine judgments are not Tfvx* ri^| is a forcible paronomasia, though 
executed, there is still room for repent- the words are from different roots. " Gil- 
ance and reformation. v3^, to seek, is gal gallando gallabitur, ai posset fingi 
very often used as a religious term, im- aliquod tale verbum ; hoc est, vertetur 
plying application to God, or to a false volubili versioner " Calvin, tn /be. There 
deity, for assistance, direction, &c. and is likewise a play upon the word \v^ 
then generally to worship him, and have which is used to denote wickednest, tdolr- 
respect to his will. Ps. xxiv. 6; la. atry, idd, nothing, ^c. What had origi- 
viii. 19, Iv. 6. Comp. Heb. xi. 6, nally been Vrv^, ^eM^/, a Aoti<6 o/ (rocf, 
€K^r)T€lv TOP Q€6p. f^^ w similarly used, but had by the Israelites been converted 
vn, live ye, is employed as a second im- into ptfrr^, Beth-aven, a house qf idolatry, 
perative, in order emphatically to express see Uos. iv. 15, x. 5 ; should be reduced 
the certainty of the result that would to pM, aven, nothing. 
ensuefromcompliance with the command 6. The prophet here repeats, for the 
given by the first. sake of effect, the call which he had in- 

5. A strong dissuasive from idolatry, troduced, ver. 4. n^, which more corn- 
derived from the predicted fall of tne monly has the significations attaching to 
objects and places of false worship. 

»3^ HM^ Beersheba, lit " the Well of the the Arab. ^Lc, recte se habet res, aptus 

Oath ;" LXX. t6 <t)p€ap tov 6pKov ; see ^ . ^i. * * *i e • 

Gen. xxi. 22-31. It was situited about >'» *«• ^^ ^«^e *^^* ^^ t^« Synac 

twenty-five geographical miles south of ▼. ^^^^^u «.,«.,.«•/ tIio «»«o«l 

Hebron, on the frontier of the Holy •--^3' descendU, perrupii. The general 

Land towards Idumea, and is still called ., « ^- '.i. ^ j j 

7 ^ idea of motion, either forward or down- 
by the Arabs ^AaJI ^aj, Bir-es-^ehd. ^^rj^ seems to be conveyed by it, only, 

CHAP, v.] AMOS. 153 

Lest he rush down, like fire, upon the house of Joseph ; 

And it devour, and there be none in Bethel to quench it. 
7 Ye who turn justice into wormwood, 

And cast righteousness to the ground. 
3 Seek Him that made the Pleiades and Orion ; 

That tumeth deathshade into morning ; 

That maketh day dark as night ; 

That calletli the waters of the sea, 

in certain cases, with the superadded could remove the Divine judgments from 

notion of violence or force. Thus the land. 

njrr rm 1% n^n^, is not improperly ren- 7. D>»hn, ye that turn, is to be re- 

dered in our common version, **And the ferred to ^^ and ^]P^n*3 in the preceding 

Spirit of the Lord came mightily upon verse. This construction is more natural 

him." Dahl prefers the rendering per- than that which would take ^D^ rpj alone 

diJit, which he derives from the Arab, as the nominative, in the third person. 

. Jl^, exitiale malum; but the form f^^h changes of person as that pr^ 

Xy ' m 'T'ln, are too frequent to occasion any 

JL-o JLo* *»-«*/-««. ..^A^^* difficulty ; nor is it always necessary to 

^, l»a*-^. penetrans, vehemens, ^^^^^^ ^^^^ .^ ^ translation. Ewald 

might rather be compared. Jehovah is I?*'** ^ ®^r*"i^ "1^^^'?^^ ""^ removing 
ofWn compared to ire. See Is. x. 17 ; t^ supposed difficulty, by striking out 
Lam. ii. 3. tf^i, being of common gen- the verse, and inserting it at the beginning 
der, is the nominative to rim, so that ^l verse 10. Of course, the whole will 
the object of comparison tokes the place *^®" ""^.f^ ^^'T "moothlv ; but the ques- 
ofnjp, who is the subject, and the proper **^° «*>" remains, Did Amos so con- 
nominative, rp^* rn, the house of Joseph, nect the words ? rash, Arab. A abegit, 
IS a less frequent designation of the ten C/ 
tribes, the principal of which was that of execratus est, is the Hebrew name of 
Ephraim, the son of Joseph. It occurs wormwood, and is given to it on account 
several times in the historical books, but of its disgustingly bitter and injurious 
only twice besides in the prophets, viz, quality. The LXX. now read o iroiav 
Obad. 18; Zech. x. 6. The name ^% ^is {jyfros Kpifia; but there can be little 
Joseph, by itself, is similarly employed, doubt that the original reading was 
Amos V. 15, vi. 6. Comp. Ezek. xxxvii. a^iv6oi. The meaning is, that the per- 
16. For Vr>% Bethel, the LXX. Arab, sons spoken of so perverted their judicial 
and one of De Rossi's MSS. read n»3 proceedings, as to render them both ob- 
^IjNd!, Beth Yisrael, which reading is noxious and injurious to those whom they 
adopted by Newcome. One of Kenni- affected. For Y^ Trr?f see on Is. 
cott's MSS. has ^jnto^, Israel, which xxviii. 2. 

Houbigant, Dathe, and Bauer, approve. 8. Another sublime description of the 

Jerome, Rosenmtiller, Dahl, Justi, Most High, almost verbally identical 

Struensee, and others, retain the re- with that furnished Job ix. 9. The 

ceived reading, which is supported by participles are to be referred to rffv, 

the Targ., Syr., and Vulg. Some would Jehovah, ver. 6, as their antecedent, 

connect V^^S with naso, and render, Newcome, following the Targ. and Syr.^ 

" there shall be none to quench Bethel ;" inserts *' that have forsaken " at the com- 

but the verb n|3 is never construed with mencement of the verse, but these 

\ which marks here the Dative of pos- authorities are not sufficient to warrant 

session. The true construction is, the addition, which, indeed, the text 

n|5rp VtpjJ T*^. Tlie people of Israel put does not require. The article, used as a 

their trust m the idols which they wor- relative in vrf<^ and 3^^^?, is omitted 

shipped at Bethel, but none of them before ntp^ and ^, because they are iii 

154 AMOS. [cuAV. ¥• 

And poureth them forth upon the earth ; 
Jehovah is his name. 
9 That bringeth destruction suddenly upon the mighty, 
And destruction cometh upon the fortress. 

construction. Two of the principal con- no inconsideiable figure. See Norberg's 

stellations are selected from the heavenly Liber Adami. For ^, see on la. 

bodies as specimens of the effects of xiii. 10. Both terms have been entirel>; 

Omnipotence, no*?, the Pleiades, or mistaken by the LXX. who render 6 

Seven Start. This word occurs only here iroiSv itavra jcai fteraaiccvaiwv, which is 

and Job ix. 9. xxxviii. 31. The derivar ^jthfuUy copied by the Arab. -JUI 

tion from a supposititious root rroa, cog* j r j C 

nate with twi, Don, rron, to he warm, hot, jmJ-., If.— wo'«, the shadow of death, 

adopted by Castellus, SchuJtens, Park- *i?«^^ '^ '" „ , 

hurst, and others, is to be rejected for one of the very few Hebrew compounds 

,, ^ J • .u A I. / ^ . See on Is. ix. 1. ? 18 to be supplied 

that preserved m the Arab. ^^, Conj. y^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ indeed, it is in fourteen 

„ I /. -a 1 t ^ MSS., primarily in three more, and now 

II. cumtdum fecU; hence, A*/, cumu^ y^^ correction in one ; in both the Son- 

lus; with which may be compared ^, ?'"• ?^*!i?°' ' ^" ^""f- "i^ B°«»^^r?' 

' ' ^ p^ 1518 m the margm, and m the appendix 

socius, according to which the name ex- to Munster's, 1536. In ^\^}*}, there is 

presses what is brought or bound together, a transition from the participial to the 

especially in abundance. The name given finite form of the verb. To render the 

X .L- .11.. 1. x»- A i_ . 1 - clause uniform, the construction would 

to this constellation by the Arabs is l^, ^^^^ ^ j^ ^^^ x^e passage auoted 

anabundanceormfdatHde,^om\y,multus ^^^^IxXyf^^^^^ AlexanAinus, 

ac numerosus evasit, numerostis reddidit, q^^ ^^ hvvarov U lUKaLvas 

For the same reason it was called by the Nuirdr didavrov cSpcrat iwy- 

Greeks nXct^idfp, according to one of the Kf XatPiS v/Aci bi ax^rov icoXu^ai 

derivations of Eustathius on Homer, T^aOaphv dyApa, triXas. 

Iliad, xvm. 446 : Ai o« Tr\€ia0€s tjToi ^, « „ . , , 

atri Tfjs ,irirp6i a^r&y mriUpfjs fj 5ri The following words are descnptive, not 

ir\€iovs 6tJLOv Kara iiiav avvayi^v ciVt, ^ ™}"' «f /erome, Theodoret, Kimchi, 

K.T.X. And most of the ancients express 5™>U8. Liveley, Marckius, Dahl, and 

tlie same idea ; as Seneca, densi pleiadum R^fenmtiller maintain, but of a deluge 

greges; Propertius, pleiadum chorus, &c. """^ inundat-ion, the waters of which may 

According to the Greek mythology, the emphaUcally be said to be poured over 

Pleiades were seven daughters of Atla*, ^^^ earth. Thus Grotius Clarius, 

who, being pursued by Orion, were ^j^"?*^' ^^^ ^'^^Z^ ^T^' though he 

changed by Jupiter into doves, and, f^P»^ }^l possibility of the other view 

having been transplanted- to the heavens, H"^ ^<^a. . ® ^*®^ reading of the 

form thcassemblage of the Seven Stars \^-^' °,^*o5 ^ ^ovroKparmp is found m 

in the neck of Taurus. In the passage i*J« ^"^*°:' J» f ^^P^' **S., and in the 

in the Iliad just referred to. they we por- ^\^J^^' ^^^^^! ^'^ the support of three 

trayed on the shield of Achilles along ^^SS., yet it is more likely an addiUon 

with Orion, in the same order as in our "°™ ^°!?P- ^\' ^^* *"f » otherwise, 

prophet : ^' ^^^ the prophet had apparently 

TT\ "'ft ii» «^'ft J ai completed his magnificent descnption of 

TtkrjLadas:, 6 Yahas re, t6 re cr^cvos the Divine character, with the words 

Hpuovoi, ^ nirr, he appends in this verse an ad- 

In the mythology of the Sabians or ditional view of it, in order to make it 

»- , ., 1^ ., rt , tell more practically on £he fears of those 

Mendaites ^S , n ^, the Seven, and ^ho boasted of the strength of Samaria. 

p:OCA 1^:1^00, the Seven Stars, cut a^a, Arab. ^, nUui*, fulgit aurora, not 

CHAP, v.] AMOS. 155 

10 They hate him that reproveth in the gate, 
And abhor him that speaketh uprightly. 

1 1 Wherefore, because ye trample upon the poor, 
And take irom him the tribute of com : 
Though ye have built houses of hewn stone. 
Ye shall not dwell in them ; 

Though ye have planted pleasant vineyards. 
Ye shall not drink of their wine. 

12 For I know that your transgressions are many, 
And that your sins are great : 

Oppressing the righteous, 

Taking a bribe, 

And turning aside the poor in the gate. 

13 Therefore the prudent shall be silent at that time ; 
For it is an evil time. 

only conveys the idea of shining^ being making for further indulgences, Jehovah 

bright, cheerful, &c. but also that of eud- declares that they should not continue 

denness, suggested by the rapidity with to enjoy them. The enemy would 

which the dawning light is diffused over speedily remove them from all the objects 

the horizon. The Hebrews applied such on which ihey proudly doated, or from 

terms figuratively to the sudden pro- which they expected gratification. For 

duction of misery, as well as to that of the contrary of the threatening, see 

happiness. See on Joel ii. 2. Winer, Is. Ixv. 21, 22; Amos ix. 14. The ad- 

orirt faciens, inducens super potentet jectives w*^"} and o^^, are placed before 

vattatiofiem. The ancient versions are their substantives, because they are pre- 

all at fault here. dicatives, and not qualificatives. Before 

10. Ewald thinks that by ir^to'v^, both, the conjunction ^ is to be supplied. 

the reprover in the gate, Amos himself The ellipsis was probably occasioned by 

is meant; but, from the recurrence of its having been used at the beginning of 

M?D, and "vv^ in connexion with wSio, the verse. "^ is most commonly used in 

ver. 1 5, it is far more natural to interpret the sense of \ifTpov, dvrikvrpov, ran- 

the phrase of a magistrate, senator, or torn, or price of redemption, on which 

judge. Comp. also ver. 12, and see on account Ewald and some others render 

Is. xxix. 21. in t3^, which is to be it so here ; but the close connexion in 

taken adverbially, as Judges ix. 9, is an which the whole phrase stands with the 

ellipsis of }. perversion of justice, speciBed in the 

11 — 13. Dtdi is, in all probability, a last clause of the verse, decides in favour 

faulty orthography of Dpi, the Polal. of of the signification bribe, bribery, which 

wi, Arab. Uj. vilipendit rem, to tread ^^f ,^% ""*l"i!i!Tl^*>:. ^^' ^ ^*™; 

-, ^, ^ n. r» •• XII. 3. Targ, -^ l[(at^, the mammon Of 

down, trample upon, &c. De Kossis y « 

codex 380, reads DD^toia with Sin. n^, faUehood, Syr. % -^qII, a bribe. LXX. 

what is raised, as a tax, tribute, &c. from ' • 

Mtoj, to raise. Instead of remitting to dkKXayfiaTa. The other Greek versions, 

the poor the tax which they were unable cf tXacr/Aa. If P^ ^T^ could be taken 

to pay, the rulers and proprietors rigidly to mean, ** shutting up, or imprisoning 

exacted it, that they might consume it the righteous," then '^ might mean 

upon their lusts. But in whatever state ransom ; but such usage docs not obtain, 

and luxury they might have lived, and The only course left for the pious to 

whatever preparations they might be pursue in the midst of such atrocious 


156 AMOS. [chap, v, 

14 Seek good, and not evil, that ye may live ; 

And it shall be so ; Jehovah, God of hosts, shall be with you, 
According as ye say. 

15 Hate evil and love gcfbd, 

And establish justice in the gate ; 
Perhaps Jehovah, God of hosts, may pity 
The residue of Joseph. 

16 Therefore thus saith Jehovah, God of hosts, the Lord; 
In all the broad places there shall be wailing ; 

And in all the streets, they shall say, Oh ! Oh ! 
They shall call the husbandman to mourning; 
And all who are skilled in elegy to wailing. 

perversion of order and justice, was that the Reubenites, and the Manassites, 

of quietly submitting to the hand o<^od, from Aroer, which is by the river Arnon, 

which they were taught to recogni^ in even Gilead and Bashan." 2 King x. 

the permission of these evils, and patiently 32, 33. 

to abide the issue of events. Any 16. pb, therefore^ refers not to the 
attempt, under these circumstances, to contents of verses 14, 15, but to verses 
stem the current, or effect a reformation, 7, 10, and 12. We may suppose a Con- 
or even to plead for private or public siderable pause to intervene before ver. 16. 
rights, would only aggravate their Foreseeing that the people would not 
c^amities. ^^ref&n^theinteuigeni,prudentt repent, Jehovah here declares that tlie 
is to be understood, in the best sense, of threatened punishment was inevitable, 
one who acts upon the principles of The slaughter involved in this punish- 
enlightened piety. ment would be general. Samaria, how- 
14, 15. Reiterated calls to reformation, ever, and its vicinity, seem specially 
in order to ensure the retiTrn of Divine intended. The position in which *^^ is 
favour. Both the style and the sen- here placed, is altogether unusual, 
timents have their parallel in Is. i. 16,17. Indeed, I am not aware that it is so 
Notwithstanding the sad apostasies of found in any other passage. Yet I would 
the Israelitish people, they still had their not, with Newcome, cancel it, on the 
profession of the religion of Jehovah to slender authority of seven MSS. the 
fall back upon, in case of necessity. LXX. Arab, and Syr. It seems rather 
They boasted that he was with them, but to have been purposely added, in order 
it was an empty pretence while their pro- to give greater solemnity to the sentence 
fession was insincere, being combined with which was to be pronounced, ^^i^^hi, 
the worship of idols. For the force of the broad^ or open places, or wide streets in 
conditional particle ^Vw, perhaps, in such a city ; and distinguished from nVsvr, 
connexion, compare Gen. xvi. 2, and d whicn signify ordinary or narrow streets, 
apa. Acts viii. 22. Comp. also Joel ii. 13, such as are common in the East. Gr. 
where the same idea is expressed by vrXarfm. 1^9?, strictly means a smiting 
yrrt' *?, who knoweth ? ^p^' ri'TW'f, the re- of the breast, (LXX. Kowero^,) from 
mainder of Joseph. For this use of the "OD, to beat, smite ; see on Is. xxxii. 1 2. 
patronymic, see on ver. 6. Numerous Here, however, it is used to denote 
as the Israelites still were, they mifiht walling or mourning in general. Vn Vi, 
well be called a remainder, in conside- Oh ! Oh ! This onomatopoetic I have 
ration of the havoc made by Hazael, rendered by the corresponding English 
who, when <' the Lord began to cut" interjection, which, when prolonged and 
them " short, smote them in all the swelled in the pronunciation, as it is by 
coasts of Israel ; from Jordan eastward, persons giving utterance to excessive 
all the land of Gilead, the Gadites, and grief, is much more appropriate than 

CHAP, v.] AMOS. 157 

17 In all the vineyards there shall be wailing. 
For I will pass through the midst of thee, 
Saith Jehovah. 

18 Wo unto you that desire the day of Jehovah I 
What is the day of Jehovah unto you ? 

It shall be darkness, and not light. 

19 As when one fleeth from a lion, 


And a bear meeteth him ; 

Or he entereth the house, and leaneth his hand on the wall, 

And a serpent biteth him. 

20 Shall not the day of Jehovah be darkness and not light; 
Even thick darkness, without any brightness ? 

yilas! Alas ! Syr. ^ooi *-.Oai J Cbald. ?Pf ^" from Jer. ix. 17-19, where jrrj 

J *.«wwi *.«wwi jg ^^,gg ygg^ j^g j^g^g ljy Amos. The 

*n ; Vulg. va ! v<s! in other Latin ver- same custom obtained among the Greeks 

sions, eheu! eheu! The "^^ kusbandmen, and Romans. Thus Homer, speaking of 

were to be called to participate in the the funeral of Hector, says : 

mourning, not as Newcome, KosenmtiUer, ^^^ ^^ tireira 

and some others have thought, on account rprjTots h Xtxt^atn O^traP, rrapd dc tltray 
of the desolation of the fields, but either doidovf 

on account of the loudness of their nistic OpiyWi. ^i^xovs, otre arop^ffrtrap 
voices, or because the slaughter of the doMp 

citizens of Samaria would be ao great, qi ^^ 5 • c'^pi/vcov, tVl di ar^pdxopro 
that a sufficient number would not be yvpoiKts 

left to perform the funereal rites. Such '^ Ji^ad. xxiv. 720, &c. 
construction of the meaning is required See also Horace de Arte Poet. ver. 433. 
by the following parallelism : "lOipcn In his edition of Harmer's Observations, 
Tia Y?^. There is no necessity for vol. iii. p. 42, Dr. A. Clarke gives a de- 
supposing that the words of this sen- scription of the ancient funeral solem- 
tence have been transposed, and that nities of the Trish, and the translation of 
they originally stood thus: ^ 77^ a song of wailing prepared for the occa- 
"mfM. The preposition ^ is understood sion, which bears a strong resemblance 
before "COPf ^^^ ^^> &s repeated to to those used by the Orientals. Comp. 
govern ^ which it often does, as well Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, second 
as the accusative. ^, wailing^ lamen- series, vol. ii. pp. 402 — 407. 

* M' t .*« o ^* 1 ,M 17. The vineyards, which usually ex- 

tatian, from mia. Syr. ]^^ to utter ^^j^^j^^j scenes of rejoicing, should now 

lamentable cries. The persons here be frequented by disconsolate mourners, 

spoken of as <' skilled in wailing," were For Jehovah's passing through the land, 

mourners by profession, who were hired comp. Exod. xii. 12, 23 ; only in the 

for the occasion, and sung doleful tunes latter case the punishment was miracu- 

a round the corpse of a deceased person, lously inflicted ; in the former, by the 

which they preceded when it was carried king of Assyria, as an instrument m the 

to the grave, giving utterance to dismal hand of God. 

cries and bowlings, beating their breasts, 18 — 20. These verses intimately cohere 

throwing ashes on their heads, and show- with the preceding. The day of Jehovah 

ing every artificial token of excessive means the time when his judgments 

grief. These were the mourners whom should be inflicted. The Israelites could 

Solomon describes as going about the only have eiven expression sarcastically 

streets, Eccles. xii. 5. That females were to the wish that this day might soon 

especially employed on such occasions, reach them. It was an impious daring 

158 AMOS. [chap. v. 

21 I hate, I loathe your festivals ; 

Neither do I delight in your days of restrarnt. 

22 When ye offer to me holocausts and bloodless sacrifices, 
I will take no pleasure in them ; 

Neither will I regard the thank-offerings of your fallings. 

23 Take away from me the noise of thy songs, 
I will not hear the music of thy harps. 

24 Let justice roll on like water, 

of Jehovah to do his wont. Comp. Is. v. ohliteratio ejus : Lunanimque ac Solium 

19; Jer. zvii. 15. The prophet tells e^uadem occatut.*' nu, on the contrary, 

them plainly that it would he to them a signifies to thine , be light ; and iU 

day of unmitigated affliction. The fallacy derivative t^ rs used of the rising of the 

of every hope of escape is illustrated by sun, Prov. iv. 18, and is contrasted with 

two simple, but forcible comparisons, TtfiM, ver. 19. 

borrowea from the pastoral life. Bochart 21 — 23. The tame aversion from the 

regards the language as proverbial, and ceremonial observances of the insincere 

supports hisopinionby two Arabic stories: and rebellious Israelites which Jehovah 

, V • • li M ** I ^^^^ expresses, he afterwards employed 

the one beginmng, bUol .V^ S^] igaiab to declare to the Jews, chap. i. 

l£. W xja?w Jl l«jil| c^^ ^^ — 15. The two passages are Strikingly 

.^5*^ wi^ (ij^sr' ^' ^«^'j ^ry^J parallel ; only the latter prophet amplifies 

fj * •! .. .vf :"• I • «Ai* - what is set forth in a more condensed 

\toy c_ala« *-0 l«X-cI ,j^, "A lion, j.^^ . ^^^ It is also to be observed, 

pursuing a man, he took refuge in a tree, that where Amos introduces the musical 

in the branches of which a bear having accompaniments of the sacrifices, Isaiah 

fixed himself, was plucking its fruit,' substitutes the prayers ; both concluding 

&c.; and the other, ^ tU, c-JJb ^ithtbe divine words, yi9»'l9V=^ 

' ClT" '-'vy ' J^ I tvtll not hear. The verbs ^^JCHO nvp© 

^Lfli>- d>Mii] mS^m fjj J «5j JmJII follow cach other immediately, for the 

CvJ J^ VjjT Cr^ sake of more emphatically expressing the 

u->i> JuJI J liU, "A man fled from Divine abhorrence. Comp. '^^rnnjy^n and 

>^ - . '^3nH?to in Isaiah, rn^*, lit. / will not 

a lion, and fell into a well, into which smell ; but meaning here, / will take no 

the lion went down after him. And there delight in, nVt^V, restraints, periods, days 

was a bear in the well," &c. Hierozo. of restraint, or assemblies collected on 

lib. iii. cap. ix. pp. 810, 811. Kimchi such days. See on Is. i. 13. Q^, used 

tersely expresses the meaning thus, here collectively for the plural crp^.^- 

Ttn bH rrcttD iwsn, Ye shall go out of "^y^ "^pn, lit. remove from upon me ; con- 

calamity into calamity, Comp. Job xx. 24; veying the idea of a burden which vexes 

Is.xxiv. 18. The adjective^ is explained and annoys the bearer. Isaiah expresses 

by the following words. It occurs only it in full : rntoj^^*;^, "They are a burden 

in this place ; but the substantives n^, upon me." Comp. farther for the force 

^, dense obscurity, are used in several of the compound preposition, Exod. 

passages of Job, the Psalms, and the x. 28. The music here referred to was 

Prophets, ri^ft'^ however, in the sense that performed at the Hebrew festivals 

of concealed, occurs Exod. ix. 32. Comp. by the Lcvites, before and during the 

the Arab. Jil, occidU sol, &c. Thus in off«nng of the sacrifices, and on other 

^"^ public occasions. 

Hariri, Consess. xv. the noun (Jy) is 24. While no direction is given re- 

... ... .»...• Bpecting the regulation of the sacrifices, 

employed : Jy lj iMi^jt^^ AjC] g/?LibI in order that they might be presented in 

, ^. an acceptable manner, a special injunc- 

**Sr^J ^Vl> " Extirpatio eruditionis et tion is imparted in regard to justice and 

CHAP, v.] AMOS. 159 

And righteousness like a mighty stream. 
25 Did ye not present sacrifices and offerings to me, 
During forty years in the desert, O house of Israel ? 

rectitude, on the principle that to obey is contrasted with their former obedience 

better than sacrifice, and to hearken than to the Divine will. In order, however, 

the fat of rams," ISam. xv. 22. "Nee in to justify this interpretation, the article 

victimis, licet optimse sint, auroque prse- must have been repeated before nnsD, 

fu)geant, Deorum est honos, sed pia ac which it is not. The insertion of the 

rectemente venerantium." Senecade Be- compensative Dagesh in the letter ^nm 

fi •• 'a rwrt *. —M^ A L A cannot be pleaded in its favour, since 

neficns, i. 6. That ^T^, Arab, ^y peren^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ J^^^^^ instances, in which the 

nu/ut/, is to be here rendered /jfreTim'a/, interrogative "takes the form of the 

or everilowing, and not mighty, has been article, before words beginning with 

maintained by some interpreters ; but a Sheva, as I^Vrr, Gen. xvii. 17 ; "7^, Ezek. 

comparison of the several passages in xviii. 29 ; ^o?n, Joel iv. 4, &c. I'he 

which it occurs, goes to show that it is ancient translators have all read in- 

rather to be referred to ;,t, vaUda, ^rrogatively. LXX. M.J <T^y»a KaX 

#t« V«tf«k «•> «>p 

fuitf mullus fuif, and is to be rendered ^ '*- ^ -^ ^ ^ ^ ^.^^ 

great Qt mighty. It thus better corre- ^y^' xO'b^\Q\l^yQ£Q\^iJ^> )V^^> 

sponds with ^|, roUy to roU on, used in v v i xr -jr.-'. 

the former hemistich. LX X. aJr x«A«appoif -*^- ^"*«- Numqutd hoHtas et sacrt- 

ZR»^^,^ Q,r» \\ J 1 X ^ * . ^ I fi^^^ obtulistis mihi, &e. ? Targ, nco:Pi 

aParoi,, Syr. iJu^l^^/.l ia.^^^y^^'y^ ^^^-y^j^, 5nd 'so 

Vulg. quasi torrent fortis. Arab. *^"*^*' ^^\ ^^® modems some of whom 

suppose the force of the question to lie 

CJS^ "i -.iJI ^ -^Ul JJU. like a \yy '^ «*, taken emphatieally, "Waa 

1^ J \ " i^^ ^^ ** ^ ME,"&c. while Others think that 

frady that cannot be passed. The ideas an absolute denial of the presentation of 

of abundance and moral power are sacrifices in the wilderness is implied in 

those conveyed by the nrophet. I must the words. In support of the latter 

differ from Prof. Lee, who (Heb. Lex. in opinion, it has been attempted to prove, 

voc. im?) renders, " for judgment roUeth that the Israelites could not have offered 

(away) as the waters (roll away), and any sacrifices for want of cattle. Such a 

righteousness (disappears) like the mighty position, however, is contrary to the 

torrent The verse as thus rendered ill express declaraUons found in Exod. xii. 

suits the context, and is not in keeping 38, xvii. 3, xxxiv. 3 ; Lev. xvii. 1—9. 

with parallel passages, in which, after a Num. vii. passim, xx. 4, 19. The life 

reprehension of hypocritical observances, which they led in the desert was that of 

the moral qualities of truth and righteous- Nomades, so that there could have been 

ness are required. The construction put no lack of animals for sacrifice. The 

UDon It W Theodoret, Kimchi, Munster, true construction of the passage isfounded 

Veil, and Hitzig, that the coming of the on the principle, that not unfrequently 

Divine judgments IS intended, is, for the in Hebrew the interrogation implies, 

same reasons, to be rejected. and calls for an emphatic affirmative, 

25— 27. These verses have not a little either expressed or understood; and 

perplexed expositors, both ancient and is thus equivalent to a negative interroga- 

modern. The first difficulty lies in what tiou in our language, and indeed to *^ 

IS said respecting the presentation of in Hebrew. See 1 Sam. ii. 27, 28 ; Job 

sacrifices. Greve, Dahl, and Maurer, take xx. 4 ; Jer. xxxi. 20 ; Ezek. xx. 4. In 

the n in cynajr? to be the article, and not the present case, as in these just cited, 

the particle of interrogation, and render, the persons addressed are supposed to 

the sacri/ices and offerings ye presented to admit the fact couched in the appeal ; 

me, /fee, VIZ. those prescribed in the law : but the question is so put in order the 

but now ye bear the shrine, &c. According more forcibly to introduce the adversative 

to this mode of construction, the present sentence which follows in the 26th verse, 

idolatrous course of the Israelites is The connexion of the two verses is this : 

160 AMOS. [chap. v. 
26 And yet ye bare the shrine of your king, 

'* Did ye not present Bacrifices and recedant." Comment, in loc. Most in- 

ofierings to me m the wilderness forty terpreters follow the LXX. in giving 

years, O house of Israel ? Yes ; and yet T«a^ by o-ktivi), a tent ; deriving it, like 

ye bare the shrine,** &c. That the con- nsD, and "^^ of the same signification, 

junction^ is frequently to be rendered from "^^ /o mter/u7ifitf, as branches, so as 

and yet, but yet, or the like, see Gen. to form a booth or hut. Others, such as 

xvii. 21 ; Judges xvi. 15 ; Ps. 1. 17 ; Is. J archi, Calvin, Mercer, and Rosenmiiller, 

liii. 7. What is here charged upon the take it to mean an image or idol, and 

ancient Israelites was their indulging in render, Siccuthyour king. They explain 

idolatrous practices while they pro- it by referring to the Chald. m^, a 

fessedly attended to the ritual observ- wooden post, which they suppose formed 

ances of the Mosaic law — the very siu the pedestal on which the idol stood, 

which Amos was commissioned to charge and so the word might be transferred to 

upon their descendants in his day, and on the idol itself. Ewald takes much the 

account of which they were to be carried same view. The former derivation is 

into captivity. The opinion of Forsayeth alone admissible. The tent appears to 

(quotea by Newcome), Dahl, and others, have had something of the texture, as it 

that the sin reproved in ver. 26 was had the design of the aKtjv^s (cpa9, 

exclusively that of those who lived in the sacred tent, in the Carthaginian camp, 

time of the prophet, is less admissible mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, lib. xx. 

than that which refers it to their ances- cap. 25, and described as consisting €K 

tors, yet so that the reproof was intended jcaXa/iov icat x^'P^ovy of reeds and grass, 

to be applied to their own case by those Comp. Wilkinson's Ancient Egypt, 

whom the prophet addressed. — ^The 26th second series, vol. ii. pp. 270 ~ 275. Only, 

verse has been very differently rendered, as it is certain Moses would not have 

as well as variously interpreted. The tolerated anything of the kind if its size 

translation of the LXX. is as follows : bad been such as to bring it to his 

Kal dytXafiere ttjp aKtjinjv rov MoXd;^, cognizance, it may be inferred, that it 

Koi TO aarpov rov B€ov vfi£v 'Pai^ob^, was only a small temple or shrine, which 

Tovs Tvnovs avTtiv, ovs cvrotifo-arc might easily be concealed in the interior 

cavroZr ; as if the Hebrew had read, of a tent. Such diminutive temples were 

crr^fTS p»5 03^3^ ^Dia nH),"?!^ rosp rw nnw3^ in use among the Egyptians, from whom 

:D3^Dn^'W)M. No vestige, however, of no doubt the Hebrews took the idea, 

any such order of the words is found in Herodotus, describing an idol worshipped 

any Hebrew MS., or in any other monu- at Papremis, says, rd d^ ayaXfia eov 

ment of antiquity, except the speech of fV NHOi MIKPHi ^v\iv<p ^carajccxpvo'w* 

Stephen, as recorded by Luke, Acts vii. fi€v<p irpo^xKOfiiCovai rj irportpaijj cs* 

43, which is an almost verbal quotation oKKo oUrffia Ipov, '* The image, being in 

from the LXX.Theod. renders thus: Kal a smafl temple of gilt wood, they carry 

fjpari TTfy opaaiv rov fiatrCKtua^ vyu&v, out on the previous day to another sacred 

dp^vpaxTiv (id^&iv vp£v, aarpov rov habitation." Compare the yao\ dpyvpot, 

$€ov vpj&v ; so that he must have read shrines, or small temples of Diana, 

the words as they now stand in the mentioned Acts xix. 24. That any 

Hebrew text. The same may be said connexion is to be traced between map, 

ofthe Syr., Vulg., and Targ., though their Siecuth, hn^ n^qin^, Succoth-benotk, 

renderings differ from each other in one 2 Kings xvii. 30, the tents in which the 

or two minor particulars. The remark daughters of the Babylonians prostituted 

of Jerome on tne discrepancies between themselves in worship of Venus, does not 

the Hebrew text and the ancient Greek appear, cpabo, your king, thus Symm. 

version deserves to be quoted here: Theodot. and Leo Juda, and most 

'* Observandum est, apostolos et apo- modems; but the LXX. MoXc^^* ^y^* 

stolicos viros in ponendis testimoniis de ^ »# ? * rv 

Veteri Testamento, non verba considerare >o n-iNV) i Malcum, Aq. M^xc/i, Vulg. 

sedsensum, neceademsermonumcalcare Moloch, exhibit the word as the proper 

vestigia, dummodo a sententiis non name of the god ofthe Ammonites, t.^.Tj^ 

CHAP, v.] AMOS. 161 

And Chiun of your images, the star of your god, 
Which ye made for yourselves. 

alsocalledtaVp, Milcom, 1 Kings xi. 5, and trri? DnM, nrnCM ata, rfms njrr, &c. Nc.r 

o^, Malcam, Zepli. i. 5 ; and this con- can it justly be objected that as ni3p is an 

Btruction some moderns have adopted ; appellative, ]^*3 being parallel to it, must 

buta8't)j9) ^f^fff is also employed by the necessarily be the same. The necessity 

Hebrews in application to idols, Is. of the case is not obvious. Both are 

xxxvii. 13, Zeph. i. 5, it is better to mentioned as objects which the Hebrews 

retain its usual signification. The Pboe- carried about fur idolatrous purposes — 

nicians gave the title of o^ "|^> ^if^ff ^f the one, the portable temple of the idol ; 

the worlds to the sun, andmp •]to=rnpD, the other, the idol itself placed in this 

king of the eUy, to Hercules. Conip. temple, of which numerous miniature 

Z€v Hva, Iliad, iii. 351, xvi. 233 ; and resemblances were privately distributed 

^a%a{ ^^€ nap* ^fiias UtTffs, Herod, throughout the camp. TheLAX.unques- 

• • V. nn jk. y% tionably regarded the word as a proper 

I. 159. In Elhiopic AV"Atl, name, whatever they may thereby have 

Andak, the proper name for God, is intended to designate. And this view of the 

j^ .„ . g. „,. ^ t^ • -A u subject is confirmed by 3313, a star, being 

denyedfrom aVi^\i,mpera«U,re»t, ^ J .„ ,pp^iti„„ with p«?, in order to 

and is applied in the plural to idols, explain it, an explanation which cannot 

The learned are generally ae^reed, that applyi if by the latter term we understand 

the Moloch of Scripture was the image of merely the pedeital or stand on which 

the planet Saturn, and thus identical the idol was placed. It is now almost a 

with Chiun, mentioned by Amos in the settled point, that by p*?, Chiun, the 

following clause of the verse. The planet Saturn is meant. If we except 

Phoenicians were in the habit of offering ., « ... , ^ * «- v 

to him human sacrifices, especially '*^« ^y^'* ^*"<^^ ^^^^* ^o{o, ^^w". ^he 

children, to which horrible custom ^^^y^^^ authorities which we have for 

rei>eated reference w made m the his- ^1,^3 interpretation of the passage are the 

toncal books of the Old Testament See .^bbins Abenezra and Kimchi ,• but their 

Michaeh. on the laws of Moses, Art. testimony as relating to a matter of 

ccxlvn. Suppl. No. 1115; Selden de fact is irrefragable, however slightingly 

Diis Syns, cap. VI. ; Spencer de Legibus Hengstenberg seems to treat it. Authen. 

Heb«Bor.lib.n. cap.lO; Gesemus, m jes Pentat. p. 113. The former thus 

his Thesaurus, sub^oc. ; Winer, Real- comments upon the passage : PiTpnVDi 

wbrter-buch. op^ p»3, Chtun of your -nw rj tow wm ]hv3 wtn 'a cr« Da bnww pttta 

images, i.e. represented by them; the qi^^s *« And as for the term Chiun, it is 

model after ^;liich they were made, j^n^wn in the Arabic and Persic lan- 

While the idol so called, which tlie ,, t^e name Kivan, which is 

Hebrewscamed about m a sacred shrme, gaturn, to which they made an image." 

was iteelf a symbol or representative of ^nd the latter, in nearly the same words : 

one of the heavenly bodies, it was m Us ^rj p^ ^j^tsaa> ptt^ ktjw pi ^rawaatD «in, 

turn represented by a number of comes, .. j^ j, ^^^ ^^^^ gaturn, and thus he is 

or smaller images, which they used as ^^^^^ ^^^^ j^ ^^^ ^^^bic and Persic." 

penates or household gods in the practice \ ^ v . 

of astrolatry. Such appears to me to ^^l^' ^'««'««> seems to hove been 

be the meaning of the words. To this adopted from th« latter into the former 

construction, however, C. B Michaehs, ^^ ^^^^ languages, in the Lexicons of 

Vitnnga, Rosenmuller, Hesselberg, ^^^^^i, as a foreign word, it is explained 

Hengstenberg, and others object, that it . ° i. « • 

makes p*3 a proper name, which, with ^7 O^J^ ^^e usual name for Saturn in 

theolder grammarians, they allege cannot Arabic. It occurs in the Persian work 

be put in regimen. But to this rule, it entitled Dabistan, the author of which, 

must be admitted, there are many describing the temples which the ancient 

exceptions, as utTp. n^rvnd?, jtain ^a, 13 ^|, Persians dedicated to the planets, says : 


162 AMOS. [chap. V. 

27 Therefore, I will carry you away captive beyond Damascus, 
Saitli Jehovah : God of hosts is his name. 

I ^. III/ AX thus the evidence of identity be complete. 

»Ui CiXv^i j\ \jj^ c>M. ^, With reject to 'Pai^v, the rendering 

that ** the image of Keiwan was of black *>^^^® LXX., or'Pc^ir, as itis to be spelt, 
stone." Lee's Hebrew hex. in voc. ®I1 ^"® authority of the best MSS., Acts 

vii. 43, there is every reason to believe 
n^t^. He speaks, in fact, of tlie Ms>-> that they mistook 3 for *\ as they have 

done in other instances; and so have 
shrme, and Joui.firaaye, of the planet, just given Repkan, instead ot Kephan, That 

«- A«^ 1 '^«-..,^ 1 -.-. * J- PH*AN should occur in the Arabico- 

as Amos does of n^p and ^P^ According Coptic table of the planets exhibited by 

il T^s. R^''''' «^l»e »even planets Xircherin hisLing/iEgypt.Restit.p.49, 

/?ll V *[*""' ^ nT^ ^"5^'"^' ^y °^ ™«*"« proves that this Wiethe 

fc* ^ }T'r^ Dodidom Mus- ancient Egyptian name of Saturn; for 

N«lr»,, ^^-"^ ^\v \^^?' ''''^''\ ^ '^** **^1«« of nogreatantiquity and 

NasaraBus, containing the doctnneg of as the other names Ire chiefly derived 

Knij" *'fl''^'^^rT/^^^^^ ^'"""^ ^^^ Greek, we may reasonably 

..^m! ^' 1 ^1 ^"^ ? ^" ""^ ^^^ ^^T"" ^«^«^ ^*»** tJ»« one in q"e»tiin was copied 
>v^hich rule these planets, among whom from the Coptic version of this very 

f cua LjkUil^ theffth is Kivan, p. 54. ^^^^ ^^ ^\^ ^?^\ ^* all events, no 
v*'^ * •''' * *^ Buch name of a deity has yet been found 

It is afterwards added in the same page : |i^ the Egyptian pantheon. 3^, the star, 

is expletive of |^1, in so far as it informs 

• y 

JA-A^OO I^Vf ^i fOO 2U0^ ]q^9 "^ *°** *^® figure of the idol was that of 

^ ^ • ■ a star, and thus proves the idolatrous 

^ N^ ^'^ |tuayujo|o ^hj^jj^ jjjg Hebrews became acquainted 

lAoTiJ V£ft Kil ?U-^ during their stay in the Arabian desert- 

|aa=^ ^o ^J| £11^^ ^ 27. Instead of p^i^ Twjrip, LXX. 

, n\.v, /."The demons of JTicflw inject «»r«W« Aa/tiaawO, " beyond Damaa- 

\ '^'^r^ J cus," with which all the other authorities 

lamentation, weeping and mourning into <^>'ee, Stephen has twUava BafivXSycs, 

the hearts of men, and rob them of " beyond i?a6y^," Acts vii. 43, obviously 

happiness." And we farther read, p. 212, by way of interpretation, rw^ naturally 

^ suggests the idea of remoteness^ though 

cni^s [ZOAXD ^T^ inN*>> t^-^\ |t is sometimes used in reference to what 

, x:^ ^ is at no great distance. Root vhn, Arab. 

Hj^O ^«aU4 [0<n, " To Kivan is . ^ ^ 

attributed malice, because from it come ^' '''''"'^' Syr.^ai:^Oi> removit, 

diminution and want." Ascribing the ehngavit. The n added is paragogic. 

same evil influence to Saturn, the Arabs While what Amos states is included in tbe 

likewise give to it the name of u-js^l ***^^®™®^* made by the proto-martyr, the 

. \^J^^ latter embraces what was known from 

j}S^]^ the ffreat disaster; and the idea fact to be the fulfilment of the prophecy : 

J ., . , , the Israelites having been carried, not 

frequently occurs m the Latin classics, merely beyond Damascus, but beyond 

See Lucan 1.650; Juven. vi. 569; Babylon, into the country of the Medes. 

Macrob. Saturn, i. 19. If the Hebrew The chapter closes with a vindication of 

\? »>« pointed H^ the exact pronuncia- the supremacy of Jehovah above all the 

tion of the name of the planet in the other objects of Sabjean worship : tatdntas^ff^w. 

Oriental dialects will be brought out, and God ofSahaoth is his name I '' 

CHAP, VI.] AMOS. 163 


This chapter embraces the character and punishment of the whole Hebrew nation. 
The inhabitants of the two capitals are directly addressed in the language of 
denunciation, and charged to take warning from the fate of other nations, 1, 2. 
Their carnal security, injustice, self-indulgence, sensuality, and total disregard of 
the divine threatenings, are next described, 3 — 6; after which the prophet 
announces the captivity, and the calamitous circumstances connected with the 
siege of Samaria, by which it was to be preceded, 7 — 11. He then exposes the 
absurdity of their conduct, and threatens them with the irruption of an enemy i 
that should pervade the whole country, 12 — 14. 

1 Wo to them that are at ease in Zion, 

And to them that are secure in the mountain of Samaria ; 
The distinguished men of the first ofnations^ 
To whom the house of Israel come ! 

1. Though chiefly directed against the i. 17 ; 1 Chron. xii. 31, xvi. 41 ; 2 Chron. 

northern of the two kingdoms, the xxviii. 15, xxxi. 19. The term is here 

language of this prophecy is so con- employed for the purpose of specifying 

structed as to apply to both ; and in the more particularly the leading men in 

present verse express mention is made the two kingdoms, whose profligacy and 

of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, who irreligion preeminently aggravated the 

resembled those of Samaria in careless- national guilt. By o^^n rr^ry we are not, 

ness and carnal security. ]>f^ and np^ with Newcome, to understand ** the chief 

are similarly connected and applied, Is. of the idolatrous nations," and that the 

XXX. 9, 1 1 ; so that the rendering of the persons spoken of were called after them, 

LXX. roiff i^vB€uova-i 2t<a», adopted by but the Hebrew nation, which is so called 

Dathe, cannot be justified. For the because it was the principal^ or most 

primary meaning of ]M^, compare the distinguished of all the nations of the 

cognate |Vi$,ia NiphaI,<o/f an, ^an upon, earth: having been constituted the 

trust. The reduplicate Nun expresses peculiar people of God, and possessing 

intensity, a^p^ has here the acceptation laws ana privileges unknown to any 

of the Arab. ^.....OkSi, reniwi i^en/i* a./- "l^^er. Itmight well besaid to occupy the 

• *• ^r«< rank. Compare p5^DnJ nwi, Num. 

minutrator,pHncept genlu :ixom\„^^^, xxiv- 20, where the reference is to the 

distinguished place which the Amale- 
petfodit, creatus est ; creatus fuit dux, kites held among the nations of Canaan. 

Whence also joUi, p«/«ctera. The °*,"iS,''"'°"•Iu"^i'''^'^''"**TT* 

Hebrew phrase D?53 ag3, /oJewKirA^rf, (fi*- people of Israel were in the habit of 

tmguishedhynamey is always used in refer- going up to their princes and leaders for 

ence to persons who had been chosen or the decision of diflerences, &c. They 

designated for some special service. Num. exerted an influence over the entire 

164 AMOS. [chap. vi. 

2 Pass over to Calneli, and see ; 

And go thence to Haroath the great ; 
Go down also to Gath of the Philistines : 
Were they better than these kingdoms ? 
Were their boundaries more ample than yours ? 

3 Wo to them that put off the day of evil, 
And bring near the seat of oppression ; 

people. Both the LXX. and the Syr. as designating those of Israel and Judah, 
are greatly at fault In the translation of with which the prophet had immediately 
this verse. to do, and to which he thus emphatically 
2. Three heathen cities are here points. In this way only can an appro- 
selected as specimens of the greatness prrate reference he found for the dis- 
and prosperity of the nations to which tinctive affixes in p^ and 0^^. 
they helonged, and the Israelites are 3. Supply ^, wo to, from ver. 1. 
challenged to institute a comparison of D^^tprr, the Targ. not inappropriately 
the circumstances of these nations and explains hy Vt^^T?) remove to a aistance. 
the extent of their territory, with those The root is rm, which in the other dialects 
of their own, as also, to reflect on the signifies to separaley remove as an ohiect 
present prostrate condition of the cities of disgust. Aq. oi diroK€x^P^H*'^oi, 
mentioned. In order that they might Symm. d<f>cipi<rfitPoi. The persons ad- 
become sensible of the superiority with dressed could not bear the idea that the 
which Jehovah had distinguished them, period of threatened punishment was 
and the greater punishment to which they impending ; they endeavoured as much 
had exposed themselves by their ungrate- as possible to keep it oat o( view. Comp. 
ful returns. For npbp, Calneh, and non, Ezek. xii. 21 — 28. In striking antithesis 
Hamathf see on Is. x. 9. Hitzig attempts to this, thev are represented in the follow- 
to prove that by the latter name, h^hm, ing hemistich, as acting in such a manner 
Ecbatana or Hamedan is meant ; but as speedily to bring it upon them, 
there is no reason to believe that the „ « j • ^ •^- /» 
Hebrews had any knowledge of this city " Sed quam ccecus inest Vitus amor? 
in the days of Amos. It is here called ^ omne futurum 
r^^ great, not to distinguish it from Despicitur, suadentque brevem presentia 

other cities of the same name, but to ,:,. "?.^™ * ., , . ,.i ., 

express its size and magnificence. Comp. ^ "^^^ ''^ vetitum damni secura hbido, 

r^tn, Sidon the great, Josh. xi. 8. w, ^^""^ mora supplicu lucro, serumque 

Gath, was the chief city of one of the ^ ^V/J ",\® r»i j r» ^ tl •• 

five Utrapie. of the Pbilistines, with ^^f'"*'^"- ^'^' ^"''"P- 1'"*- "• 

whose name it is here associated, to I cannot agree with Jerome, Grotius, 

distingiiish it from Gath-Hepher, and Newcome, Justi, and some others, in 

Gath-Rimmon. It had more than once referring Don ra^, the seat or throne of 

been reduced before the time of Amos, opprestion, to the rule of the king of 

and disappeared at an early period from Assyria: it is more natural to regard 

the annals of geography. No trace of it the prophet as describing the wickedness 

has been discovered by any modem tra- of the people themselves in yielding 

veller. The n in tr^ton has been regarded support to a system of flagrant injustice 

as the Article by the LXX., Syr., and and oppression, on the part of their own 

Vulg. translators, and is thus found in rulers and judges. Thus most expositors, 

twelve of De Rossi's MSS. ; but the more n^ occurs nowhere else in the sense of 

natural construction is that of the Targ. throne ; but a?5^, of which it is properly 

and most modem versions, which makes the infinitive, is used in application both 

it interrogative. Before the |p of com- to kings and judges, as is also the par- 

parison is an ellipsis of rorr; and niDjporr, ticiple axi5^. The term is synonymous 

njtfn, these kingdoms, must be understood witii m^, which is also nsed both of the 

CHAP. VI.] AMOS. 165 

4 That lie upon beds of ivory, 

And are stretched upon their couches ; 

That eat Iambs from the flock. 

And calves from the midst of the stall ; 

5 That strike up songs to the sound of the lyre ; 

Like David, they invent for themselves instruments of music ; 

6 That drink in bowls of wine, 
And anoint with the first of oils ; 

But are not grieved for the destruction of Joseph I 

7 Therefore now they shall go captive at the head of the captives, 
And the shouting company of those that recline shall depart. 

throne and the bench. xSryi is here superintend, lead in music. Hence 

taken by most interpreters to have the ns:o, the chief musician. Comp. the 
same signification as m Kal, to approach ; . , » « 'in. 

but as in every other instance in which Arab, iy, praverttt, pracesstt. The 

the verb is used in Hiphil it vindicates persons reprobated were so passionately 

to Itself the causative acceptation, and fo^d of song, that they could not be 

in the present case is obviously mtended content to listen to the performances of 

to form a contrast to 0^09, which conveys professed musicians, but took the lead in 

the idea of removing to a distance, I striking up songs to the sound of the 

must retain the rendering of our common jy^ e. The reference to David, who was 

version. Thus Hitzig and Ewald. The ^hg g^eet singer of Israel, and of whose 

meaning is, that instead of putting away musical instruments express mention is 

from them all illegal and oppressive ^ade Neh. xii. 36, is manifestly iron- 

judgment, they encouraged those who jcal; implying that, while that monarch 

were guilty of them, by assisting in devoted his musical talent to the glory 

carrying them into execution. ^f God, the dissipated grandees of Israel 

4. For \cli rrtBD beds of tvorp, see on consulted only their personal gratification, 
chap. ill. 15 ; and comp. tectteburnet of ^Rd that of those who joined their giddy 
Horace, and lectt ehoratt of Plautus. circle, cr^ro, were properly bosons, or 

DTHD, from TO, Kxfih.^^,mere dimisit, *^^' «^ * }^^^f "*^' used for sacrificial 
'" ^* '^JT purposes, Exod. xxxviii. 3; Num. vii. 

to be thrown negligently along, is de- 13,19. The persons referred to, indulged 

scriptive of the self-indulgent mode in ^ such excess, that ordinary cups were 

which the Orientals recline upon their unsuited to their compotations. They 

sofas or couches, being stretched upon likewise anointed themselves with the 

them at foil length. The whole verse most precious oils, and evinced a total 

sets forth in well chosen expressions the apa^hy in regard to the calamities to 

luxurious habito of the opulent. LXX. ^^^icb their people had already been 

KaTatnraTdk£pT€9. subject, or the still more serious evils 

5, 6. wft is a 5irof Xcy., and has been which threatened them. For the mean- 
thought b/Gesenius, Hitzig, and Ewald, ing of ^, Joseph, see on chap. v. 6. 

to have been selected on purpose, instead 7 —?, Arab. ^:^, vox, the shout or 

of "V}, to $mg, in order to express the ?/i/ 

contempt in which the music deserved cry, in which the merrymakers indulged 

to be held. Such interpretation, how- over their cups. The persons giving 

ever, does not appear to be philologically the shout seem to be intended, and, as 

sustained, and ill suits the corresponding the term is also used in reference to a 

hemistich. According to the LXX. cry of lamentation, Jer. xvi. 5, it may 

iiriKparovvres, presiding over, or ai, the be implied that their joy would be turned 

verbals synonymous with n?3, in Piel, to into soitow. They are spoken of col- 

166 AMOS. [ 

8 The Lord Jehovah hath sworn by lumself, 
Thus saith Jehovali, God of hosts, 

I abhor the splendour of Jacob, 

And I hate his palaces : 

Therefore will I deliver up the city, and all that is in it. 

9 It shall be, that if ten men should be left in one house, 
They also shall die. 

10 And one'*s relative, even he that bumeth him shall take him up, 
To remove his bones out of the house ; 

lectively. Sjmm. iraipeia rpvffirjTmv. conditioD of the few that had escaped 

Those who had taken the lead in revelry the enemy, and had now been attacked 

and all manner of wickedness, were to by the plague — ^a usual attendant on war 

be first in the procession of captives. In in the East. The prophet declares, 

such a position, their disgrace would be that if as many as ten had been left in 

more conspicuous. one house, which might be regarded as 

8. The double form of asseveration a rare instance, they should die, one 

here employed is unusual, and is strongly after another, of this fatal disease, 'rt't 

emphatic. ^^S^t the Piel participle of is not here to be taken in the special 

3Hn, a root of the same signification with sense of uncfe, but denotes any near 

39^. Compare for a similar interchange relative on whom it devolved to attend 

of these letters ^ and •»!, «0| and rpj. to the funeral rites. Targ. ?ra*Ti?. Vulg^. 

Tliough the phrase n|?V2 ^) i^e excel- propinquus. In the present case, such 

lency of Jacoo, cannot be otherwise un- would be the paucity of hands, that he 

derstood than of God himself, as the would have to perform the whole him- 

only legitimate object of glorying on the self. The copulative \ prefixed to ^d;09, 

part of his people, chap. viii. 7, yet, in is epexegetical, and is to be rendered 

the present instance, it is to be taken in even, as in Zech. ix. 9. Instead of ^!!9Pf 

application to the country and peculiar many both of Kennicott's and De Rossi's 

privileges of the Hebrews. It was once MSS. read correctly ^I^. But compare 

a country piowly celebrated in song m ^^^^ g ' ' g^^^ ^^^^ attempted 

the excellency of Jacob, Ps. xlvii. 5, and .^ *— 1^*« r 

the peculiar object of divine regard; but to prove from this, and some other pas- 

now, defiled by the wickedness of its in- sages, that it was the practice of the 

habitants, it had become the object of Hebrews to burn tlieir dead. But what 

his abhorrence. By "v^, the city, Amos is said 2 Chron. xvi. 14, xxi. 19; Jer. 

had most probably Samaria in his eye. xxxiv. 5, obviously refers to the burning 

Hitzig attaches to '*i?yR^j the signification of spices, and not of dead bodies. 1 Sam. 

of Ku, to besiege, shut up, hut the usual xxxi. 12, and our present text, exhibit 

Hiphil signification better agrees with special cases. In the former of these, 

the following connexion, t^, fulness, tne object was so to dispose of the 

conveys the idea of multitude, or great corpses that it might not be in the 

abundance, and comprehends here both power of the Philistines further to dis- 

the numerous inhabitants themselves, honour them ; while in the latter, it was 

and the wealth and means of gratification either, as Grotius supposes, to prevent 

in which they abounded. Comp. Ps. contagion, or to dispose of the body in 

xxiv. 1 . For the accomplishment of the the only way of which the circumstances 

prediction, see 2 Kings xvii. 5, 6. of the time would allow. That by Q^^» 

9, 10. The scene is not necessarily not mere bones are meant, nor bodies so 

laid in the city ; it might also have been emaciated as to be nothing but skin and 

realized in any of the towns or villages bone, which is Winer's opinion, but dead 

in the country that had been depopu- bodies, seems established beyond all 

lated by the Assyrians. It depicts, in doubt by a reference to Gen. 1. 25 ; 

the most affecting manner, the deplorable Ezod. xiii, 19; 2 Kings xiii. 21; Jer, 

CHAP. VI.] AMOS. 167 

And shall say to him that is in the innermost part of the house. 

Is there yet any with thee ? 

And he shall say, None ! 

Then shall he say, Hush f 

For we must not mention the name of Jehovah. 

11 For behold! Jehovah hath commanded, 

And he will smite the great house with breaches. 
And the small house with fissures. 

12 Shall horses riin upon a rock ? 
Will one plough there with oxen ? 

Yet ye have converted justice into poison, 
And the fruit of righteousness into wormwood. 

13 Ye that rejoice in a thing of nought, 
That say, 

viii. 1, 2. mtarr ^rt^a, is well rendered and comp. chap. ix. 8, 9, where the 
in the V\\]g, in penetraUbut damus. See same participial form rnsip is employed 
on Is. xiv. 13. Having burnt and re- as here before another verb. crpi?i, mean 
moved one body after another, the rela- atoms, or the minute parts to which the 
tive, discovering a patient in one of the materials of a building are reduced, when 
innermost rooms or corners of the house, it is utterly destroyed. The word other- 
inquires whether he is the only survivor? wise signifies the small drops of any 
and on receiving for answer that he is, liquid that is sprinkled, and is derived 
he suddenly enjoins silence upon him. fromvm,totprink/e, trv^;^, are JUturet, 
Tliere is some difficulty in determining or rents in an edifice, which threaten its 
what occasioned this injunction, and fall. There was to be a marked differ- 
for what reason the Divine name was ence in the treatment of the two king- 
not to be mentioned. Most probably doms ; the one was to be utterly de- 
the patient had begun to give vent to stroyed, while the other, though greatly 
bis feelings in expressions of praise to injured, was still to stand. Rosenmiiller, 
Jehovah, for sparing his life in the midst however, regards this interpretation as 
of such prevailing mortality ; when the ** arguta magis, quam vera." Calvin, 
other, from tome superstitious notion, or Vatablus, Marckius, Cocceius, Lowth, 
from the supposed incongruity of praise- Michaelis, and Maurer, likewise take the 
ing God in such circumstances, inter- words literally, as applying to the houses 
rupted his pious effusions. Dit^f Tarrr, both of the rich and the poor. The 
means to mentionj or record with appro- destruction, more or less, was to be uni- 
bationj as an object of trust. Comp. versal. 

Josh, xxiii. 7; Ps. xx. 8. The phrase ,, tj««„«> #„— « •« ,«».,»««.,»r. »»k«..«». »» 

. ^x. l V » ^j • »-, *v,^ Kegum turres ac pauperum tabemas. 

cannot, therefore, be construed mto the ® '^ '^ Horace 

language of despair — as if the person 

who gave utterance to the words be- This construction of the verse is con- 
sought God to take him away likewise, firmed by a comparison with chap. iii. 15. 
and thus terminate the melancholy scene. 12. The folly of expecting real pro- 
Nor, for the same reason, can it imply, speritywhile committing acts of injustice, 
as Michaelis interprets, that he had con- is forcibly represented by comparing it 
firmed what he had stated with an oath, to the absurdity of attempting to run 
11. Grotius, Dahl, Justi, and Ewald, horses upon a rock, or to plough it with 
adopt the interpretation of the Targ., oxen. To add to the strength of the re- 
Jerome, and Cyril, that by the ''great presentation, it is nut in the interrogative 
house" is meant the kingdom of Israel, form, xifrgrr is to be taken impersonally. 
and by the " small house that of Judah ; 13. Th« participles, with the n demon- 

168 AMOS, [chap. vii. 

Have we not, by our own strength, 
Taken to ourselves horns ? 
14 But behold ! I will raise up against you, O house of Israel ! 
A nation, saith Jehovah, God of hosts ; 
And they shall oppress you. 
From the entrance of Hamath, 
To the river of the desert* 

strativei are again employed as in verses is obvious from 2 Kings xiv. 26, in which 

3 4 5, 6. "Ui ^f tum-re, what is so the limits here specified are described as 

perishable and evanescent, that it may constituting those of the kingdom of the 

well be said to have no existence. Horns ten tribes, tliat it must mean the brook 

are the symbol of power and dominion. Kidron, which falls into the Dead Sea to 

14. Few instances will be found in the south of Jericho. One of the names 

Hebrew, in which the object of a verb given to this sea is nawoj, the Sea of 

is so far removed from it as ^ here is the Deeert; ^TOn, the desert, forming 

from D'l??. Some have referred ^-Jro. ^^^^ .^ ^^^ commonly called ,Ji]. 
the rwer of the Desert , to the Rhmoco- ^ J J 

rura, otherwise called the river of Egypt; El-Ghor, or the low sterfle region In 

and others to " the brook of the willows," which the valley of the Jordan ter- 

D ^ngn ^^3, or the Wady el-Jhsa, which minates, and which extends as far as the 

flows into the Dead Sea, near Zoar ; but it Elanitic Gulf. 


This portiou of the book contains four symbolical visions respecting successive 
judgments that were to be inflicted on the kingdom of Israel. They were 
delivered at Bethel, and in all probability at the commencement of the prophet's 
ministry. Each of them, as they follow in the series, is more severe than the 
preceding. The first presented to the mental eye of the prophet a swarm of 
young locusts, which threatened to cut off all hope of the harvest, 1 — 3 ; the 
second, a fire, which effected an universal conflagration, 4 — 6 ; the third, a plumb- 
line, ready to be applied to mark out the edifices that were to be destroyed, 
7 — 9 ; and the fourth, a basket of ripe fruit, denoting the near and certain 
destruction of the kingdom, viii. 1 — 3. The intervening eight verses, which 
conclude the seventh chapter, contain an account of the hiterruption of Amos 
by Amaziah, the priest of Bethel, whose punishment is specially predicted. 
In point of style, this portion differs from that of the rest of the book, being 
almost exclusively historical and dialogistic. 

1 Thus the Lord Jehovah showed me, and, behold, he formed 
locusts at the beginning of the shooting up of the latter grass ; 
and, behold, it was the latter grass after the king's mowings. 

1. All the four visions are introduced rqm nirp 'jt«. The repetition of rori, 
in nearly the same language : *>!nnn^ behold, is peculiar to this verse. In the 

CHAP, vii.] AMOS. 169 

2 And it came to pass^ when they bad entirely devoured the grass 
of the land, I said : 

O Lord Jehovah ! forgive, I beseech thee ! 
Who is Jacob, that he should stand ? 
For he is small. 

3 Jefcovah repented of this : 

It shall not be, saith Jehovah. 

4 Thus the Lord Jehovah showed me, and, behold, the Lord 

Jehovah called to contend by fire; and it consumed the great 

abyss, and devoured the portion. 

latter of the two instances, it is employed laid claim. Considering the character 

for the sake of emphasis, instead of the of the times, there can be little doubt 

aabstantiye verb, ^, a name of the locust, that the latter are meant 

occurring only here, and Nah. iii. 17, 2. That the locusts here referred to 

and synonymous with 33, Is. xxxiii. 4, are not intended to represent a literal 

J . swarm of these insects, but are to be 

Comp. the Arab, ^i ^■ H '^ and ^^v^» taken figuratively, as denoting a hostile 

** army, just as the fire in the second 

locutta, from U>-j egreswu$ fuii, in vision is to be regarded as symbolical of 

war, may be inferred from the figurative 

reference to its coming forth out of the character of the two visions, ver. 7, and 

egg» which had been deposited in the chap. viii. 1. Most probably the army 

earth to be hatched. The term is, there- of Pul, king of Assyria, is meant. The 

fore, strictly descriptive of the locust in Israelites had been greatly reduced by 

its caterpilkr state, and thus agrees with repeated invasions on the part of the 

the use of the verb tar, to form, which is Syrian kings, and were on the point of 

here used. Prof. Lee derives it from beine attacked by the Assyrians, but 

-, J - - purchased their retreat with the sum of 

>->^ uemU Credner on Joel, pp. ^^^ thousand talents of silver. See 

299—302, elaborately attempts to set 2 Kings xv. 19,20. ajj^^D^n?, concisely 

adde the above derivation of Bochart, ^i* d^'?^'9, who is Jacob, that he 

yet allows that the word denotes the should stand? meaning, how can he 

insect in the first stage of its existence, possibly sustain the threatened attack, 

The plural terminaSon *7, is found in reduced and weak as he is in resources, 

several masculine nouns, as ^in, *3^H °^ signifies to stand fast, continue, 

'tnton, &c. ; but the anomaly has' not yet endure, as well aa to rue. One of De 

been satisfactorily accounted for. See, Rossi's MSS., and another on«nally, 

however, Gesen. Lehrgeb. p. 523. Lee's «ad xnsi, and another D^, and thus the 

Heb. Gram. Art 139, 4, 2d edit, mg), LXX. Syr. Symm. and Vulg. ; but less 

an after-math, or second crop, which appropriately in such context, 
comes up immediately after the mowing 3. on?, Pick renders, gave consolation, 

of grass. «3^, cognate with td^, Arab. w*»»cli " *iot so suitable here as the 

signification, to repent. Such repentance 

LSJ, legit, coUegit, signifies in Piel to is to be understood deoirpeir&s, appear- 

., jif^r'^n *i.o ing, as Veil observes, *Mn effectu, citra 

gather the late fruU. Comp. the Syr. mStatioiieminaifectu." Comp.l Sam.xv. 

It^Vy serotinus, and «5\p^, the latter \^ ? /«^- ^1"- ^^' T«rg. ''H^^.m ihe 
»• f > Lord turned away hts wrath, nw, the 

rain. The phrase tfr^Tt ^ may either feminine pronoun, stands for the neuter 

mean the mowings of the grass of other languages. 

which grew on the royal domains, or 4. wn^ corresponds in form to t?^, 

the first mowings of that belonging to ver. 1. y^, an abbreviated form of the 

the people, to which the king tyrannically Hiphil infinitive, yyf>. Comp. Is. iii. 13. 

170 AMOS. [chap. VII. 

5 Then I said : 

Lord Jehovah ! desist, I beseech thee ! 
Who is Jacob, that he should stand ? 
For he is small. 

6 Jehovah repented of this : 

It also shall not be, saith the Lord Jehovah. 

7 Thus he showed me^ and behold the Lord stood upon a perpendi- 

8 cular wall ; and in his hand was a plumb-line. And Jehovah said 
to me, What seest thou, Amos ? And I said, A plumb-line. And 
the Lord said : 

Behold, I will set a plumb-line 

1 n the midst of my people Israel ; 
I will pass by them no more. 

The verb signifies to contend jucUcially, patience is exhausted. Jehovah takes 
to treat according to one's deserts, to active measures for executing his threat- 
punish. By the nre here spoken of we enings, and at last inflicts the exter- 
are not to understand a great heat which minating judgment on a people ripe for 
produced a drought in the land, hut waff destruction. The prophet, in conse- 
of which it is an appropriate symhol. quence, intercedes no more. ^ nQi^, a 
See Num. xxi. 28; Judges ix. 15, 20; perpendicular waUtHUatoaUoj the plum- 
Is. lxvi,\6. To express the extent of me<, so called from the plumh* line being 
the threatened calamity, the fire, hy a applied in order to secure its per- 
hold figure, is represented as drying up pendicularity. ^. which occurs only in 
the ocean (n^^D^ri), and consuming these verses, properly signifies 2fa(/or tin. 
whatever was found on the dry land. . , • .t »^ 
This acceptation of p^., a dimsion.portum, ^^^^' lib), Syr. I^jj, plumbum. Aq. 
or allotment of land, the antithesis 

requires; still, however, the term is chosen ydy»<ns, stannatura. The line and 

with special application to the land of plummet were used not only when houses 

Canaan, which was divided to the children were huilding, but also when they were 

of Israel as their portion. The definite to be destroyed. See 2 Kings xxi. 13 ; 

form of the noun pjnr.uw, indicates as Is.xxviii. 17, xxxiv. 11 ; Lam.ii. 8. The 

much. The invasion of the land of LXX. and Symm. oBofiavTa, which the 

Israel by Tiglath-Pileser, and the first Syr. also exhibits. In the explanation 

captivity of that people seem to be the of the vision, it is expressly stated, that 

subjects of the vision. See 2 Kings xv. the plummet was to be applied to the 

29 ; 1 Chron. v. 26. That in the former people of Israel in order to mark them 

vision, the calamity had not been in- out for destruction ; and its being placed 

flicted, the use of the verb n^, for^ve, in the midst of them denoted, that this 

intimates. In this, it had in part, as the destruction was not to be confined to 

use of ^, desist, obviously implies. a part only of the kingdom, as it had 

5, 6. in these verses, as in vers. 2 and been in the case of Tiglath-Pileser's 

3, we have a beautiful instance of the invasion, but that it should reach the very 

influence of prayer in averting or centre. 'Tliis took place when Shal- 

mitigating the judgments of God. maneser, the successor of that king, after 

7, 8. Tliis vision, and that described a siege of three years, took Samaria, put 

chap. viii. 1 — 3, difier from the two an end to the kingdom of the ten tribes, 

preceding, in the distinct and express and carried them away captive into 

application of the symbols to the punish- Assyria, 2 Kings xvii. 3, 5, 6, 23. "^^ 

ment of the Israelites. The Divine to pass, pass on or away, means, in 


9 The high-places of Isaac shall be desolated. 
And the sanctuaries of Israel laid waste ; 
And I will rise against the house of Jeroboam with the sword. 

10 Then Amaziah, the priest of Bethel, sent to Jeroboam, the king 
of Israel, saying : Amos hath formed a conspiracy against thee, in 
the midst of the house of Israel : the land cannot contain all his 

11 words. For thus hath Amos said: 

Jeroboam shall die by the sword ; 

And Israel shall surely be led away captive from his land. 

12 And Amaziah said to Amos: Seer ! Oo, flee to the land of Judah, 

13 and eat there bread, and prophesy there. But prophesy no more at 

ttppMcaiion to BiTiy to past it by, to fomve, contain, and refers to number and not 

not to punish it. Proy. xix. 11 ; Micah to atrocity, appears from %, aU, being 

vii. 18. See on this latter passage. employed before the following noun. 

9. A definite prediction of the destruc- Comp. for this signification of the verb in 
tion which was to overtake the places of Hiphil, 1 Kings vii. 26, 37 ; Ezek. xxiii. 
idolatrous worship, and the royal house 32. In the Syr. in which a verb signify* 
by which that worship had been eata- ing to endure is used, % is omitted, as not 
blished and supported. These are spe- suiting the Oriental idiom. 

cially mentioned, because to them, as the 12, 13. It does not appear that the 

procuring causes, the destruction was to king took any notice of the message that 

be traced. For the meaning of rfiD^ was sent him, so that Amaziah was left 

highplaees, see on Is. Ixv. 7. ^SC^, the to try what the interposition of his own 

parallel term, denotes the temples, or authority would efiect. He addressed 

structures, consecrated to the worship of the prophet by the title Tnn, aeer, most 

idols. Comp. ^b)^, ver. 13. pr*ip?, instead probably with contemptuous reference to 

of pn^y 18 not peculiar to our prophet ; nis visions ; though it was adopted in the 

the same orthography is found rs. cv. 9 ; later Hebrew, as eouivalent to m^^, and 

Jer. xzxiii. 26. There is no reason corresponds in signincation to hmS, which 

whatever to suppose that the word was was anciently used, 1 Sam. ix. 9. Not 

purposely so written, or that it was imagining that Amos could be actuated 

intended to be taken otherwise than as by any higher principle than that of 

a proper name ; yet the LXX. have selfishness, which reigned in his own 

Pafiol rov yi\wro9 ; and so the Syr. heart, the priest advised him to consult 

Michaelis finds a paronomasia in it; his safety oy fleeing across the frontier 

Dahl, an instance of irony ; and even into the kingdom of Judah, where he 

Calvin thinks that the name was used by might obtain his livelihood by the unre- 

Amos fUfitfTiK&v, It is here, and ver. 16, strained exercise of his prophetical gifts. 

parallel with V?if!, and denotes the ten The words ^'/H]4 ^, though pleonastic, 

tribes. are emphatic. At all events, he could 

10, 11. Verses 10 — 17 contain an not be per mitte<l any longer to prophesy 
interesting historical episode. As there in the city of 6ethel, • which was 
was doubtless a number of priests who distinguished not only as the principal 
conducted the idolatrous services at seat of the king's religion, but also as 
Bethel, ^ must here be understood kqt being one of his royal residences. Though 
i^ox^v of the chief or high priest, the ordinary residence of the Israel- 
attached to the royal temple. In the itish monarchs was at Samaria, yet as 
spirit which has characterised a false they went at certain stated seasons to 
priesthood in every age, Amaziah brings Bethel to worship the eolden calf, they 
against the prophet the groundless charge had had a palace built there for their 
of treason. That ^'PT^ is to be rendered accommodation. 

172 AMOS. [chap. vii. 

14 Bethel, for it is the king'^s sanctuary, and a royal residence. And 
Amos answered and said to Atnaziah : I am no prophet ; neither am I 
the son of a prophet ; but I am an herdsman, and a cultivator of syca- 

15 mores* And Jehovah took me firom following the flock; and 

16 Jehovah said to me : Go, prophesy to my people Israd. And now, 
hear the word of Jehovah. Thou sayest. Prophesy not agabst 
Israel ; and. Drop nothing against the house of Isaac. Therefore 

17 thus saith Jehovah : 

Thy wife shall commit lewdness in the city, 

14. Amos modestly but firmly repels ^in;;^ar(r(df7paf€9riicytfov<riy*ad*^ cV<- 
the charge of selfishness, by declanngt tawrB^y rtrapraia ircirrcrou, iv. 2. See 
that he was not a prophet by profession ; also PI in. Hist. Nat. xtii. 14 ; Forskal, 
that he had not oeen educated with a Flor. Eg3rpt. p. 182. OX^t B^camoreB^ 
view to such profession ; that he was a a species of tree, abounding in the East, 
person of rustic habits; and that his pretty much resembling the mulbeny tree. 
Divine mission was altogether of an the fruit of which is similar to the ^^, 
extraordinary character, m^^]^ tke son^ It is, however, very inferior in quality, 
1. e. pupil or disciple <rf a prophet. In and is only eaten by the poorest class of 
all prooability some of the schools of the the people. From ibis circumstance it 
prophets, of which we read in the first may be inferred that Amos occupied a 
DooK of Samuel, were still in existence, humble station in life previous to his 
in which young men were educated, who being called to prophesy in Israel, 
devoted themselves to the service of the 15. ^M^ is used both in a good and ia 
theocracy in the capacity of public a bad sense, and is here to be rendered 
instructors , and to these, or to more indefinitely, to prophety to. The pro- 
private studies, under the guidance of nomimal suflix in ^, " nty people," ia 
some prophet, Amos may be supposed not without emphasis. The Israelites 
to refer, "^a, strictly taken, means an were Jehovah's by right; he still claimed 
ox-herd ; but as '^ came, in a larger his propriety in Uiem ; and, by the 
acceptation, to denote cattle in general, ministry of his prophet, would have 
it might signify a keeper of any Kind of recovered them to his service, 
cattle. There is, therefore, no occasion, 16. Instead of listening to the prohibi- 
with some, to suppose that the word was tion of Amaziah, and retiring from his 
originally lg!^3, as in chap. i. 1. c^ sphere of duty, Amos continued to dit- 
occurs nowhere else in the Hebrew charge the duties of his office at Bethel; 
„ . , ., * , I • -is but before proceeding to give an account 
Scnptures; but the Arab. ^^, signifies of another vision which he had had, he 

a white M and the Eth. tliXtt - both ?]''«<^*« » pointed prediction against the 

the/^-/r.e and its fruit As, however, if ±!!;^'i" E;^^*'^;^^^^^^ 

♦u« ««-»i^: i-i f r *u — J • *u I terrupted. »Ten to om^mL to cause to come 

V W.T. • *" T"* " ^*^ down in plclasiAg and flowing discourse ; 

who IS occimied with, or cultivates figs. E,ek. xxi.2, 7; M^cah^i^e, 11. Sy?. 

The particularmodein which the ancients ^^ ' * • > *• j 

cultivated fig-trees, the LXX. appear to ,W|j, Arab. ^Ui. Eth. IfDIl: ttU- 

have had in their eye, when they rendered ~/ - ^^ _ c^— ' 

it by Kuifiovy a nipper or scratcher ; for *<'^»'» EmGj percolavU. 

we are informed by Theophrastus, that 17. Between n}nr>no^ in this verse, and 

iron nails or prongs were employed to 'tghnptti in ver. 16, is a marked antithesis. 

make incisions or scratches in the tree, n^w is not to be understood of voluntair 

that by letting out some of the sap, the acts of infidelity on the part of the wife 

fruit might be ripened: vlvrtiv ov of Amaziah, but of the violence to which 

bvvarai av p^ iviKVLoSfi' dXX' €xovt€£ she would have to submit on the part of 


And thy sons and thy daughters shall fall by the sword ; 

Thy land, also, shall be divided by lot. 

And thou shalt die in a polluted land : 

And Israel shall surely be taken away captive from his land. 

tbe enemy. This being done *m, tn the Every coantry, except Canaan, was re- 
ciiy, i.e. openly and publicly, was a garded by the Hebrews as n^iOTp np^f, a 
great aggrayation of the evil. poUtUed landf though, at this time, their 

^CM <r<hi Mdxxkos vo/t/Aadip p^oi, »9 ^^^ l»nd ^^ become such. Is. xxiv. 5, 

od€ oivof where ^ is similarly used ; Jer. ii. 7. 

AwrwF, Koi rtKi»v SKoyoi. ^ SXkeun The land of Assyria is that to which 

pycicF. //wd. b. iii. 300, 301. Amos points. 


After giving an account of a fourth vision, in which was represented the ripeness 
for destruction at which the Israelites had arrived, and the certainty of such 
destruction, 1 — 3, the prophet resumes his denunciatory addresses to the 
avaricious oppressors of the people, 4—7 ; predicts the overthrow of the nation, 
8 — 10 ; and concludes with threatening a destitution of the means of religious 
instruction, 11-^14. 

1 Thus the Lord Jehovah showed me, and, behold, a basket of 

2 ripe fruit ! And he said, What seest thou, Amos ? And I said, A 
basket of ripe froit. 

Then said Jehovah to me : 

The end is come to my people Israel ; 
I will pass by them no more. 

1. This vision may be regarded as a as wicker work, y^g is used both of 

continuation of the subject with which summer, and of the fruit which is 

the last concluded, in the development gathered in summer. It is to the ripe^ 

ofwhich the prophet had been interrupted nest of the fruit at this season that pro- 

y ^ minence is here designed to be eiven. 

by Amaziah. i^, Syr. | A«'nV*^ a The verb occurs but once in Heb. viz. 

. > Is. zviii. 6. Arab. )euS, metUa astas : 

eag€f ot basket ; Arab, (^.^vu, inseruU * 

* ^ k>[$y admodum ferhuUy aslha habuit, 

hro inter duos earii partes; SaK, lorum ^ ^^ paronomasia in p and Jg is 
velJUamentum lianosum palmte, quo con- marked and forcible. Comp. Ezek. vii. 6: 
suitur : what is braided from twigs, such tt^ ^Wf? "sfSw yPJl VK» >«J K? T5. 

nt AMOS. [chap, viiu 

3 And the songs of ihe palace shall howl, 

In that day, saith the Lord Jehovah ; 

The carcasses are many ! 

Throw them out any where ! 

Hush ! 
-4 Hear this ! ye that pant after the needy. 

That ye may destroy the poor of the land, 

5 Saying, When will the new moon be over, 
That we may sell com ? 

And the sabbath, 

That we may open out grain ? 

Making the ephah small. 

And the shekel great. 

And falsifying the balances for deceit. 

6 That we may purchase the poor for money, 

3. Instead of the pathetic elegies mill. Some, howeyer, think the name is 
loudly and continuously poured forth at derived from its being broken up or 
the princely funerals, notning was to be separated by a measure into portion5, 
heard but the frantic howl, announcing, with a view to sale ; while others are of 
but instantly checked in announcing, the opinion that it is so called because it 
greatness of the disaster. Into such breaks or puts an end to hunger, com- 
howling the joyous songs of the palace paring Ps. civ. 11. By*^ Ttr^^ opening the 
were to be converted. Symm. oXoXv- com^ is meant opening the tackt or 
(ovcriy al i^bai The deaid bodies were granaries in which it was kept, and 
to be cast forth indiscriminate! v, without bringing it out for sale. Thus the LXX. 
any regard to the places where they Syr. and Targ. The n^, ephah, was a 
might lie; and even this was not to be corn measure, containing three seahs, 
effected without exposing those who and according to Josephus, equal to the 
performed it to the attacks of the enemy. Attic medimniUy or somewhat above three 
Hence silence was to be enjoined. Some English pecks. It is uncertain whether 
improperly render ^yn, temple. For on, the word be originally Hebrew, or 
comp. chap. vi. 10. whether it be Egyptian. ^, from ^, 

4. The prophet resumes his usual . • i * t. \-* j ^ -^ 
style of direct comminatory address. '^ *^"^*' ^^^^' <>» ponderoiue fmt, 
Comp. chapters iv. v. and vi. For *]m^, gravitatem el pondus exploravit^ is here 
see on chap. ii. 7. rf^xlf}=nixfrh^ to cause used of weights in general. It was 
to cease, bring to an end, annihilate, originally any piece of metal weighed as 
•destroy. The vin rfivfi] is to be taken an equivalent for what was bought; but 
TfXiKm, as denoting the end or aim of came afterwards to signify standard 
the oppressions practised by the ava- money, and differed in value, according 
ricious Israelites. as it was of silver or gold, and as it was 

5. From this and other passages it is estimated by the sacred or the royal 
obvious that the Israelites, notwithstand- standard, Exod. xxx. 13 ; 2 Sam. xiv. 
ing their idolatrous practices, still kept 26. For the sake of greater emphasis, 
up the observance of the times and instead of saying, to make or to use 
seasons appointed in the law of Moses, deceitful balances, the verb nji^, to bend^ 
ia^ and "^tj) Ta^afrr, lit. to break a breaking, twist, pervert, is employed, which, in 
but meaning to sell grain, is sup- point of meaning, is pleonastic. LXX. 
posed to be so named from its being voifja-ai ^vy6v &diKtfiov. 

broken to pieces when ground at the 6. See chap. ii. 6. ^, from ^3, to 


And the needy for a pair of sandals ; 
And sell the refuse of the grain. 

7 Jehovah hath sworn by the excellency of Jacob : 
I will never forget any of their deeds. 

8 Shall not the land tremble for this^ 

And every one that dwelleth therein mourn ? 
Shall not all of it rise like the river ? 
Shall it not be driven, and subside. 
Like the river of Egypt ? 

9 It shall come to pass in that day, 
Saith the Lord Jehovah, 

That I will cause the sun to go down at noon, 
And will darken the land in the clear day. 

fall; what has fallen off, refuMt^ chaff, strongly, the land is metaphorically re» 

&c. presented as rising and swelling like the 

7. The iniquitous conduct of the Is- Nile, and again falling like the same 
raelites having been minutely described, river. Of course, the idea of the heav- 
the severe punishment which they had ing and subsiding of the ground during 
merited is now threatened. ^Itv; ]iM3„ the an earthquake is what is intended, as 
excellency of Jacob, has been varipuslv the beginning of the verse shows. For 
interpreted. The Targ. Grotius, Dahl, the sake of energy and impression, the 
Newcome, and Bauer, understand the interrogative form is, as frequently, em- 
excellence conferred upon Jacob ; Justi ployed. That n^« by an ehsion of the 
and Ewald, very preposterously, the pride letter Yod, is a defective form of ilr3, is 
or haughtiness of the people ; the Kab- evident from the parallel passage, chap, 
bins and some others, the temple; but iz. 5. Fifteen MSS. originally two more, 
the only appropriate construction of the and perhaps other three, and one of the 
phrase, in this connexion, is that which early editions, read nh;a in full. For the 
refers it to Jehovah himself in whom origin and meaning of the word, see on 
alone the Hebrews gloried while they Is. xix. 6. «5tj is used in Niphal, to ex- 
adhered to the purity of his wor^ship, and press the violent agitation of the sea 
in whom they still ought to glory. Thus when raised by the wind, Is. Ivii. 20. 

^ 7 * y * o ^^ ^^^^^ denotes the rise of the Nile, 

the Syr. ^ ^nnVv^ * aiia^oZ l^i^* which is generally above twenty feet. 

* For nf?«>j, the Keri and a great many MSS. 

the Lord, the Mighty One of Jacob; in the text, read n^^P, which is un- 

Munster, Vatablus, Mercer, Drusius, doubtedly genuine. The root "ff^ occurs 

Lively, Gesenius, Hitzig, Maurer. in a similar connexion, chap. ix. 5. It 

Comp. chap. vi. 8, where ViSd3| 9^^ occurs signifies to sink down, or subside. 

instead of the present phrase, which, 9. Some think the prophet here pre- 

however, is also there used in a bad diets the total eclipse of the sun, which 

sense. nansS) dm, if I forget, is the usual took place at one of the great festivals 

formula of swearing, implying that it in the year that Jeroboam died, (see 

should not take place. ^, in this con- Usher's Annals, a.m. 3213); but what- 

nexion, implies both totality, and the ever there may be in the language bor- 

single items of which that totality is rowed from such an event, consistency 

made up. Comp. Ps. ciii. 2. of interpretation requires it to be taken 

8. The guilt of the people was so metaphorically, as descriptive of a change 
enormous, uiat it was sufficient to induce from circumstances of prosperity to those 
an entire subversion of the existing of adversity. Comp. Jer. xv. 9 ; Ezek. 
state of things. To express this more xxxii. 7 — 10. 

176 AMOS. [chap. VI iu 

10 I will turn your festivals into mournings 
And all your songs into lamentation ; 

I will bring sackcloth upon all loins, 

And baldness upon every head ; 

I will make it as the mourning {or an only son, 

And the end of it a bitter day. 

11 Behold, the days come, saith the Lord Jehovah, 
When I will send a &mine into the land ; 

Not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, 
But of hearing the words of Jehovah. 

12 And men shall wander &om sea to sea, 

And shall run up and down, fix>m the North even to the East, 
Seeking the word of Jehovah, 
But they shall not find it. 

13 In that day the fair virgins shall faint, 
And the young men also, for thirst ; 

14 That swear by the sin of Samaria, 

10. The Hebrew festivals were occa- geographically we should have expected 

sions of great joy, and were no doubt on |*o;, or 3^}, the south ; but the term may 

this very account kept up among the ten have been chosen in order to intimate 

tribes after they had lost their religious the complete alienation of Israel from 

importance. The calamitous result of Judah, in consequence of which no one 

the Assyrian invasion under Shalma- would think of repairing to Jerusalem 

neser Is here most graphically de- for oracular information. That any 

picted. Comp. Is. xv. 2 ; Jer. xl viii. 37 ; transposition of the words has taken place, 

Ezek. vii. 1 8. The death of an only I cannot, with Hougibant and Newcome, 

son was regarded by the Hebrews as the suppose. It is, however, just as probable 

most mournful of events. Comp. Jer. that the cardinal points were not in- 

vi. 26 ; Zech. xii. 10. The pronominal tended to be strictly marked, but that 

reference in *^^?om and sv/™ is yjA un- the object was' to indicate generally the 

derstood. 3 in '>V °^^> i^ ^® Caph verl- hopelessness of the attempts mentioned. 

tatia. The Athnach is improperly placed under 

,,^r J. J- * *• n!«P, instead of under ^Bfsw, as the Vau 

« Nunc etamara dies, etnoctiaamanor ^^^^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^-^ j.;^^ ^^ ^^^ 

umbra est; verb show 

Omnia jam tristitemporaf^^^^^ 13. kd? in this verse, is to be under- 

TibuUus, Eleg, hb. n. Eleg. iv. 1 1. ^^^^^ ^^\^^ ^^^^^^j ^^^^^ ^ ^ ^^p^. 

11, 12. The Israelites now despised rienced by the inhabitants of Samaria 
the messages of the prophets, and by a during the siege predicted in the pre- 
just retribution, in addition to all their ceding verses ; n^dWrin, properly means, 
other calamities, they should experience they shall feel themselves involved in dark- 
a total withdrawal of all prophetic com- ness, which is physically true of those 
munications. Comp. Ezek. vii. 26 ; who are seized with syncope. The root 
Micah iii. 7. In whatever direction they ^w * l M* . ./. 

might proceed, and whatever efforts they ^^* ^''^*^- *-«^» "g^^^^* '^^ ^^^' ^ 

might make to obtain information rela- velope ; here, with darkness^ understood, 

tivo to the issue of their trouble, they After D*T^nrT subaud. «^.. 

should meet with nothing but disappoint- 14. ^viqW no^, the sin or crime ofSa- 

ment nn]!p, sun-rise, is used, where maria: i.e. the golden calf and other 

CHAP. IX.] AMOS. 177 

And say. By the life of thy God, O Dan ! 
And, By the life of the way of Beersheba i 
They shall fall, and rise no more. 

objects of unlawful worship which were rally the way or pilgrimage to Beer- 

the occasion of sin and guilt to the Is* sheba; but the phrase being parallel 

raelites. Hitzig thinks that Astarte is with the two former instances, in which 

specifically meant; but the term was objects of false worship are meant, it 

doubtless intended to comprehend the must here be taken in the same sense, 

calf at Bethel, the religious veneration Hence the LXX. render, (§ 6€6s <rov. 

of which led to the grosser forms of Strictly speaking, it denotes the way or 

idolatry. At the same time, rrn^, y/stoW^, mode of worship, or the worship itself, 

is spoken of, 2 Kings xiii. 6, in distinc- that was performed at Beersheba. Comp. 

tion from the worship specially instituted Ps. cxxzix. 24; Acts ix. 2, xix. 9,23. 

by Jeroboam, See on Is. xvii. 8. The See on chap. v. 5. ^ is a formula of 

god of Dan was the other golden calf, swearing : By the life of , or, jis sure 

erected by Jeroboam in Dan, 1 Kings as sttch an one lives, and was peculiarly 

xii. 26 — 28. By vsp^^ m, Kimchi, absurd and sinful when applied to in- 

Michaelis, and Bauer, undferstand lite- animate objects. 


This chapter commences with an account of the fifth and last vision of the prophet, 
in which the final ruin of the kingdom of Israel is represented. This ruin was to 
be complete and irreparable ; and no quarter to which the inhabitants might flee 
for refuge, would afford them any shelter from the wrath of the Omnipresent 
and Almighty Jehovah, 1 — 6. As a sinful nation, it was to be treated as if it had 
never stood in any covenant relation to him ; yet, in their individual capacity, as the 
descendants of Abraham, how much soever they might be scattered and afflicted 
among the heathen, they should still be preserved, 7 — 10. The concluding part 
of the chapter contains a distinct prophecy of the restoration of the Jewish 
church after the Babylonish captivity, 11 ; the incorporation of the heathen 
which was to be consequent upon that restoration, 12; and the final establish- 
ment of the Jews in their own land in the latter day, 13 — 15. 

1 I SAW the Lord standing beside the altar^ and he said : 
Smite the capital, that the thresholds may shake ; 
And break them in pieces, on the heads of them all ; 

1. By the Targ., Calvin, Drusius, Gro- Munster, Tamovius, Schmidius, Lowth, 

tius, Justi, Rosenmiiller, and Hengs-- Michaelis, Dahl, Bauer, Hitzig, and 

tenberg, the scene of this vision is laid Ewald, at the idolatrous temple at Bethel, 

at the temple of Jerusalem; by Cyril, and, in my opinion, rightly. Calvin 

A A 

178 AMOS. [chap. ix. 

Their posterity I will slay with the sword ; 
None of their fugitives shall make his escape. 
Nor shall any that slip away be delivered. 

2 Though they break through into Sheol, 
Thence shall my hand take them ; 
Though they climb up to heaven, 
Thence will I bring them down. 

3 Though they hide themselves on the summit of Carmel, 
There I will search them out and take them ; 

Though they conceal themselves from mine eyes in the bottom of 

the sea, 
There I wUl command the serpent, and he shall bite them. 

4 Though they go into captivity before their enemies, 
There I will command the sword, and it shall kill them : 
I will set mine eyes upon them for evil, 

And not for good. 

does not show his usual tact in objecting the head of all the worshippers. It 
to this interpretation, on the ground that does not appear that xbih and n*TM are 
it represents Jehovah as indirectiv ap- here used antithetically. The latter de- 
proving of superstition ; for, though the notes the children of those who perished 
true God was seen beside the idolatrous in the attack upon the idolatrous temple, 
altar, it was not for the purpose of re- When threatened by the Assyrians, they 
ceiving homage, but of commanding would flock in crowds to Bethel, to im- 
that the whole of the erection and wor- plore protection from the golden calf, 
ship at Bethel should be destroyed, and, while thus assembled, they should 
No argument in favour of Jerusalem perish, along with the vain object of their 
can be built on the use of the article trust ; they should, in fact, he buried in 
in ^^J&it ** ihe altar," but the contrary, the ruina. 

The idolatrous object to which sacrifices 2 — 4. Tliese verses exhibit a beautiful 

were offered at Bethel, having been series of supposed cases of attempt at 

mentioned in the preceding verse, nothing escape from tne judgments of God, and 

is more natural than a reference here to the utter futility of every attempt of the 

the altar on which they were presented, kind, ^ftnf and Dngni^, are, as usual, em- 

i^FG3, an ornamented head or capital of ployed as extreme points of opposition, 

a column, in the shape of a sphere, or Comp. Job xi. 8 ; Ps. cxxxix. 8 ; Is. xiv. 

bowl surrounded by flowers. It is 13, 14 ; Matt. xi. 23. ^9^ V})»h. Not 

usually derived from ipa, to cover, and only was Mount Carmel celebrated on 

yy^, to croum, LXX. IXacrn^piov, mis- account of its general fertility, but also 

taking the word for nito. When used of on account of the dense forests and large 

the ornamental part of the golden can- caverns with which it abounded. These, 

dlestick, they render it a<l>aipcaT^p. For together with its height, which is about 

D^, see on Is. vi. 4 ; the similarity, in twelve hundred feet, afforded the fittest 

some respects, between which passage possible places of concealment. Richter, 

and the present, appears to have sug- m his Pilgrimage, p. 65, says : ** Mount 

gested the idea that the temple at Jeru- Carmel is entirely covered with green ; 

salem is here meant The temple was on its summits are pines and oaks, and 

to be smitten both above and below, to further down, olive and laurel trees, 

indicate its entire destruction. ^^}, &c. These forests would furnish safe 

break them, Le. the capitals, &c., upon hiding places, equally with the caves, 

Tr^'^ f^ 

CHAP. IX.] AMOS. 179 

5 For it is the Lord Jehovah of hosts. 
That toucheth the earth and it melteth ; 
And all that dwell in it mourn ; 

It riseth, all of it, like the river, 
And subsideth like the river of £gypt. 

6 He that buildeth his upper chambers in the heavens. 
And foundeth his vaults upon the earth ; 

That calleth to the waters of the sea, 

And poureth them out on the surface of the earth ; 

Jehovah is his name. 

7 Are ye not as the Gushites to me, 
O sons of Israel ? saith Jehovah. 

which are chiefly on the vest side facing said to he founded upon it. To render 
the sea." D^ ^9^, the bottom of the it, with the Tars., con^re^a/ton, and apply 
Mediterranean Seat forms a striking con- it to the Church, as a hody of helievers, 
trast to the summit of Carmel, which firmly united together, is altogether un- 
, ^, , ., . , « .. ^ suitahle to the connexion. The render- 
beetles above It. vrp„ Arab.yy, terra j^^ ^^ ^^e LXX., Syr., and Arab, would 

aquabilis ; when spoken of a house, the »«em to indicate that ni»M rf^jr originally 

foundation or floor; here the bottom or f^od in the text, at the end of ver. 8 ; 

baeit, on which the sea rests. For wra, ^^} on'y one of De Rossis MSS. has 

seoreerpent, see on Is. xxvii. 1. ^^^^ reading at first hand. 

7. By appealing to the fact, that, in 

« Immensis orhihus augues *»»» providence, he had removed different 

Incumbant pelago, pariterque ad littora ^^^^om from their original abodes, and 

tendunt." jEneid. ii. 204. settled them elsewhere, Jehovah repels 

the idea, which the Israelites were so 
The D in D^, in verses 3 and 4, loses P^'^ne to enterUin, that, because he had 
its proper prepositive signification, as in brought them out of Egypt, and given 
rV!P, n:ap, nnno, &c. and merely denotes <^hem the land of Canaan, they were pe- 
position or place. culiarly the objects of his regard, and 
5, 6. A sublime description of the al- could never be subdued or destroved. 
mighty and uncontrollable power of He now regarded, and would treat them 
Jehovah. For the reference to the Nile, *? ^^e Cushites, who had been trans- 
see on chap. viii. 8. Instead of in^'wi?, planted from their primary location 
the Keri and not a few MSS. read rtfm ^ Arabia, into the midst of the bar- 
in full. Comp. T^'^, Ps. civ. 3, 13. !>"ou8 nations of Africa, n'^r^, Cush- 

tti»Sj are here the inhabitants of the 

AWepog olKov ^Ttiprarov paierdds, African Cush, or Ethiopia. See on Is. 

Oppian, Halieut. i. 490. », 

A*«r. ^;^*^«.«« •.«*-; .^/.r..^.. ^A X«r^ *viii. 2. Arab., fiM) . Jb» Abyntntaru, 

xyiov oiKfjTTfpioy tov KO(rpov to avfo* ^/» ^^ • " 

Aristot, " ^ ^ 

AlBlonaSf to\ bix6d dcdaiarac, co-xaroi 

rnw, a body or mass, the parts of which dvbpSv, 

are firmly compacted ; Arab. JUI, ^* /**" dvcro/icVoi; ^fplovos, ol ^ aW 

•^ '^ • ' oi^ro£. Odyss. 1. 23, 24. 
fornix firma compaginU et struct ura; 

an arch or vault; obviously used of the For D**.Fn2f«, see on Is. xiv. 28. Gese" 
V*»^* or hemispheric expanse or vault of nius hesitates between Crete and Cap- 
heaven ; which, from its appearing to padocia, as designated by the Hebrew 
the eye to rest upon the earth, is here Caphlor, but inclines to the former. 

180 AMOS. [chap. IX, 

Did I not bring Israel from the land of Egypt ? 
The Philistines from Caphtor? 
And the Syrians from Kir ? 

8 Beh()ld, the eyes of the Lord Jehovah are upon the sinful kingdom, 
And I will destroy it from the face of the earth ; 

Yet I will not utterly destroy the house of Jacob, 
Saith Jehovah. 

9 For, behold, I will command. 

And will sift the house of Israel among all the nations. 

As one sifleth com in a sieve, 

And not a grain falleth to the ground. 

10 But all the sinners of my people shall die by the sword. 
That say. The evil shall not reach nor overtake us. 

11 In that day I will raise up the booth of David that is falling. 
And will close up its breaches ; 

Thesaurus, p. 709. LXX. Kamra^oKia, likewise sets forth the ^reat care that 
0>{, Aranif or Syria, put for the Syrians^ would be exercised for their preservation, 
i. e. the inhabitants of the countries The universal character of their disper* 
about Damascus. They are here repre- sion is likewise strongly marked, 
sented as having migrated from ^., Kir, 10. Those are here specially intended, 
the country lying on the river Kur, or who scoffingly denied the possibility of 
Cyrus. See on Is. xxii. 6. the Assyrian conquest, namely, the 
8, 9. } i?p^, the eyes of a person are dissipated magnates of Samaria. Such 
said to be in any one, when he keeps should perish in the war. *i^ on^ ig 
him steadily in view, in order either to unusual. Perhaps the meaning is, Shall 
do him good, or to punish him. In not come forward, or advance in our 
the present instance, the phrase conveys rear, so as to cut off our retreat 
the idea of hostility. Though the king- 11. '^The Israelites now disappear from 
dom of the ten tribes was to be utterly the scene, in order to give place to a 
and for ever destroyed, yet, as descend- brief but prominent exhibition of the 
ants of their patriarchal ancestors, they restoration of the Jews from their de- 
should not become extinct. In the midst pressed condition, during Uie anticipated 
of the wrath which their sinfulness should captivity in Babylon, and the great 
bring upon them, God would remember design of that restoration — the introduc- 
mercy. ^ dbm is strongly adversative, tion of the Messianic dispensation, during 
tt;^, a sieve, which is used to separate which the blessings of the covenant of 
the chaff and other refuse from the pure mercy were to be extended to the Gentile 
grain, is most probably derived from world. With this reference in view, the 
i;|, to he many, from the number of small apostle James expressly quotes the pro- 
holes in it LXX. Xix/bior. Aq. and phecy, Acts xv. 15 — 17. The quotation 
Symm. Koo-xivoi/. "fvis is used as a di- is made from the version of the LXX. ; 
minutive of ins, the smallest stone, 2 Sam. but, as regards verbality, differs fully as 
xvii. 13 ; here it signifies the smallest much from it, as the latter does from the 
grain or particle of com. While the figu- Hebrew text: his object being to give 
rative language here employed expresses the general sense of the passage, and 
the violence of the sifting process to not the identical phraseology. It must 
which the Israelites should be subjected further be observed that, though he 
in order that their idolatry and other quotes the entire passage, consisting of 
sins might be removed from them; it the 11th and 12th verses, his obvious 

CHAP. IX.] AMOS. 181 

And I will raise up its ruins^ 
And build it^ as in the days of old« 
12 That the remnant of Edom may be possessed, 

And all the nations upon which my name shall be called, 
Saith Jehovah that doeth this. 

design was to give prominence to what afiairs had begun to decline ; and, though 

is contained in the latter, viz. the con- they occasionally and partially revived, 

version of the Gentiles, the very point yet, taken as a whole, they continued to 

required by his argument ; so that all deteriorate till the Babylonish invasion, 

attempts to apply what is said respecting when they were reduced to the deplorably 

the booth of David to the Christian fallen state in which they continued till 

church, are unwarranted and futile, tv^, the return from the captivity, when the 

David, is used by the prophet, not in its restoration here predicted took place, 

.figurative, but in its proper meaning, as From the phraseolgy employed by the 

denoting the Hebrew monarch of that prophet, the Rabbins derived one of the 

name. By Mnrt rfi*, that day, for which names which they give to the Messiah : 

James has, quite indefinitely, fitra ravra, ^3 m, the son of the fallen. Thus in the 

we are to understand the period of the Talmud, Sanhed. fol. 96, 2 : *' R. Nach- 

dispersion of the Israelites among the man said to R. Isaac, Hast thou heard 

nations, subsequent to the fall of their when Bar-naphli comes ? To whom he 

kingdom. Though that kingdom would said, Who is Bar-naphli He replied, 

jiever be restored, yet the Jewish polity The Messiah : you may call the Messiah 

would be re-established at Jerusalem. Bar-naphli; for is it not written. In that 

'lliis polity is here called 'H'^npD, the day I will raise up, &c. ?" quoting the 

booths or hut of David, to denote the present verse of Amos. For other 

reduced state of his family, and the passages to the same efiect, see Schoet- 

affairs of the people. Comp Is. xi. 1, genii Horse Hebraicae et Talmud. The 

and my note there. When the prosperity feminine suffix in 1(>J*TJ9 is to be referred 

of that family is spoken of, the more to the different parts or cities of the 

dignified phrase, Tf^^'l* the house of kingdom, understood. The masculine 

David, is employed. See 2 Sam. iii. 1 ; in '^IV^,* ^^ *^? ^^^ ^^ antecedent, and 

1 Kings xi. 38 ; Is. vii. 2, 13. TI5 Vrjki, the feminine in rrivaa refers to nao. 
the tent, or tabernacle of David, Is. xvi. 5, 12. The grand end of the restoration 

would seem to express an intermediate from the captivity in Babylon is now 

state of things. That T}1, David, is here stated, viz. the introduction of the 

to be understood of the Messiah, I cannot universal economy of the gospel. The 

iind« nsD, tugurium, a hut, or booth, so church of God had formerly consisted of 

called from its being constructed by persons belonging to a particular nation; 

interweaving the boughs and branches henceforth it was to comprehend those 

of trees with each other, and its thus of all nations, even such as had been 

forming a rude shelter from the storm, most hostile to its interests, whom God 

It was in such booths the Hebrews were would call to be his people, xbr^ to take 

to dwell during the seven days of n^SDn ty, possession of, inherit, is nere used figura- 

the feast of booths^ commonly caJled tively of the influence for eood which 

'' the feast of tabernacles." See Levit. the church should exert over the Gentiles, 

xxiii. 40 — 43. Root "spQ, to weave, tn* bringing them within her pale, and using 

lerweave, protect. Still more definitely them for her holy and benevolent pur- 
to mark the depressed condition of the poses. In the words, x6r\ afa ipii, " ihy 
Jewish kingdom, it is described as rhob, seed shall possess," or " inherit the 
falling. The present participle is here, nations," Is. liv. 3, we have a strictly 

as frequently, used to denote an action parallel prophecy, couched in the same 

which was happening at the time of language. Comp. also Is. xlix. 8, and 

narration, and which would be continued. Rom. iv. 13, where, in reference to the 

About the time of Amos the Jewish blessing of the Gentiles with faithful 

182 AMOS. [chap. ix. 

13 Behold, the days are coming, saith Jehovah, 
That the ploughman shall overtake the reaper, 
And the treader of grapes him that soweth the seed ; 
And the mountains shall drop mih new wine, 
And all the hills shall melt. 

Abraham, that patriarch is called " the charged with corruption. To which add, 

heir of the world." Among the first of that the words as they stand in the 

the foreign nations that were to experi- Hebrew text, admirably suit the con- 

ence this beneficent influence, the idu- nexion, as they equally do the argument 

means are expresslv mentioned. Owing of the apostle; though quoting, according 

to the enmity which had existed between to custom, from the Greek version, he 

them and the Jews, they had mutually adopted in the main the construction 

harassed and wasted each other, in con- whichit exhibits, as sufficiently expressive 

sequence of which, and of invasions and of the fact which he had in view, 
wars on the part of other powers, nothing 13. Comp. Levit xxvi. 5. The Ian- 

but rn^, a remnant^ of the former was guage imports the greatest abundance ; 

led. Of this remnant, a portion was pro- and this verse, with the two following, 

selytized to the Jewish faith in the time refer to a period subsequent to that of 

of John Hyrcanus, and the remainder the calling of the Gentiles. This the 

amalgamated with the tribes of Arabia, introductory phrase tri^ my rorr, Behold^ 

which embraced the Christian faith. It the day» are coming, distinguished as it 

is to these last that specific reference is from Nnm D^>|, In that day, ver. 1 1, the 

is here made, ^v^ is to be taken position of the prophecy, and other 

impersonally, and rendered passively; features which characterise it, sufficiently 

and the power of its future must be show. The verses are parallel with 

carried forward to tn^p. The calling of Is. Ixi. 4, Ixii. 8, 9, Ixv. 21 — 23 ; and are 

a name upon any person or thmg, to be interpreted of the future restoration 

denotes the assertion of the claims of of the Jews to their own land, and their 

the individual whose name is mentioned abundant prosperity in the latter day. 

upon the person or thing specified. For v^ "^f^i to draw out the eeed, comp. 

tr^rrt5 is the accusative, oh being under- rjrr "Jf^, Ps. cxxvi. 6. The idea seems 

stood as repeated, trti^ Trvi&r» ^i&t^ ]rob to be that of conveying the seed with 

the LXX. have rendered, ovmg ^k^t- the hand from the sack or vessel in 

rrjamaiy ol KaTdkomoi rov dvBp^awioy, which it was carried, yet not to the 

or, as some MSS. read, UCnnjamai fi€, exclusion of the act of sowing. Comp. 

Di» nnH«>Tft««JTT», that the rendue oj ., ■; 

iwVn may seek me. Newcome supposes g^^tas. For C«» yrejA or sweet wme, 
that the reading T*» is a contraction for ?«« «» {^^ >• ^' , Th« metaphorical 
Tfp:T^i but though t6u Ktioiov, which anguage here employed is at once, m 
we find in the quotation, Acts xv. 17, Jj« ^JIK^^** ^^S^^^ ^^ and pleasmg. 
might seem to favour this supposition, The Hebrews were accustomed to con- 
there is no evidence to prove that the «*f«c' terraces on the sides of the 
contraction ^ n», bo common in Rabbinical mountains and other elevaUons, on which 
writings, is of sucli antiquity. Tdp they planted vines. Of this fact the 
KtJpiov I consider to be merely an Fophet avails himself, and represenu 
interpretation of uf. No Hebrew MSS. "^^ immense abundance of the nroduce to 
afford any countenance to the Greek ^« «"f ^ ^^a* the eminences themselves 
translation, nor do any of the versions, :^?"1^ ?PP«»^ ^ ^ converted mto the 
except the Arabic, which, as usual, J"»ce of the grape. 

follows the LXX. For this reason, ** Subitis messor gaudebit aristis : 

and regarding the latitude used by Rorabunt querceta favis, stagnantia 

the writers of the New Testament passim 

when quoting from the Old, I cannot Vina fluent, oleique lacus." 

perceive how the passage can justly be Claudian, inliufinAlhA. 382. 

CHAP. IX.] AMOS. 183 

14 I will reverse the captivity of my people Israel, 

And they shall build the desolate cities, and inhabit them : 
And they shall plant vineyards, and drink the wine of them ; 
They shall also make gardens, and eat the fruit of them. 

15 For I will plant them in their own land. 

And they shall no more be plucked up from their land 
Which I have given them, 
Saith Jehovah thy God. 

How striking the contrast between the land, on account of their wickedness ; 

scene here depicted, and that which but still it is theirs by Divine donation to 

the face of Palestine has presented their great progenitor. And when they 

during the long period of the disper- return to the faith of Abraham, beholding 

sion ! in retrospection the day of the Messiah, 

14, 15. It is impossible to conceive which he saw and was clad, but deeply 

of prophecy more distinctly or positively bewailing their guilt in having crucined 

asserting the future and final restoration him, and perseveredfor so many centuries 

of the Jews to Canaan than that contained in the rejection of his gospel, they shall 

in these verses. Once and again they regain possession of it, and remain its 

have been removed from that favourea happy occupants till the end of time. 

B A D I A H. 


The prophecy of Obadiah^ consisting only of twenty-one verses, 
is the shortest book of the Old Testament. Jerome calls him, 
parvus prapheta^ Tersuwn supputatione^ non sensum. Of his origin, 
life, and circumstances, we know nothing ; but, as usual, various 
conjectures have been broached by the Rabbins and Fathers : — 
some identifying him with the pious Obadiah who lived at the 
court of Ahab ; some, with the overseer of the workmen, men- 
tioned 2 Chron. xxxiv. 1^ ; and some, with others of the same 
name ; while there is no lack of legendary notices respecting the 
place of his birth, sepulchre, &c. See Carpzovii Introd. tom. iii. 
pp. 332, 333. 

That he flourished after the capture of Jerusalem by the Chal- 
deans, may be inferred from his obvious reference to that event, 
verses 11 — 14; for it is more natural to regard these verses as 
descriptive of the past, than as prophetical anticipations of the 
future. He must, therefore, have lived after, or been contemporary 
with Jeremiah, and not with Hosea, Joel, and Amos, as Grotius, 
Huet, and Lightfbot, maintain. Sufficient proof of his having 
lived in or after the time of that prophet, has been supposed to be 

B B 


found in the almost verbal agreement between verses 1 — 8, and 
certain verses inserted in the parallel prophecy, Jeremiah xlix. ; it 
being assumed that he must have borrowed from him. This 
opinion^ however, though held by Luther, Bertholdt, Von Coelln, 
Credner, Hitzig, and Von S^nobel, is less probable than the con- 
trary hypothesis, which has been advocated by Tamovius, 
Schraidius, Du Veil, Drusius, Newcome, Eichhom, Jahn, Schnurrer, 
Rosenmiiller, Holzapfel, Hendewerk, Havernick, and Maurer. 
Indeed, a comparison of the structure of the parallel prophecies 
goes satisfactorily to show the priority of our prophet, as has been 
ably done by Schnurrer, in his Disputatio Philologica in Obadiam, 
Tubing. 1787, 4to. Add to which, that Jeremiah appears to have 
been in the habit of partially quoting from preceding prophets. 
Comp. Is. XV. xvi. with Jerem. xlviii. This view is confirmed 
by the opinion of Ewald, that both these writers copied from some 
earlier prophet, since he admits that Obadiah has preserved, in 
a less altered condition, the more energetic and unusual manner of 
the original than Jeremiah. In brief, the portion in question is 
so entirely in keeping with the remainder of the book, that they 
must be considered as having been originally delivered by the 
same individual ; whereas Jeremiah presents it in the form of 
disjecta membra poeke. 

In all probability the prophecy was delivered between the year 
B. c. 588, when Jerusalem was taken by the Chaldeans, and the 
termination of the siege of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar. During this 
interval, that monarch subdued the Idumeans, and other neigh- 
bouring nations. 

Of the composition of Obadiah, little, as Bishop Lowth observes, 
can be said, owing to its extreme brevity. Its principal features 
are animation, regularity, and perspicuity. 

The subjects of the prophecy are the judgments to be inflicted 
upon the Idumeans on account of their wanton and cruel conduct 
towards the Jews at the time of the Chaldean invasion ; and the 
restoration of the latter from captivity. The book may, therefore, 
be fitly divided into two parts : the first comprising verses 1 — 16, 
which contain a reprehension of the pride, self-confidence, and 
unfeeling cruelty of the former people, and definite predictions of 


their destruction ; the latter, verses 17 — 21 , in which it is promised 
that the Jews should not only be restored to their own land, but 
possess the territories of the surrounding nations, especially Idumea. 
The reason why the book occupies its present unchronological 
position in the Hebrew Bible, is supposed to be the connexion 
between the subject of which it treats, and the mention made of 
** the residue of Edom," at the conclusion of the preceding book of 


The propbecy commences bj announcing tbe message sent in tbe providence of 
God to the Chaldeans, to come and attack the Idumeans, yer. 1 ; and describes 
the humiliation of their pride, 2, 3 ; the impossibility of their escape by means 
of their boasted fastnesses, 4; and the completeness of their devastation, 5. 
It then proceeds with a sarcastic plaint over their deserted and fallen condition, 
6 — 9 ; specifies its cause — their unnatural cruelty towards the Jews, 10 — 14 ; 
and denounces a righteous retribution, 15, 16. The remaining portion fortels 
the restoration of the Jews, their peaceful settlement in their own land, and the 
establishment of the kingdom of Messiah, 17 — 21. 

1 The Vision of Obadiah. 

Thus saith the Lord Jehovah concemlDg Edom : 
We have heard a report from Jehovah, 

And a messenger is sent among the nations : 
** Up ! let us rise against her to battle ! ^' 

1. Eichhorn, Rosenmuller, Jaeger, tained in the last line of the verse. The 

and Hendewerk, have raised unneces- plural form ^39pQ^, '*we have heard,*' 

sary doubt ren)ecting the genuineness for which Jeremiah has T>^?^» " / have 

of the title and introduction contained heard," is so qualified by the passive 

in this verse, which have been fully verb nV^ in the second member of the 

obviated by Schnurrer, Maurer, and parallelism, that it is equivalent to the 

Hitzig. For pn^ see on Is. i. 1. ?rTa5?, passive form nroq^^, haih been heard. 

Obadtahy '^ the servant of Jehovah," There is, therefore, no necessity to 

equivalent to ^M^, Abdeel, Jer. xxzvi. 26 ; inquire whether Obadiah meant himself 

A 1- JH . vrj 77 r o r^ j^ *"" o^^^^r prophets, or whether he 

Arab, m J^, Abd-aUah; Ger. GotU- identified himself with his countrymen. 

chalck. For D^i^, Edom, see on Is. All that is intended is the circulation of 

xxxiv. 5. The words njrr nM)p ^Tmp rt^voKf, the hostile message in regard to Idumea ; 

we have heard a report from Jehovah, and the tracing of the movement to the 

are not to be regarded as designed to overruline providence of God, by which 

describe the reception of the Divine Nebuchadnezzar and his allies were led 

message by the prophet, but express the to turn their arms against that country, 

communication made to the nations by See Calvin, in loc. i*?, a messenger, or 

the ambassador sent to summon them i j a i. f . • 'j 

to the attack «pon Idumea, as the '"«*«««^<'^; Arab.^U,^, .r.(, ;»ro- 

following clause shows. The TrjffvoKf, fectus esL LXX. freptoxijv, but in Jer. 

report, or communication itself, is con- ayycXovr; Symm. here ayycXtW. Comp. 


2 Behold, I have made thee small among the nations ; 
Thou art exceedingly despised. 

3 The pride of thine heart hath deceived thee. 
Thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, 
Whose habitation is liigh ; 

That saith in his heart, 

Who shall bring me down to the ground ? 

4 Though thou shouldest soar like the eagle. 
And shouldest set thy nest among the stars, 
Thence I will bring thee down, saith Jehovah. 

I8.x^ii.2 and my note there^ JOV, |^^^ I infortissimarupe. Some in- 
artse! up! like «?, come! go! &c., la \ ';"•; '' ^ 
frequently used as a term of excitement, terpreters are of opinion that by s^D, 
With it the address of the herald Seta^ we are to understand the city of 
commences; who, identifying himself that name, otherwise called Petra, 
with the nations which he summons, situated in Wady Miisa, and celebrated 
proceeds to employ the plural of the as the capital of Idumea. See on Is. 
same verb in its strictly hostile sense, xvi. 1. The crirr, cliffs, would, on this in- 
followed by the preposition ^. ^rn^, terpretation, be the high and inaccessible 
though properly masculine, is here rocks which beetled over that metropolis, 
viewed as y^M, a country; hence the I prefer taking the word in its literal 
feminine suffix in n^ acceptation, and view it as a collective, 

2. Here the masculine gender is equivalent to the plural of the LXX. 
adopted, which is continued throughout and other ancient versions, and thus 
the prophecy — D9, people, being under- describing the rocky character of the 
stooo. The past time of the verbs ex- country generally, as well as that about 
presses the certainty of the events ; and Petra m particular. Instead of ^|m^, 
ff^, small, and ^, despised, are not hath deceived thee, four of De Rossi's 
designed to mark the comparatively MSS. and originally two more, read 
limited and despicable . character of f|M%i ; but thoi^h this reading is sup- 
Idumea, geographically considered, as ported by the LaX., Arab., Vulg., and 
Newcome interprets, out describe the Hexaplar Syr. it is inferior to that of the 
miserable condition to which it was to Textus Receptus, which has the suffi-ages 
be reduced by its enemies. of the Syr. and the Targ., especially as 

3. The Idumeans are taunted with the there are no other instances in which 
proud confidence which they placed in ^Ptorr is used in the sense of raising, or 
their lofty and precipitous mountain elevating. The ^ in ''X^ is simply a poetic 
fastnesses, and the insolence with which paragogic, of which several examples 
they scouted every attempt to subdue occur in the Benoni participle. See Gen. 
them. These positions, strone by nature, xlix. 11 ; Deut xxxiii. 16 ; Is. xxii. 16 ; 
and many of them rendered still more Micah vii. 14. In \po^ there is a transi- 
so by art, they deemed absolutely tion from the second person to the third, 
impregnable. Such inaccessible places for the sake of more graphically pointing 
are appropriately called rff^^yp, cliffs of out the proud position of £dom. Comp. 

P trt ?■ xxu 16 

the rock, Syr. |^, rupes ; the Arab. '^ g^ ^ j^^j^ ^^^ beautiful hyperbole, 

f ^ ^ .^ J V *i. -J c the Idumeans are told, that, to what 

Is:^, conjugtt; and hence the idea of ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^.^j^^ ^^^^^^^ ^„^ 

refuge, which is secondary, and less how entirely they might imagine them- 

proper to be adopted here. LXX. iv selves to be beyond the reach of their 

^^ * enemies, Jehovah would dislodge them, 

raU owals rmv mrpwv. Syr. Jx^q;^ and deliver them into their power. For 


5 If thieves had coine to thee, 

Or robbers by night (how art thou destroyed !) 

Would they not have stolen what was sufficient for them ? 

If vintagers had come to thee. 

Would they not have left some gleanings ? 

the soaring of the eagle, and his building as they caDj and especially what they 

his nest on the inaccessible crags of the have set their minds on, in the hurry of 

rock, comp. Job xxxiz. 27, 28 : the moment, leaving the rest of the 

lA) Tnr fm^roN property to its possessors. They should 

i'3p un '71 ^^^" ^^® worse than the vines, on which 

Mj^ ^^'^ the vintagers, though they cut down the 

irmsCTrjp'w)'/y bunches generally, still left some that 

,, _ . , * ' ' • - y ** - might be gleaned afterwards. In Jere- 

« Is It at diy command the eagle soars, ^-^ the order of the Ulustrations is 

And erecto his nest on high ? reversed, the vintagers being taken first 

The r«c|^ he inhabits, and makes his r^^^, night-robber$. In such a country 

abode , , ^ , as Idumea, a predatory attack could only 

On the point of tlie rock, and the fast- ^ave been attempted in the night, espe- 

*'®^* cially on such places as were most 

Dip Ewald and Hitzig take to be a passive strongly fortified by nature, and com- 

participle ; but that it is the infinitive manded a view of the immediately 

construct, is rendered certain by its surrounding regions. Hitzig thinks the 

having the preposition |P before it, Job prophet has Petra specially in his eye, 

XX. 4. In tne present instance, and in on account of its having been the great 

Num. XXV. 21, in which, as here, it is emporium of that part of the world, 

followed by ^., it stands elliptically for Instead of rtW'??^^!^^*^^^^*?* Jere- 

D^^ trip ; which sufficiently accounts for miah has only Trfn u*^ dm, which is less 

the rendering of the LXX., Syr., Targ., forcible. He also substitutes vrnfrr for 

and Vulg., which exhibit the second ttST. Theposition of the words rirpQTSTpH, 

person singular of the verb. The term How thou art deztroyed, has offenaed 

0^33^3 is to be understood literally of the some fastidious critics, some of whom 

$tartt as the highest objects which would remove them to the beginning of 

present themselves to the eye, and not the verse, and others to the commence- 

of the tops of the highest rocks, or even ment of the following. What might be 

heaven itself, as some have maintained, accounted their natural place would be 

t|71^M is a direct reply to the vaunting the end of the present verse ; but the 

question, ^yrf^^V^ ver. 3. Theodoretwell prophet, struggling to give expression to 

expresses the sense thus : 'Ewccd^ roiwvy the feeling which agitated his mind, 

^170-1 ravratff 6app6»v d\a{ov€iSjf Ka\ breaks in upon his illustrations with the 

fitya <f>povt'is ms dx^ipoiToSt cvciXittroy interjected exclamation, and then carries 

(Tc Karaa-nfa-ci K(ii €vxflpcaTov roU them on to a close. The words are 

€xBpoUt KOi Tav fro\€fu<ov ov dia<l>€v(fj omitted by Jeremiah, npi has two 

rds x^^P^^t °^^^ ^^ tUrip dtrov fieritipos leading significations : to be like ; and, 

ap^€/^,ic.T.X. , , ,, , according with the Arab. ^J, ru/nerawf, 

5. The Idumeansarehere taught, that ^ f 

their devastation would be complete, perdidit, to cause to cease, destroy, See. 

This prophetic intelligence is com- LXX. irov hv airtp6i<l}rjs ; having read 

municated in the form of interrogative ?^rnP7?) a verb, which nowhere occurs in 

illustrations, derived from customs with Niphal. ts;?, their suffidencu, i.e. what 

which thev were familiar. The manner was requisite for supplying their present 

in which they should be treated would be wants, or such a quantity as thev had 

very different from that adopted by sufficient strength to remove. LXX. 

private thieves, or by a party of maraud- » » j « - o * x ' "* 

ing nomades, who usually seize as much ''« **'"'^ «avroir. Syr. ^ooiWaiCj 


G How is Esau explored ! 

And his hidden places searched ! 
7 All thine allies have driven thee to the frontier ; 

Those who were at peace with thee have deceived thee ; 

They have prevailed against thee : 

They that ate thy bread have laid a snare under thee ; 

There is no understanding in him ! 

svfficenHa eorum. The apodosis is the verb implies expulsion beyond the 

omitted ; but there is a beautiful pro- frontier specified ; and the whole sen- 

priety in leaving it to be supplied by tence is descriptive of transportation into 

those to whom the appeal was made. a state of captivity. Thus the Targ. 

6. The prophet here resumes his strain ^^m kdvt^ \o, they shall lead thee cap- 

of sarcastic plaint over the fall of Idumea, tive from the border . By ^n^ ^3M, the 

which he had abruptly adopted in the men of thy covenanty are meant those 

precedins; verse, repeating the TM there who had formally pledged assistance to 

employed, which is again understood the Edomites; confederatee, allies; by 

before wji?. The patronymic ^ is con- 19^ '^pWf the men of thy peace, neigh- 

strued as a collective noun with the bouring states, which were on terms of 

plural of the verb, and, at the same peace and friendship with them. LXX. 

time, with the singular pronominal affix. avbp€£ elprjviKoif those who were peace- 

In the translation I have been obliged to ably inclined towards them. Before 

employ the singular in both cases. ^^ supply ^m from the preceding — 

criBVP, like D*;pop, may either signify the men of thy bread; or "7^, may be 

places where treasures are A t(/</tfn, or the understood, those who eat thy bread; 

treasures themselves ; or the term may and thus the phrase will be descriptive 

be explained of hiding-places^ to which of dependents ; some of the poorer 

men resort in order to elude an enemy, tribes of the desert, who subsisted on the 

I prefer the last of these significations, bounty of the Edomites, and whose aid 

as better agreeing with the persons of the they might reasonably expect in case of 

Edomites, mentioned in the former any emergency. Comp. Ps. xli. 10, where 

hemistich ; though the hiding of their a similar combination of "pn^ ^ with 

treasures is also naturally imf^ied. The '^^^ ^^ occurs ; though there the idea 

form is that of the Arabic passive of familiarity, rather than that of de- 

I I M o 1. 1 I- J • Tj pendence, seems intended to be ex- 

J^. Such places abound in Idumea. ^^^^^^ pj^^ ^^ D^ ^^3,^,^ jyjSS. and 

" Revera," says Jerome, "ut dicamusali- originally two more, read 'p^wpn, instead 
quid de nalura loci, omnis australis regio of »p«^, as also one of the early editions, 
Idumaeorum de Eleutheropoli usque ^^ LXX. and Arab.; but the common 
Petram et Ailam (hsBc est enim possessio reading is to be preferred. To *qiy thirty 
Esau) in specubus habitatiunculas habet. MSS., originally eleven more, four by 
Et propter nimios calores solis, quia emendation, the Soncin. and Complut. 
meridiana provincia est, subterraneis editions, the Soncin. Prophets, and the 
tuguriis utitur." Instead of the exclama- Syr., prefix the copulative, which the dif- 
tory form here employed, Jeremiah ference of sense in the two verbs re- 
adopts that of direct personal assertion : quires. There is some difficulty in 
r>nDDTMTi»'?3itemM»r©ton>»r'3; changing, determining the meaning of "t^itj. LXX. 

S^lnl'^""*' ^ "''" '^' '"^ «'-»'"" SF- Vl:^. i^^i"' V«]g. 

7. nb^, which in Kal has the signi- insidi<B ; Targ. H^gn, offendiculum — all 
fication to send^ send away, signifies in agreeing in the idea of treachery, or the 
Piel, to dismisSf eject, expel, conveying employment of means by which one 
the superadded idea of compulsion or might be subverted or ensnared. This 
violence. Connected, as here, with '^, seems to be the only suitable meaning 


8 Shall I not in that day, saith Jehovah, 
Cause the wise men to perish from Edom P 

And the men of understanding from Esau ? 

in this place, as the signification of in tbe book of Job, whicb was undoubt- 

wound, whicb attaches to tbe word, ediy written in their country. They 

Jer. XXX. 13, Hos. v. 13, tbe other pas- were, indeed, proverbial for their rro?^. 

sages in whicb it occurs, will not, with philosophy, for tbe cultivation of which, 

any tolerable degree of propriety, apply, their intercourse with Babylon and Egypt 

Two derivations have been proposed, was exceedingly favourable, as were 

... ,. ,. ,. ». likewise their means of acquiring infor- 

the Arab.^, dtstendU, equahter, du- ^^^^^ from the numerous caravans 

Undit, to which Tingetadius appeals in '^^^'i '^°*?^ lay through their country. 

Supplement, ad LeL Hebi;.p.23; f^f^rF^lf Vt ^•'""r**^^^ 

bat which is far-fetched aa there is no °e'''«e» Europe and India. Speaking 

P Iw f?.^i ;r.!o'/^- *i of wisdom, the author of the book of 

proof that the verb is used m the sense B^ruch savs in reference to their celc- 

of spreading out a net, or the like ; and C^ ^ ' " reference to tneir ceie- 

*^ ° ^ * bnty as sages of antiquity, chap. ui. 

.) :. .•!, mentitus fuit, .• ji faUum, men- 22, 23 : — 

J . . . 1.1., TT V «,• ^ "It hath not been heard of in Canaan, 

i/flC/«»,, with which the Hebrew t«, to j^^j^^^^ ^^^y^ .^ ^^^ ^^^ .„ ^eman. 

decline from the way of truth, has been ^he Hagarenes that seek wisdom upon 

compared. The use of ^Jijnn «*%, they ear3i 

place under thee, most naturally suggests ^he merchants of Meran and of Teman. 

the idea of a^m or trap, which may be ^be mythologists, and investigators of 

said to deceive or act falsely by those intellieence 

who tread upon it ; so that the notions ^^^^ „f ^^ ^^, ^^^ ^^ ^j 

of treachery, plot, net, mare, may be wisdom 

combined in furnishing the troe «g- jjor remembered her paths." 

nihcation. Furst, who derives the word i n j 

from -wi, gives the significations thus : These sages are here called on^n, and 

" circumligare, obligatio vulneris, fascia, ^beir accumulated stores of wisdom are 

bine medicina; moraliter: laqu^orum expressed by rr^ttn, in/tf%eiice, the term 

connexio, perfidia fallax, insidiosa, frau- ^hich had just been employed at tbe 

dulenta." To no quarter could the Idu- close of the preceding verse. The inter- 

means look for aid. Their allies, their rogative rfn ,8 here strongly affirmative; 

neighbours, their very dependents, so far and ^ m >nT3«m is merely conversive. 

from assisting them, would act treach- '^ "V, the mount of Esau, u the 

erously towards them, and employ every mountemous region of Seir, to the south 

means, both of an open and covert of Palestine, now called CL^I J!, /U^, 

nature, to effect their nun. At the close J ^ • < ^ 

of the verse, the prophet tuiris off again j^^^^ gj^^^ ^^^ CL^lJJl esh-Sherah, 

from the direct mode of address, and j^ 

employs the third person, for the purpose extending as far south as Akabab. It 

of more empbaUcally exposing their was originally inhabited by the Horites, 

folly in placing confidence in those who or Troglodytae, so called because they 

were totally unworthy of it. It would dwelt in the caves of the mountains, 

be highly uncritical, with the Targ., whom the posterity of Esau expelled, and 

Hougibant, and Newcome, to change taking possession of the country, spread 

^a, in him, into ip, in thee, themselves as far towards the north as 

8. The Idumeans confided, not only the borders of Moab. It was particularly 

in the natural strength of their country, to the more northerly portion of this 

but in the superiority of their intel- • xt * *i * \ r i » 

lectual talent. That they excelled in '*8«o'» that the name of Jos^ Jehel, or 

the arts and sciences, is abundantly Gebalene, was given. ^, mountmn^ 

proved by the numerous traces of them being here, and verse 9tb, obviously used 

OBADIAH. 193^ 

9 Thy mighty men, O Teman ! shall be dismayed, 
That every ooe may be cut off from mount Esau. 

10 For the slaughter, for the injury of thy brother Jacob, 
Shame shall cover thee, and thou shalt be cut off for ever. 

11 In the day when thou didst take a hostile position, 
In the day when foreigners took captive his forces, 

And strangers entered his gates, and cast lots upon Jerusalem, 
Even thou wast as one of them* 

in a collective sense I have translated it tion, that those who were the objects of 

in the plural. . them were descended from the same 

9. For |0^, TVinofi, see on Amos 1.12. common parent. Comp. Amos i. 11. 
^^ has been variously construed. Ewald /aco6 is used as a patronymic to denote 
unnaturally renders it; without battle, the Jews. Two distinct periods in the 
Schnurrer treats it as a participle in future history of the Idumeans are here 
Pael or Poel, pointing it to^ or ^j?9, pointed out : that during which they 
and regarding it as equivalent to the should be the subjects of ignominy as a 

Arab. JJla^ mr pralio aptus. He TT^V^^ ^""""^^V ^.^^ J^T ^T"^ 

v^w*.^ // w«v //p«*. x^ which they were to be entirely extinct. 

would thus make it parallel with Dnl^a^, From the former they recovered about a 

mighty men, in the preceding hemistich, century before the Christian era ; but 

Rosenmuller,DeWette, and some others, they were reduced by John Hyrcanus, 

translate, by slaughter, Leo Juda, most and afterwards lost every vestige of their 

of the older modern translators, followed separate existence, 
by Jaeger, Hesselberg, Hendewerk, and 11. Thisandthethree following verses 

Maurer, render, propter cadentj and contain a series of pointed expostulations, 

suppose the prophet to be here assigning which, while they inculpate the Idumeans, 

the cause of the destruction of the describe the various modes in which they 

Idumeans which he had just predicted, had manifested their malice towards the 

intending more fully to dilate on the Jews. Some have thought that i3|p "ip9 

subject in the following verse. To this means here to stand aloof, to assume a 

construction, however, it must be ob- neutral position, whence one may observe 

jected, that it does the parallelism, the movements of two opposing parties ; 

which properly ends with y^y?, as in but the declaration at tne end of the 

the verse preceding ; and also that the verse, as well as what is stated in verses 

words Dpnpb^^ are too closely allied, 13th and 14th, clearly shows that the 

both in form and reference, to admit of phrase is to be taken in a hostile sense, 

such a pause as that which is introduced as in 2 Sam. xviii. 13 ; Dan. x. 13. That 

by the Soph-Pasuk. I, therefore, hesitate ^ is not to be rendered wealth or riches 

not to follow the division of the verses in this passage, but forces, army, or the 

adopted by the LXX.y Syr., Hexaplar like, may be inferred from reference being 

Syr., Vulg., Dathe, Lively, Newcome, made to the division of the substance of 

and Boothroyd,by which ^i^ is removed the citizens of Jerusalem by lot in the 

from verse 9th, and placed at the begin- following hemistich, trri and onD^ de- 

ning of verse 10th. scribethe Chaldeans, by whom Jerusalem 

10. ^fn^Donp^ip^. Both nouns are was taken. ^ is in Piel, contracted for 
in construction with ^fn^, and the geni- ^T). Comp. w, Lam.iii. 63. Instead of 
tive thus formed is that of object: the T^, the reading of the text^ many MSS., 
slaughter of, and the violence done to, thy four of the earliest printed edit ions, and 
brother. The Edomites had not only some more recent ones, exhibit t^, the 
slain the Hebrews, but injured them in full form, as proposed bv the Ken. 
every possible way ; and their cruelties That the word may ori^naily have been 
were highly aggravated by the considera- read as the singular, is clear from its 

c c 


12 Thou shouldest not have looked on in the day of thy brother. 
In the day'of his being treated as an alien ; 

Thou shouldest not have rejoiced over the sons of Judah, 

In the day of their destruction : 

Neither shouldest thou have spoken insolently 

In the day of distress. 

13 Thou shouldest not have entered the gate of my people, 
In the day of their calamity ; 

Thou, even thou, shouldest not have looked on their affliction. 

In the day of their calamity ; 

Nor stretched forth thy hand to their wealth. 

In the day of their calamity. 

14 Neither shouldest thou have stood at the pass, 
To cut off those of his that escaped ; 

occurrence in this number, ver 13; but as a stranger, i.e. an alien or enemr. 

then, in both cases, it is to be taken as a n^ Vnan, to enlarge, or make great the 

collective. mouth, Ger. den Mund voU nehmen : to 

12. The future forms vnp^ np^-^ use insolent or contumelious language^ 

^i^in-^, Ntaiji-^, rnn^rr^, Tt»rrS«, and such as those employ who exult over a 

i^orr^, are all qualified in signification, fallen foe. Comp. Ezek. xxxv. 13. 

by the circumstance, that the speaker 13. Di in nrM-oa is emphatic. rQn^v)i% 

has a past event prominently in view, in some take to be the third plural feminine, 

reference to which he places bimscif and having for its object d^t ; but the entire 

those whom he addresses in the time of construction of the passage requires tbe 

its passing, and points out what was their second person singular masculine, n^aSp. 

duty in reference to it. They are The syllable nj is added with a view to 

properly subjunctives of negation, ex- give intensity to the verb, as in Jud. 

Sressive of what should not have been v. 26 ; thus expressing the eagerness 

one, and therefore have the usual force with which the Idumeans seized upon 

of the imperative. " Verba Hebrseorum the spoil. Rosenmiiller is of opinion 

saepe non actum, seddebitum vel officium that the n is paragogic, and the 3 epen- 

significat." Glassii Philolog. Sacr. lib. iii. thetic ; but Geswas is rather inclined 

tract. 3, can. 6. Nicholson's Ewald, to compare it with the energetic Future 

I 264. ^ r»n, means here to look upon of the Arabs. Lehrgeb. p. 801. LXX. 

with malignant pleasure, to feast one's a^ o *" ^ n 

eyes with the calamity of another. M trwcirt^ ; Syr. i^oiO^^^Z M' 

«fn^tfi*, the day of thy brother, is after- Vulg. non emitteris; Targ. *«5Jp'«5i«'n. 

wards explained by V^i, DW, rr«^, tn^, See for more instances of this intensive 

which describe the calamitous circum- form Job xvii. 16; Is. xxviii. 3; £xod. 

stances in which the Jews were placed, i. 10. For the omission of t, hand, see 

dV, day, is often used to express a 2Sam. vi. 6; Ps. xviii. 17. 

disastrous or calamitous period. "Oj, 14. jn^ is commonly rendered hiviam, 

which is taken actively to denote severe a parting of a way, or a place where a 

treatment, punishment, Job xxxi. 3, is road breaks off into two. 1 should rather 

bere used passively of the experience of think, from the idea of violence implied 

such treatment. Comp. the Arab. Jo, »? ^: ^^^^ '* signifies a break or disrupt 

J turn m a rock or mountam, through 

difflcilisae durusfiut ; gravis ac dificilis ; which a passage might be effected into 

improbavit. The idea radically inherent the region beyond. Comp. Qnri pn^, 

in the term is that of treating any one 1 Kings xix. 11. LXX. duKffo^ai. Syr. 


Neither shouldest thou have delivered up those of his 
That were left in the day of distress. 

15 For the day of Jehovah is near against all the nations : 
As thou hast done, it shall be done unto thee ; 

Thy deed shall come back upon thine own head. 

16 For as ye have drunk upon my holy mountain, 
So shall all the nations drink continually ; 
Yea, they shall drink and swallow greedily, 
And shall be as though they had not been. 

liLanii a narrow passage between two «»""?« th«m, that, though the sufferings 

' to which they had been subjected were 

mountaiDS. In all probabilitVi the refers ^eat, still greater punishment would be 

ence is to the means employed to cut inflicted upon the hostile nations by 

off the retreat of those Jews who at^ which they had been attacked. The 

tempted to pass through Idumea on punishment which they suffered was 

their way to Eg3rpt, whither they fled only temporary : that of their enemies 

from the Chaldeans, pn^ ^ ig^^ to would be perpetuaL The structure of 

Biand €U the ravine or pass, graphically the passage requires the verb to be taken 

describes the attitude of those who are in the same sense in both parts of the 

watching in order to intercept a caravan, verse. Such, in effect, is the construc- 

or a body of travellers, especially in the tion put upon the words, Jer. xlix. 12. 

mgffed moantainoQs regions to the south Compare also chap. xxv. 15 — 29. In 

of Jadea. The Idnmeans not only in this manner the verse is interpreted by 

ibis way prevented the escape of the Abenezra, Mercer, Tremellius, Drusius, 

fugitives; they carried them back as Lively, Rosenmilller, Schnurrer, De 

prisoners, and delivered them up to the Wette, Hesselberg, and Maurer. Instead 

enemy. of Tp^, eontinuaUy, the reading a^, 

15. In this verse, the conquest of around, is exhibited in not fewer than 
Idumea and all the neighbouring nations seventy -eight MSS. ; in seventeen more 
by Nebuchadnezzar is declared to be originally; in three others in the margin ; 
at hand. In the war which he was in seven of the earliest printed editions ; 
to carry on against them, due retribu- and a few other authorities; but all the 
tion would be rendered to the £dom- ancient versions support that of the 
ites. Comp. Ps. cxzxvii. 7, 8. For the Textus Receptus, which, according to 
phrase njfrc^, the day of Jehovah, see De Rossi, is found in all the most 
on Is. ii. 12. accurate and best MSS., both Spanish 

16. The Targ., Kimchi, Munster, Vata- and German. In all probabilitv ^1^ was 
blus, Calvin, Michaelis, Heudewerk, and substituted by some copyist from Jer. 
Hitzig, consider the Idumeans to be still xxv. 9. What proves that the LXX. 
addressed, and most of them explain had the word Ton in their Hebrew text, 
their, drinking on Mount Zion of the is their having mistaken it for *ioi, 
festivities with which they celebrated the rendering it o'Uqv, wine. V^, to swallow 
victory gained over the Jews. Grotius or stick down with greediness. Arab, 
refers £e words to the same people, i i .i 

only he takes the verb rxnp in the bad yJ and ji^ avidus; Ul ^^t muUum 

■euse, as denoting the drinking of the ^ 

cup of divine wrath, and renders T?^, aquse libit. Comp. f>, the throat ; »>|, 

*vh^, on account of my holy mountain^ to swallow, &c. The idea intended to be 

which he explains thus:*' propter Judseam conveyed by the use of the verb here 

a vobislacessitam." But it seems more is that of drinking completely off the 

natural to regard the words as directed, cup of wrath, as a thirsty person would 

by a sudden apostrophe, to the Jews, a vessel of water. 


17 But in Mount Zion shall be the escaped, 
And it shall be holy ; 

And the house of Jacob shall enjoy their possessions. 

18 And the house of Jacob shall be a fire. 
And the house of Joseph a flame ; 

And the house of Esau shall become stubble, 
And they shall set them on fire, and devour them ; 
So that there shall not be a relic of the house of Esau ; 
For Jehovah hath spoken it. 

19 And they of the south shall possess mount Esau, 
And they of the plain, the Philistines ; 

They shall also possess the country of Ephraim, 
And the country of Samaria ; 
And Benjamin, Oilead. 

20 And the captives of this host of the sons of Israel, 

17. Obadiah here commences bis pre- nation. See Joseph. Antiquities, book 
dictions respecting the restoration of the xiii. chap. ix. 1. For the metaphorical 
Jews from the Babylonish captivity; language, comp. Num. xxi. 28; is. x. 17; 
their re-occupancy of Canaan ; and the and, for the ground of it, Is. v. 24. 
reign of the Messiah. While the sur- 19. By 3^, the south, or southern 
rounding nations were to disappear, the part of Palestine, is meant those who 
Jews should regain possession of their should occupy it; and by 1 1^"**'.', the 
holy city, and the land of their fathers, plain, those who should occupy the low 
Tf^l^ means such as had survived the country along the shore of the Medi* 
captivity, xbip, holiness, i.e. holy, refers terranean. LXX. Ol cy Nayc/3 ; ol iy 
to Mount Zion, which had been polluted rg ^€<f>(ikd. According to the relative 
by the idolatrous Chaldeans. See on positions of those who should take 
Joel iv. 17. Jaeger and Hesselberg possession of the different parts of the 
refer the suffix in orrttSnto, their pos^ noly land, was to be the enlargement of 
sessions, to the hostile nations spoken of their territory by the annexation of the 
in the preceding verse; but less na- adjoining regions, which had formerly 
turally. been occupied by alien or hostile powers. 

18. Though the houses of Jacob and As there is no subject specified before 
Joseph are here spoken of separately, it ]Vnptf nip nw t3n^ v^ rv, it would seem 
was not the intention of the prophet to be intimated that the regions of 
to teach that the two kingdoms of Ephraim and Samaria were to be occupied 
Judah and Israel would be re-esta- by the Jews and Israelites jointly, with- 
blished; yet the special mention of out any regard to tribal distinctions: 
Joseph clearly shows that the ten and the reason why the tribe of Benjamin 
tribes were to return at the same time, is mentioned, is merely on account of the 
and, jointly with Judah and Benjamin, to proximity of Gilead to the territory 
possess the laud of Palestine and the which it originally possessed. That 
neighbouring regions. See Is. xi. 12 — 14; ni^ is here employed to denote, not a 
Hos.i. 11. The restored Hebrews would plain or level country, but a region or 
unitedly subdue the Idumeans, which district in general, is obvious from the 
they did in the time of John Hyrcanus, nature of the territory to which reference 
who compelled them to be circumcised, is made. The mountainous country of 
and BO incorporated them with the Jews, Idumea is called D^'W^ito, Gen. xxxii. 1. 
that they henceforward formed part of the 20. ^, i.e.VTi, an army, host, &c., is 


That are among the Canaanites, 
As far as Zarephath, 
And the captives of Jerusalem, 
That are in Sepharad, 
Shall possess the cities of the south. 

21 And deliverers shall come up in Mount Zion, 

here used to express the Dumber of intended. The following list of cities 

Israelitish captives which were found in and places in the possession of the Jews 

Phoenicia, into which they had been sold in the time of Alexander Jannseus is 

at different times as slaves, and thence given by Josephns : Kara rovrov rov 

into Greece. See Joel iii. 6, 7. d^V3^ is Koipov ^drf t£v 2vp»v leal ^l^ovfiamv 

elliptical for cr|p3^^, which is the reading koi ^oivUmv iroXcir €lxov 'lovdatoi* irp6s 

of three MSS. Before rVTS "W, supply OetKatraji fuv2rpaT»vosnvfyYOv,'Aw6XX»' 

^na)T from the following, ren^, Zarepnath, viav, *l6ir7n]v, 'Idfivtiav, *A^o>ray, Ta(aVf 

or Sarepta, now called ^j^.Surcfend, ^^^,i^'^„i rrjl •\6ovf^v, 'fLUpl 

a town belonging to Sidon, and situated 5"' M<V).<ra>a^ «al Wp«ai.. KapMJX.c 

between that cifr^ and ly«,, clow to the x.», rrfftapa, TavXa^irJa, SAn-Vco-, 

.hore of Ae Mediterranean. According rajSaXa, kLfiiniat, 'E.r.rc/W.., Mf 

to the etymology of us name, it must j^^^W. 'Op^i^oi, rAW«v«. ZCpi. 

have been a place for smeltmg metals, v^ 1^.. A»i -.. rtK\^«. rv\«« H 

In the rocks along the foot of the hills, f\ ? '^ « / 5 j 

Dr. Kobmson found many excavated *^ » a^*iL k«^w \,\^ «k 

*^— u- —I.' 1. I. 1. "^ J i_* Kario-pauiuvM. — Anttq, book. xiv. cb. 

tombs, which he makes no doubt once jy 4 

belonged to this ancient city. Palestine, ^^ Though forty-four MSS., besides 

vol. n. p. 414. The name is still «yen ,^^,,j ^^ ^ ,^„i hand, md. eight 

to a large village on a hill at some little ^^^ ^^ ,^^ DWio insteaf of 

K ™ .y^*'^^"'*'"""*^^ »"?«">] Irito, there is no difference in the 

"y TS"?» >* !>«« •>*«•> hitherto found mlju,:!- »!,• former teadine beinff 

impossible to determine. The LXX. merely ^defective in orthographf. ThI 

E*p.«a. which in all probability is a lx£, Aq., Theod., Syr., In^Alrab., ap- 

corrupuon of S«^paAi. Aq., Symm. and ^^ ^J ^^^-^ ,^j ^ '„, t,,,^ j„ tfie 

Theod. <ro^apa«. HexiH*. Syr. *ja(iB. pasaive, which is unsuitoble to the 

but the Peshito CiaJfiir Spain, with «»»»*'?<»'• ,. •'^o?" °'"«''T" "»•* *" 

!•■ '""»» ■'^ ' word IS active. Such saviour » or ae- 

which agrees MnpcCM of the Targ. : an Uverers are meant, as those who were 

interpretation unanimously adopted by raised up in the time of the Judges. 

the Rabbins, who in like manner concur There can be little doubt that the 

in interpreting rcnf of France, Jerome, celebrated family of the Maccabees are 

as instructed by his Jewish teacher, intended, whose valiant princes governed 

renders it the Boaphorua, Some refer it the Jews for the perioa of an himdred 

to Sipphara in Mesopotamia, some to and twenty-six years, during which 

Sparta, in support of which h3rpothe8is time signal victories were gained over 

they appeal to 1 Mace. xii. 21 ; while the Idumeans, as • narrated 2 Mace. 

others propose rr|iip, <^^Aara, Gen. X. 30, x. 15 — 2Z. Joseph. Antiq. book. xiii. 

or the town of 2an<pdp, mentioned by chap. iz. 1. vpi^ is here used in the 

Ptolemy, as lying between the territory sense of pumshing, as in 1 Sam. iii. 13 ; 

of the Homerites and Sabseans. To and ic^'^ in the phrase ^LJ*ura) n^, 

judge from the other geographical rela- Exod. xii. 1 2 ; Num. xxxiii. 4. Comp. 

tions stated in this and the preceding xptW, Acts vii. 7. The concluding words 

verse, we should conjecture, that some of the prophecy, nj^^ n)n^ np^srj, refer 

place to the south or east of Judea is to the reign of the Messiah, called so 


To judge mount Esau ; 

And the kingdom shall be Jehovah's. 

frequently in the N. T. 1} /Sao-iXc/a have taken place; the temple would 

Tov 6cov. Comp. Dan. ii. 44, vii. 27. have remained in ruins, ana the land 

But for the introduction of this king- a scene of desolation, 
dom, no restoration of the Jews would 



Against no book of Scripture have the shafts of infidelity and 
the sapping arts of anti-supematuralism been more strenuously 
directed than against that of the Prophet Jonah. As early as the 
days of Julian and Porphyry it was made the subject of banter 
and ridicule by the pagans, who accused the Christians of credulity 
for believing the story of the deliverance by means of a fish ; and, 
in modern times, while the enemies of revelation have evinced the 
same spirit, many of its pretended friends have had recourse to 
methods of interpretation, which would not only remove the book 
from the category of inspired writings, but, if applied to these 
writings generally, would annihilate much that is strictly historical 
in its import, and leave us to wander in the regions of conjecture 
and fable. Blasche, Grimm, and some others, suppose the whole to 
have been transacted in a dream ; but, as Eichhorn justly observes,* 
there is not a single circumstance in the narrative that would sug- 
gest such an idea ; and, besides, whenever any accoxmt is given of 
a dream in Scripture, the fact that such is the case, is always 
intimated by the writer. The manner in which the book com- 
mences and closes, is also objected to this hypothesis, which 
J. G. A. Miillerf scruples not to assert we are on no ground 

* Einleit Band iv. § 575. f Paulas Memorabilien. Stuck tL p. 154. 


whatever (durch gar nichts,) warranted to adopt. The theory of 
an historical allegory was advanced and maintained with great 
learning, but, at the same time, with the most extravagant license 
of imagination, by the eccentric Herman von der Hardt, Professor 
of the Oriental languages at the university of Helmstedt.* Accord- 
ing to this author, Jonah was an historical person, but is here 
s3rmbolical, partly of Manasseh^ and partly of Josiah, kings of 
Judah ; the ship was the Jewish state ; the storm, the political con- 
vulsions which threatened its safety ; the master of the ship, Zadok 
the high-priest ; the great fish, the city of Lybon on the Orontes, 
where Manasseh was detained as a prisoner, &c. Sender, Michaelis, 
Herder, Hezel, Staudlin, Paulus, Meyer, Eichhoni, Niemeyer, &c. 
have attempted to vindicate to the book the character of a parable, 
a fable, an apologue, or a moral fiction ; while Dereser, Nachtigal, 
Ammon, Bauer, Goldhom, Knobel, and others, consider it to have 
had an historical basis, and that it has been invested vdth its present 
costimie in order that it might answer didactic purposes. On the 
other hand, Rosenmiiller, Gesenius, De Wette, Maurer, and Winer, 
derive it from popular tradition : some tracing it to the fable of 
the deliverance of Andromeda; firom a sea monster, by Perseus, 
ApoUod. ii. 4, 8 ; Ovid, Metamorph. iv. 662, &c.; and some, to that 
of Hercules, who sprang into the jaws of an immense fish, and was 
three days in its belly, when he undertook to save Hesione, Iliad, 
XX. 145, xxi. 442; Diod. Sic. iv. 4& ; Tzetz. ad Lycophr. Cassand. 33; 
Cyrill Alex, in Jon. ii. 

Much as some of these writers may have in common with each 
other, there are some essential points on which they are totally at 
variance ; while all frankly acknowledge the difficulties which clog 
the subject. 

The opinion which has been most generally entertained, is that 
which accords to the book a strictly historical character ; in other 
words, which affirms that it is a relation of facts which actually took 
place in the life and experience of the prophet. Nor can I view it 
in any other light, while I hold fast an enlightened belief in the 
divine authority of the books composing the canon of the Old 

• ^nigmata prisci Orbis. Jonas in Lnce, &c Helmstedt 1723, foL For the 
ftiU title of this remarkable book, see Rosenmiiller's Prolegom. 


Testament, and place implicit reliance on the authority of the Son 
of God. Into the fixed and definite character of the canon, I need 
not here enter, having fully discussed the subject elsewhere ;* but 
assuming that all the books contained in it possess the Divine 
sanction, the test to which I would bring the question, and by 
which, in my opinion, our decision must mainly be formed, is the 
unqualified manner in which the personal existence, miraculous fate, 
and public ministry of Jonah, are spoken of by our Lord. He not 
only explicitly recognises the prophetical ofiice of the son of 
Amittai {'Iwvd rov 7rpo^?irot;), just as he does that of Elisha, Isaiah, 
and Daniel, but represents his being in the belly of the fish as a 
real miracle (to <rt|fic?ov) ; grounds upon it, as a fact, the certainty 
of the future analogous fact in his own history ; assumes the actual 
execution of the commission of the prophet at Nineveh ; positively 
asserts that the inhabitants of that city repented at his preaching ; 
and concludes by declaring respecting himself, " Behold ! a greater 
than Jonah is here." Matt. xii. 39 — 41, xvi. 4. Now, is it con- 
ceivable, that all these historical circumstances would have been 
placed in this prominent light, if the person of the prophet, and 
the brief details of his narrative, had been purely fictitious ? On 
the same principle that the historical bearing of the reference in 
this case is rejected, may not that to the Queen of Sheba, which 
follows in the connexion, be set aside, and the portion of the first 
book of Kings, in which the circmnstances of her visit to Solomon 
are recorded, be converted into an allegory, a moral fiction, or a 
popular tradition ? The two cases, as adduced by our Lord, are 
altogether parallel ; and the same may be affirmed of the allusion 
to Tyre and Sidon, and that to Sodom in the preceding chapter. 

It may be said, indeed, that a fictitious narrative of the moral 
kind would answer the purpose of our Saviour equally well with 
one which contained a statement of real transactions ; just as it has 
been maintained, that the reference made by the Apostle James to 
the patience of Job, suited his purpose, irrespective of the actual 
existence of that patriarch ; but, as in the one case, a fictitious 
example of patience would prove only a tame and frigid motive to 

* Divine Inspiration, pp. 450 — 488. 

D D 


induce to the endurance of actual sufferings so, in the other, a 
merely imaginary repentance must be regarded as little calculated 
to enforce the duties of genuine contrition and amendment of life. 

Certainly in no other instance in which our Sayiour adduces pas- 
sages out of the Old Testament for the purpose of illustrating or 
confirming his doctrines, can it be shown, that any point or cir- 
cumstance is thus employed which is not historically true* He 
uniformly quotes and reasons upon them as containing accounts of 
universally admitted facts ; stamps them as such with the high 
sanction of his divine authority ; and transmits them for the con- 
fident belief of mankind in all future ages. 

It is only necessary further to add, that if the book had contained 
a parable, the name of some unknown person would have been 
selected, and not that of a prophet to whom a definite historical 
existence is assigned in the Old Testament. On perusing the first 
sentence every unprejudiced reader must conclude that there had 
existed such a prophet, and that what follows is a simple narrative 

of facts. The formula *{DK^ njnf ■)3'7 W is so appropriated, as 

the usual introduction to real prophetical conmiunication, that to 
put any other construction upon it would be a gross violation of 
one of the first principles of interpretation. Comp. 2 Chron. xi. 2 ; 
Is. xxxviii. 4; Jer. i. 4, 11, ii. 1, xiv. 1, xvi. 1, xxviii. 12, xxix. 80; 
Ezek, iii. 16 ; Hag. i. 1, 3, ii. 20 ; Zech. iv. 8, 

Against the plenary historical character of the book, the miraculous 
nature of some of the transactions has been objected ; but, referring 
for an investigation of these transactions to the commentary, and 
taking for granted an interposition of miraculous agency in the 
deliverance of the prophet, when cast into the sea, may it not be 
fairly asked, whether there is nothing in the circumstances of the 
case to justify such interposition ? The commission was most 
important in its own nature, but likewise most unusual, and 
confessedly most hazardous in its execution ; one from which it was 
extremely natural for Jonah to shrink, and which required the most 
confirmatory evidence of its divine origin to induce him to act upon 
it. The miracle selected for the purpose of furnishing him with 
this evidence, however extraordinary in itself, was in exact keeping 
with the circumstances in which he was placed ; and, in so far, was 


parallel with those wrought in connexion with the mission of Moses, 
Exod. iii. iv. ; of Elijah^ 1 Kings xvii. ; and of Christ and his 
apostles. And it is undeniable, that most of the writers who have 
called it in question, have either flatly denied the existence of all 
scripture miracles, or attempted, in some way or other, to account 
for them on mere natural principles. The same mode of reasoning 
which goes to set aside one, will, if fully carried out, go to set 
aside all. 

That our prophet is the same who predicted the restoration of 
the ancient boundaries of the kingdom of the ten tribes, 2 Kings 
xiv. 25, is rendered certain by identity of name, parentage and 
office ; and as that prediction received its accomplishment in the 
reign of Jeroboam II., it is obvious he must at least have been 
contemporary with that monarch, if he did not flourish at a still 
more early period. He is justly considered to have been the most 
ancient of all the Hebrew prophets whose writings are contained in 
the canon. 

Whether Jonah composed the book himself, or whether it was 
written at a more recent period, has been matter of dispute. Of 
the circumstance, that he is spoken of in the third person, no 
accoimt is to be made, since it is a style of writing frequently 
adopted by the sacred penmen, as it also is by profane authors. 
Nor can the occurrence of two or three Chaldee words, as Hi^SD, 
a ship, n0)f, to think, pyp, command, be justly objected against the 
early authorship; for the prophet must have had considerable 
intercourse with persons who spoke foreign languages, which could 
not but exert some influence on his style. With respect to nySD, 

as it is also the Syriac 1 ^^ * ^^ , and Arabic AJUftMJ, there is every reason 

to conclude that it was the nautical term in use among the Phceni-. 
cians, and so might have been adopted at an early period into all 
the cognate dialects, though they had other words by which to 
express the same thing. The use of the compound particles "^^"^ 
and ^^tf^l does not necessarily argue a late date, since there was 
nothing to prevent their being appropriated under the circumstances 
of the prophet, just as they came to be adopted, imder somewhat 
similar circumstances, by other writers. The employment of ttf, the 


abbreviated form of *)tt^, in Judges v. 7, is an undeniable example 
of its adoption at an early period ; and it is indeed very doubtftil 
whether it be proper to regard it as a Chaldaism at all, though it is 
found in some portions of the Hebrew Scriptures and not in others ! ♦ 
It has also been alleged against the antiquity of the book, that the 
writer uses the substantive verb in the past tense, when describing 
the size of Nineveh, TifniT^ *VyT} *^?^3?i chap. iii. 3 ; as if the 
city had been destroyed before his time; but the past tense is evi- 
dently employed for the simple purpose of preserving uniformity 
in the style of the narrative, and, as De Wette acknowledges, 
bedeutet niclU8,'\' 

In point of style, the book is remarkable for the simplicity of its 
prose : the only portion of poetry is chap. ii. 3 — 10, which possesses 
considerable spirit and force, though some parts of it are evidently 
a repetition of certain sentences in the Psalms of David, with which 
the prophet appears to have been familiar. 

Of the numerous traditions, both Jewish and Christian, which 
profess to give us information respecting Jonah, I would say with 
Luther, Dca glaube tcer da mU, ich glaube es nicht. All diat we 
learn from Scripture is, that his father's name was Amittai, and that 
his birth-place was Gath-hepher ppnn IM^y 2 Kings xiv. 25 ; nJP)3 
1DPT, Josh. xix. 13), a city in the tribe of Zebulon, from which 
latter circumstance it appears that he was an Israelite, and not 
a Jew. 

In this book the patience and clemency of God are strikingly 
contrasted with the selfishness and unbelief of man ; and, as inserted 
in the canon of Scripture, it was no doubt primarily designed to 
teach the Jews the moral lessons, that the Divine regard was not 
confined to them alone, but was extended to other subjects of the 
general government of God ; tliat wickedness, if persisted in, will 
meet with condign punishment; that God has no pleasure in 
inflicting such punishment, but delights in the repentance of the 
guilty ; and that if pagans yielded so prompt a compliance with a 
single prophetic message, it behoved those who were continually 

* See Holden on EccleBiastes, Introd. Dissert pp, 10—13. 
t Lchrbuch, § 237. 


instructed by the servants of Jehovah, seriously to reflect on the 
guilt which they contracted by refusing to listen to their admoni- 
tions. It has been usual to speak of Jonah as a type of our Saviour, 
and numerous points of resemblance have been attempted to be 
established between them, to the no small injury of the blessed 
character of the latter : whereas, tliere is nothing more in the passage 
of our Lord's discourse (Matt, xii,), from which the notion has been 
borrowed, than a comparison of his own consignment to the tomb 
for the same spctce of time which the prophet spent in the belly of the 
fish.* The record of the event in the Jewish Scriptures could never 
have suggested to its readers, before Christ made the reference, the 
subject in the anticipative illustration of which he applies it, 

* See the excellent remarks of the Bev. W. Lindsay Alexander, M.A. on types, in 
his Congregational Lectnres, Lect VUI. 


We have here an account of the prophet's commission to preach at Nineveh, and 
his attempt to evade it by embarking for Spain, 1 — 3 ; an extraordinary storm 
by which he was baffled in his purpose ; the alarm of the sailors, and the means 
which they adopted for their safety ; the detection of Jonah ; his being Uirown 
into the sea ; and his preservation in the belly of a fish, 4 — 17. 

1 The word of Jehovah was communicated to Jonah, the son of 

2 Amittai, saying : Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and 
proclaim against it ; for their wickedness is come up before me. 

1. From the circumstance that the Tigris, opposite to the modern town of 
book commences with the conjunction % MosuL The name is generally allowed 
commonly rendered and, some have to signify *' the residence of Ninus," 
inferred that it is merely the fragment from f p, Ninus, and rns, a dwelUng ; but, 
of a larger work, written by the same according to Hebrew usage, the words 
hand ; but though this particle is most should be reversed in order to bring out 
commonly used to connect the following this meaning. By the Greek and Roman 
sentence with something which precedes writers, it is called Nivof , Ninus, after 
it, and is placed at the beginning of its founder, who must have been identical 
historical books to mark their connexion with Nimrod, to whom the foundation 
with a foregoing^ narrative, as Exod. i. 1 ; of the city is ascribed. Gen. x. 1 1 . For, 
1 Kings i. 1 ; Ezra i. 1 ; yet it is also thati^,^«/2ur, is there to be understood 
employed inchoatively where there is no of the country so called, or Assyria, and 
connexion whatever, as Ruth i. 1 ; Esth. not of a person of that name, is evident 
i. 1 ; and, as specially parallel, Ezek. i. 1. from ver. 22, where Ashur is mentioned 
It serves no other purpose in such cases as a descendant of Shem, and not of 
than merely to qualify the apocopated Ham. The omission of the local n, 
future, so as to make it represent the which might have been expected to form 
historical past tense. The proper names rnn'S^, cannot be brought as an objection, 
rpi\ Jonah, and ^ripM, Amittaij signify since it is frequently omitted. See 
a dove, and veracious or truthftil, but Numb.'xxxiv. 4; Deut. iii. 1. In point 
why they were given to the prophet and of size, it might well he designated 
his father we are not informed. Tifnsn nw, thai great city, having been, 

2. By an emphatic idiom, o^P, arite, as stated chap. iii. 3, " three days* 
is used before another verb, as a term journey " in circumference. If we reckon 
of excitement, rnr^, Nineveh, the a dav's journey at about twenty miles, 
ancient capital of the Assyrian .empire, which is the average rate of travelling 
was situated on the eastern bank of the in the East, it will give us sixty miles ; 

CHAP. I.] JONAH. 207 

3 But Jonah rose up to flee unto Taishish, from the presence of 
Jehovah ; and he went down to Joppa, and found a ship going to 
Tarshishy and paid the &ie thereof, and went down into her, to go 
with them unto Taishiah from the presence of Jehovah. 

which, how immense soever it may 3. For t^9^V), Tearskisk^ see on Is. 

appear, quite agrees with the estimate xxiiL 10. The Rabbins vacillate between 

stated by Diodonis Siculus, ii. 3 : viz. Tarsus and Tunis. Jonathan has HRp\ 

480 stadia in circuit, 150 stadia in length, the sea. Jonah resolved to make his 

and 90 stadia in breadth. He further escape into the most dbtant regions of 

calls it Nivor luydkjifj and adds, rijXi- the West. Comp. Ps. cxxxix. 7. H)^. ^* 

KavTJjp dc iroXiv ovdfic v<rT€po9 crrurc which strictly means the/acf,j!)frfOfi, or 

Kara rt ro fuytOot rm ircpi^oXoi;, leac preienee of Jehovah^ is sometimes em- 

n)p irrpi to rct^or luyakomplv^iaw. ployed to denote tlie special manifestation 

Making every allowance for the large of his pretence, or certain outward and 

spaces occupied by gardens, frc, it must, visible tokens by which he made himself 

according to the computation specified, locally known. Thus God promised 

chap. iv. 11, have contained a population that hit presence (l|), ie. the sensibia 

of upwards of six hundred thousand tokens oftiis presence, should accompany 

souls, which is nearly equal to that of the Hebrews on their march to Canaan. 

Paris. As it had long been the mistress Ezod. xxxiii. 14. Comp. Ps. ix. 3, 

of the East, and its situation was favour- Ixviii 2, 8. It is also employed in 

able for commerce, it possessed immense reference to the place or region where 

wealth, but was, at the same time, such manifestations were vouchsafed, as 

notorious for the most flagrant corruption Gen. iv. 14 ; where it obviously signifies 

of manners. After a siege of three the spot where the primitive worship was 

years, it was taken by Arbaces the Mede, celebrated, and sensible proofs of the 

about the seventh year of Uzziah ; and a Divine favour were manifested to the 

second time by the united forces of worshippers. 1 Sam. i. 22, ii. 18 ; Ps. 

Cyaxares the Mede, and Nabopolassar, xlii. 3. In like manner, the place where 

viceroy of Babylon, b. c. 626. T^M^i Jacob had intimate communion with 

make a proclamation agfwut it. This God, was called bv that patriarch V?^, 

proclamation consisted in the announce- the faccy or mamfesiation of Ood^ Gen. 

ment, that, within the space of forty xxxii.31. The interpretation, therefore, 

days, the city should be aestroyed. ^ of David Kimchi, pHD hbt DMfO nvn ^ 

the LXX. and Vulg. render in; and rwfoa rm y^n rrwn ¥h yvb marh Vtbj», he 

some would assign to the word the imagined that if he went out of the land 

signification to, which V^ has, chap. iii. 3 ; of Israel, the spirit of prophecy would 

but it better agrees with the night of not rest upon him, is perhaps not wide of 

Jonah to retain that of against. The the mark. Jarchi to the same effect, 

idea of his going to so great a city for y^ rn^m mw naow]>ro, The Shekinah 

the purpose of denouncing punishment does not dwell out of the land. Though, 

against its wicked population so appalled as Theodoret observes, he well knew 

him, that he shrunk from the task. It that the Lord of the universe was every- 

is also more in keeping with the reason where present, yet he supposed that it 

assigned in the following clause of the was only at Jerusalem he became 

verse. The phrase njrr»^nj», to go, or apparent to men ; vwokaftPavav di SfjL»t 

come up before Jehovah, is expressive of tv fAoprf 'I(pov(raXi)/A avT6v iroitlaOai tiJv 

whatever is supposed specially to attract tin<f>ap€iav. For the reason of Jonah's 

his notice, and require his interference, flight, see on chap. iv. 2. tt is used of 

Comp.*^M|, 13; ^S4n^^,xix. 21. going down to tne sea-coast from any 

Ba/3vXfl^y i; fifyoKrj ifimjaOrf Ivtaniov rev inland place, so that it cannot be inferred 

6coO, Rev. xvi. 19. a2 iKfTjfioaiJvat <rov from the use of the term that it was at 

dviPriaap €l£ fivr}it6<ruvij tfinpoa^v rot) Jerusalem Jonah received his com- 

GfoO, Acts X. 4. mission. *J, lapho, LXX. 'Irfrrwiy, Arab, 

208 JONAH. [chap. i. 

4 But Jehovah caused a great wind to come down upon the sea» and 
there was a great tempest in the sea, and it was apprehended 

5 the ship would be wrecked. Then the mariners were afraid, and 
cried, each to his god, and threw out the wares that were in the 
ship into the sea, to lighten her of them ; but as for Jonah, he 
had gone down into the innermost part of the vessel, and laj 
fast asleep. 

bU Yapka, Ma, Joppa, a celebrated ai^^SftthT^'X'Si^;^' 

harbour on the east coast of the Medi- she appeared M^she should be broken. Syr. 

terranean, at the distance of ten hours «, , p ^ v 

from Jerusalem, of which it is properly r\»^/ h\r\. ZOCI I '^^ ^Avn teas 
the seaport. However insecure, it was 

used as a harbour as early as the days going to be broken, or was tossed, &c 

of Solomon. 2 Chron. ii. 16. It was LXX. cfciydi/'ycvc. It is best to render 

likewise thus appropriated in the Persian the verb impersonally, 
period, Ezra iii. 7; and was deemed so 5. DTf^, nutriners, from n^, saU, the 

important in the time of the Maccabees, quality of the water which they navigate, 

that, when recovered from the Syrians, Syr. and Arab, the same. Comp. Kzek. 

it was fortified, and afterwards underwent xxvii. 9, 27, 29. Kimchi, D'tnMjrr ^>vxhn, 

various fates. Its present population those who handle the oars, with reference 

amounts to about 7000 souls. vM, which to the ancient mode of propelling vessels 

usually signifies to come, come into, enter, at sea. Being in all probability Phoe- 

is obviously here used in the acceptation nicians, they had each his tutelary deity, 

ffo, go out. Comp. Numb, xxxii. 6. ^^, whose interposition he invoked in the 

her hire, i.e. of the vessel, the fare which hour of danger. From the circumstance 

Jonah had to pay for a passage in her ; that D^ signifies vessels, Benjoin infers^ 

not, that he engaged the vessel, as that the ship had not taken in a regular 

Benjoin, after Jarchi, would have it cargo, Jonah having paid the entire 

V^ ^ y^ NtTD no pn, only what he was freight ; but '^ is used with such latitude 

obliged to pay as his share. Abenezra. of signification in the Hebrew Scriptures, 

This fare, it has been thought, he paid that it may be understood of any kind 

beforehand, that he might secure his of manufactured articles, such as those 

flight from the land of Judea ; but it enumerated Ezek. xxvii. which formed 

may have been owing to a prudential the merchandise of Tyre. These the 

condition on the part of the captain. Phoenicians conveyed to Spain, whence 

The affix in Dnov refers to the ship's they brought back cargoes of silver, 

crew, understood. iron, tin, and lead. That something 

4. The force of ^pn, to cause to come more ponderous than a few vessels on 

down at full length, on application to the the deck is meant, is evident from what 

storm, will appear on consulting Josephus, follows in the verse, cie/3oXi)v (woirjo'avro, 

who, speaking of the dangerous naviga- the words employed by the LXX. in 

tion of Joppa, says : Kara rovrov caXev- translating which are the same which 

ova rots diro rfjg^loTTTnjs vrrd rov t<o are used by Luke, Acts xxvii. 18. The 

frvtv^a filuiov cTTiTriTrrfi' luXafifiopfLov dual form in nstHpn X^, the sides or two 

viro r&v TavTjj irXcaiCofUvov KoXftrai. sides of the vessel, is not to be pressed ; 

** As they were driven about here, a the word in this number being adopted 

violent wind fell upon them, which is in Hebrew usage to express a recess or 

called by those that sail there, the black remote part of any place. Comp. Ps. 

north wind" De Bello Jud. iii. viii. 3. cxxviii. 3; 1 Sam. xxiv. 4; Is. xiv. 15; 

The whole section deserves to be read, the innermost part, best expresses the 

Coverdale renders, "But the Lord hurled meaning. Kimchi otherwise explains it, 

a greate wynde into the see." ro)^, the urcrm p nrw bw, to one of the sides, and 

ship, i.e., by metonymy, the persons on appeals to Judges xii. 7, and Zech. ix. 9, 

CHAP. I.] JONAH. 209 

6 And the captein went close up to him, and said to him : How 
is it, thou art fast asleep ? Arise, call to thy God, perhaps God 
will think upon us, that we perish not. 

7 And they said to each other : Come, and let us cast lots, that we 
may know on whose account this calamity hath happened to us : and 

8 they cast lots, and the lot fell upon Jonah. And they said to him : 
Tell us now on what account this calamity hath happened to us ? What 
is thine occupation ? And whence comest thou ? What is thy country ? 

9 And of what people art thou ? And he said to them : 1 am an Hebrew, 

in proof of the plural being used instead &c. both in Chaldee and Syriac. LXX. 

of the singular. See Gesenius, Lehrgeb. ;. , r« ^^^^ « L» 

p. 665. It has been objected to the his- «^«<^«>^'?- ^^^g- °'3^' ^y^- ^^ 

torical character of the book, that it is ^q deliver, Hitzig prefers the idea of 

not to be supposed that the prophet could shining ^ beiftg friendly^ gracious f and the 
possibly have composed himself to sleep i\\^q^ Having found that their heathen 
m the circumstances here described ; but deities rendered them no assistance, the 

nothing was more natural than for a cre'w were anxious to try the effect of 
person after the fatigues of a journey, supplication on the part of Jonah to the 
with a mind worn out by excessive God of the Hebrews, either from the 
anxiety, to be thrown, in spite of him- supposition that he was stronger than 
self, into such a condition, D71E), which j^^eir 0^?^ gods, or that he might be dis- 
the LXX. render koX tptyx^* i« designed pleased with the prophet, and required 
to qualify the preceding verb, by ex- ^ be placated. It deserves to be noticed, 
pressing the profound stupor into which tii^t the word for God is here used with 
Jonah had sunk. ITiere is a singular f\^Q article Dni^, which is certainly de- 
beauty in putting nji*, the name of the signed to give emphasis to it ; God — ^the 
prophet, in the nominative absolute, true God. Comp. Deut. iv. 35, wn njTT 
" But a«/or /ofwA"— while all were full D'rfjwi, and 1 Kings xviii. 39, wn njrr 
of consternation, expecting every moment uirfwn vpfi rtffv mfj^. Are we to infer 
to become a prey to the raging elements, from'this circumsiance, that the captain 
he lay perfectly unconscious of what was ^gg ^ worshipper of Jehovah? 
transpiring. For naTO, skip, which 7_9. The casting of lots was com- 
occurs only in this place, see the Preface, ^qq among the nations of antiquity, 
6. VjtTTi an, lit. the master of the rope^ ^iot only when they wished to know 
men — ^ being used as a collective, gome future event, but also when they 
Comp. DT*!^ TJ, ch ief o f the body-guard, would determine cases of difficulty, and 
2 Kings XXV. 8 ; D^pno ^"^t cAj>/ of the especially criminal causes, in which no 
eunuchs, Dan. i. 3. Kimchi explains witnesses could*be obtained. The mode 
thus : pTiDi pttTOD lih u^yn mnpz cacDn ^f ygj^g them is not described in Scrip- 
Tsnaxi ID pinn 'tan, <* the ship-men are ture, but from the verb ^, 'J'^J?, to fail, 
called rope-men, because they draw and cause to fall, being commonly employed, 
loosen the ropes of the mast, according ^ jg probable it was by shakmg the lots 
to their skill " LXX. Upwptvs, Vulg. in some box or vase, and then causing 
gubernator. nt^rn, to show oneself con- tijem to fall on the ground. Comp. 
siderate, to think of, set one*s mind upon ; Prov. xvi. 33, where Vnpn, to throw down, 
in Kal, to invent, fabricate, produce jg used, in connexion with TO the bosom, 
splendid work; hence the noun rr^, or large fold of the garment in front of 
artificial work. Song v. 14. The idea the body ; intimating, that lots were also 
of »Aifitn^ seems to be a secondary mean- mixed there for the sake of secrecy, 
ing ; see Jer. v. 28. Comp. rrt3n«55?, ^pVjJ^, lit. for that which is to whom, i.e. 
thoughts, Ps. cxlvi. 4. The verb has y^ ^^ for whose guilt The words in 
the signification of thinking^ purposing, ver. 8, yh n*hn rnp^n td^ "r^a, are omitted 

E E 

210 JONAH. [chap. i. 

and I fear Jehovah, the God of heaven, who made the sea, and the 

10 dry land. And the men were greatly afraid, and said to him : What 
is this thou hast done ? For the men knew that he was fleeing 

11 from the presence of Jehovah, because he had told them. They 
further said to him : What shall we do to thee, that the sea may 

12 cease from raging against us ? for the sea groweth more and more 
tempestuous. And he said to them : Take me up, and throw me 
into the sea, and the sea shall cease from raging against you ; for I 
know it is on my account this great tempest is upon you. 

13 And the men rowed hard to regain the land ; but they could not, 

14 for the sea grew more and more tempestuous against them. And 
they cried to Jehovah, and said : O now Jehovah ! let us not perish, 

in two of Kennicott's MSS., in the Son- breast of him to whom it is addressed, 

cin. edition of the Prophets, and in the conveying, at the same time, the idea of 

Vatican copy of the LXX.; and Kenni- surprise that he could have been guilty 

cott's MS. 154, omits v), most probably of such conduct Comp. Gen. iii. 13, 

both by emendation, in order to avoid xii. 18, xx. 9. The question shows that 

the repetition of what had been said in what Jonah had said respecting the 

ver. 7. We should rather have expected character of the true God, had made a 

mgh ijiHa, " on account of what ;" but n? deep impression upon the minds of the 

may be taken in a neuter sense, like the sailors. 

. 11. They had clearly the conviction, 

corresponding OIJ: in Ethiopic, as, ^^^^ ^g tjjg prophet was the cause of the 

indeed, it isin the phrase ^ n?, « What -^rm, some step must be taken in order 

U thy namer Jud. xiii. ie. Comp. to get nd of him ; but how to dispose of 

also 1 Sam. xviii. 1 7, 'jn n?, " What is my ^™ ^hey knew not That thev wished, 

lifer Micah i. 5, rf«j 'p-njjr m-'O '^ powible, to savehis life, is clear from 

Tmrr, « What is the sin of Jacob ?"— tbe sequel, "w^ Ftrf conveys the idea of 

^^What are the high places of Judah?" subsiding, so as no longer to bear down 

° ^ upon with violence, and graphically de- 

Hexaplar Syr. ]*^^ ^^^Jl^, on account scribes the threatening attitude of a 

^^ tempestuous sea, rising above the ships 

of what* Leo Juda : " unde sit nobis that are exposed to it. pn^ properly sig- 

hoc malum." The seamen were anxious niiies to Mettle down^ be HiUt cease from 

to learn every particular connected with raging, 'VStf} t|^, lit. going and storming, 

the history of Jonah, in order that they meaning, to go on, increase, become more 

might discover the real cause of the and more tempestuous ; a common idiom 

storm. K^, to fear, followed by the in Hebrew. Comp. £xod. xix. 19 ; 

accusative, signifies to cherish feelings 1 Sam. ii. 26, xvii. 41 ; £sth. ix. 4 ; Prov. 

of reverence, to reverence, honour, &c., iv. 18. 

and is not here to be interpreted in the IS, "vi^, to dig, or break forcibly through 

sense of being afraid, which would have anything, is strongly expressive of the 

required the preposition ]P before the great enort made by the seamen to avoid 

object in such a case as the present sacrificing the life of Jonah. LXX. 

10. rj^ mfrnp, what is this thou hast iraptfiutCovro. At a*«5n^ supply rpjwnrM. 

done ? is not put for the purpose of ob- 14. An affecting prayer for pagans 

taining information respecting his flight, to present ,to the true God I The 

for it IS immediately added, that he nad words, rnoMb mt^ njrr rn^ are peculiarly 

previously informea them of it, but is a earnest and tender. nsH, the same as 

formula which is intended to produce a vi^, which Gesenius takes to be com- 

strong feeling of disapprobation in the pounded of n^, oh ! and na, the usaal 

CHAP. 11*] JONAH. 211 

we beseech thee^ for this man's lifb \ and lay ndt innocent blood to 
our chai*g^ : for thou, O Jehovah ! hast done is it pleased thee. 

15 And they took up Jonah, and threw him into the sea, and the sea 

16 ceased from its raging. Then the men feared Jehovah greatly^ and 
offered a sacrifice to Jehovah, and made vows. 

particle of entreaty. Comp. the Arab, he was chargeable with no act of immo- 

,., J, obteero. The Ken marks h in «*p3 as "^«*y- YetTie was the object of Divine 

^•^ displeasure. 

redundant^ and a great number of MSS. 15,16. They now proceed calmly, 

read V^. «3^9, /i/«, means here life that though with great reluctance, to act m 

is t^en away, having V^ D^, innocent accordance with what diey had been led 

blood, corresponding to it m the follow- to regard as the will of the Most High, 

ing clause. Comp. Deut. xiz. 21; The calm appears to have taken place 

2 Sttiti. xiv. 7. Goverdale, well as to the instantaneously. According to the 

sense, "this man's death." The refe- Rabbins, Grotius, and some others, they 

rence is not to anything that Jonah had did not actually offer a sacrifice, but 

done, but to what they were about to do only purposed to do it before Jehovah, 

to him. ^ Dj f^, to give blood upon, i. ^. at Jerusalem ; but it ii more natural 

means to charge with murder. Syr. to conclude tliat they sacrificed some 

* . «« . . animal that was on board, and vowed 

1 ^0 ^^^ |J, tmpute not. The sense is, that they would present greater proofs 

let us not be found guilty of kiUing an ^^^^ll P**^*«^^ ^^^" . '^Ir'''!S'^t* 
innocent person, fn L conclu^ *^'" th«r voyage. Michaehs thinks 

words of the verse, they refer the wholf **l^y '^^"f *^ *«, ^ ^^^'' ^^^^^^ 

affair to the mysterious providence of ^^^"^ ^^^^ '**^**®^ ^P*'"' 

God. They had not been brought into " Quin ; nbi transmissee steterint trans 

their present circumstances by any con- ceqnora classes, 

duct of their own ; nor could they £t positis aris jam vota in litore solves." 

account for the guilt of Jonah, since JEneid, iii. 403. 


With the exception of the first and last verses, which give an historical account of 
the fate of Jonah aa preserved by a great fish, this chapter contains a brief but 
beautiful hymn of deliverance. It was in all probability composed immediately 
after his reaching the dry land, but embodies some of the leading topics 
in reference to which he caUed upon Jehovah during his stay in the deep. 

1 (Chap. i. 17.) Now Jehovah had appointed a great fish to swallow 

Jonah. And Jonah was in the bowels of the fish three days and 
three nights. 

1. (Chap. 1.17, in our common version.) Tarphon, it was irwra *D» ntwJD rniDO, 

It has been supposed by some that the prepared for the purpose at the creation 

fish here spoken of was created at the of tne world; but there is nothing in the 

moment for the purpose of swallowing original word n^o which ^t all sugsests 

the prophet, though, according to RablS the idea of creation or production. Like 

212 JONAH. [chap. n. 

2 And Jonah prayed to Jehovah his Ood firom the bowels of the 
fish, and said : 

ditquisitio vana Tidetur atque inutilis." 

the Arab. ^^^ eerta quamtaU certoque The Scriptures leave it entirely undecided 

to what species of marine animals the 
modo definwU aliaui rem ; deereUts Juit, fish belonged ; merely stating that it was 
it properly siffnines to appoint, order ^ \f^ yn^ a great JUh, one sufficiently large 
arrange, and the like, so that all that can for the occasion. Much has been written 
be legitimately inferred from its use in to relieve the transaction of the miracu- 
this place, is, that, in the providence of lous ; but that it is physically possible 
God, the animal was brought to the for a human subject, which has been 
spot at the precise time when Jonah was accustomed for years to breathe the vital 
thrown into the sea, and its instrumen- air, to exist without respiration, or upon 
tality was wanted for his deliverance, the foul air in a fish, tor the length of 
In other words, it was the result of a time here specified, has never been 
special pre-arrangement in the Divine proved. The position of Abenezra is 
plan, according to which the move- the only one that can, with any con- 
ments of all creatures are regulated, and sistency, be maintained : nm^crwi ro |<m 
rendered subservient to the purposes tDsnwmpnxoonrn^rj^nvo^rirn'VDS, 
of God's universal government. LXX. << No man has the power of living in the 
wpoaira^. Comp. chap. iv. 6—8. On bowels of a fish for a single hour : how 
the subject of the fisn itself various much less for such a number of hours, 
opinions have been broached. Mutianus, except by the operation of a miracle." 
and after him Hermann von der Hardt, The transaction was, as Kimchi observes, 
would have it to be nothing more than DT)3n]DinM, one of the miracles. As 
an inn, with the sign of The Whale," such it is unequivocally recognised by 
into which Jonah was received after our Lord, when he calls it a trrnuiZv^ a 
having been cast on shore ! Less pro- sign or token of divine interposition, a 
posed the theory of a ship with this supernatural event, manifestive of the 
name, which happened to be close by, power of God, Matt. xii. 39 ; and it 
and rescued the prophet; while Thaddssus behoves all his disciples implicitly and 
supposed that, on being thrown out of cordially to receive his decision. For 
the vessel, he lighted upon a large fish, the period of " three days and three 
on which he rode for the time specified, nights," see Whitby on Matt xii. 40. 
and was at last cast on shore ! Till tlie 2. For ^n^, comp. ^nrn, 1 Sam. 
time of Bochart it was commonly sup- ii. 1. Some of the Rabbins, Hezel, and 
posed to have been the baUena, or whale others, would ar^e from the use of ]p, 
properly so called, owine to a mis- from, out of, and not i, w, before T9y 
interpretation of icfjros, Matt. xii. 40, that the prayer of Jonah was not pre- 
which signifies any great fish in eenerai. seiited while he was in the belly of the 
With much ingenuity that learned author fish, but after his deliverance ; but this 
endeavours to prove, that it must have interpretation is justly rejected both by 
been the carcharias, or dog-fish, which, Abenezra and Kimchi. The preposition 
though not the size of a whale, yet has marks the place from which he directed 
so large a gullet, and so capacious a his thoughts to the Most High. Gimp, 
stomach, that one of them has been found ^^^^p, ver. 3 ; crfcffciq, Ps. cxxx. 1 ; 
to contain a warrior, clad in all his ■ej\j)ri]p, Pa. cxviii. 5. The final n in 
armour, Bochart, Hierozo. p. ii. lib. v. rnin is not feminine, as has been sup- 
cap, xii. Others have supposed that it posed, and upon which assumption 
was a shark, a species of fisn abounding certain Rabbins have built the theory, 
in the Mediterranean, exceedingly vora- that a still larger female fish swallowed 
cious, and in the belly of which whole that in which Jonah was preserved; 
men have been found. See Parkhurst s but the n paragogic, which corresponds 
Greek Lexicon, ra&. roc. K^ror. But to the status emphaticus of the Aramseic, 
we may well acquiesce in the decision of and is designed to strengthen the termi- 
Rosenmiiller : *' Tota hsec de pisce Jonae nation. For other instances in which it 




3 I cried because of my distress to Jehovah, 
And he answered me ; 

From the interior of Sheol I cried out : 
Thou heardest my voice. 

4 Thou didst cast me into the deep. 
Into the midst of the seas ; 

So that the current surrounded me ; 

All tliy breakers and thy billows passed over me. 

5 Then I said : 

I am cast out from before thine eyes, 

Yet I will look again towards thy holy temple. 

is added, at the same time that the nouD 
takes the article, comp. ''V.V'-'i Judges 
xiv. 18 ; wnon, Piu cxvi. 15. The position 
of the accent is of no account 

3, 4. The hymn which commences 
here is partly descriptive, partly pre- 
catory, and partly eucharistical. These 
two verses are introductory, as is clear 
from the use of 'P70|«'?lp, and pve 
expression to the feelings and pious 
exercise of the prophet in the awful 
circumstances into wnich he had been 
brought. That the language, not only 
of the prayer, but also of the introduction, 
is in part borrowed from the Psalms, 
appears from the following comparison : 

Psalm cxx. 1. 

Jonah ii. 3. 

xlii. 8. 

ver. 4. 

^ Tin TO^"^ 

xxxL 23. 

ver. 6. 

J ^l^jiy Tap ^rw;r>a3 

Ixix. 2. 

, ver. 6. 


cxlii. 4. 

ver. 8. 



xxxi. 7. 

ver. 9. 


IT -1 - .. -T 

111. 9. 

ver. 10. 



On the supposition that Jonah was 
familiar with the Psalms, it was very 
natural for him to incorporate sentences 
taken from them with his own language, 
just as we frequently do in extempore 
prayer, without thinking of the portion 
of Scripture from which they are derived. 
VM|ip^, lit. the belly of Sheol,i,eAhe vast 
and bidden receptacle of the departed. 
Targ. «9^ nTlW, from the lowest part 
of the abyu, but less properly. The 
remark of Jerome is : " Ventriim inferi 
alvum ceti intelligamus, (piBs tantsB fuit 
maenitudinis, ut instar obtmeret infemi." 
Betore Hjwo, ver. 4, supply }. vn, 
commonly used of a river, out here it^is 
to be unoerstood of the strong current or 
stream of the sea, which flows like a 
river. There is no foundation for the 
opinion of Abenezra and Kimchi, that 
it was intended to describe the confluence 
of the waters of a river with those of the 


Ka\ iiv norafiolo pUBpa 

*QKiapov, Sair€p yivtais trauTto'tri rirvK' 

Iliad, xiv. 245. 


Mecca) yap fityaXoi worafJLoi Ka\ d€iva 

*{lK€av6s fuv wpSra, Ody<s, xi. 156. 

T^y hi KQT *tlK€ap6y worafiov ^p* 
KVfia p6oio. Ibid, 638. 

5. Having described his condition, 
the prophet now proceeds to give the 
words of his prayer. nVr^T^ij^ to be 
before the eyes of Jehovah, means to be 
the object of his special notice and care. 
Jonah bad fled from the Divine presence 

214 JONAH. [chap. n. 

6 The waters press around nie to the very life ; 
The abyss encompasseth me ; 

The weed is bound to my head. 

7 I go down to the clefts of the mountains ; 

As for the earth, her bars are shut upon me for ever. 
But thou wilt bring up my life from destruction, 

Jehovah my God ! 

8 When my soul was overwhelmed within me, 

1 remembered Jehovah ; 

And my prayer came in unto thee. 
Into thy holy temple* 

in Canaan, but now he feels that he ia divirions which are found in the rocks 

expelled even from the abudee of life, at its bottom. fTMH, tAe eatthj is 

and cut off, as it were, from the regard emphatically put in the nominative 

of that Providence which ivatchea over absolute, as the object to which the 

the children of men. Still be does not affections of the prophet still clung, 

abandon himself to despair. He con«- He wae expelled from it, as (torn a 

fidently expects to be restored to the habitation, and its bars had been shut 

enjoyment of bis privileges in the temple upon him, so that he could not return, 

at Jerusalem, and there to render thanks Gesenius takes the bars to be those of 

to God for his deliverance. Green Sheol; but, as we have VM-^^w^, the 

would supply the negative ^ before ^ff^$ gai€i of Sheol, Is. xxzviii. 10, the phrase 

and Hitaig would point ^, ^ for Tp|i, here must have been rrrn^^^, and not 

how; but both without any authority. (T^f^, if such had been the meaning. 

Such sudden transitions from fear to "^^ is put elliptically for "O^ tr^vp, the 

hope are frequently expressed in Scrip- verb, >^ being obviously implied. Jonah 

ture. adds, c^!^, for ever, to express the 

6. v9{)p;, even to, or to the very eoul, impossibility of his ever again reaching 
i.e. the animal life ; meaning, to the the dry land, by any efibrt of his own. 
extinction of life. ffO, is the alga, or Yet, exposed as he momentarily was to 
weed, which abounds at the bottom of death in the region of eormption (nri^, 
the sea, and from which the Arabian the frit, or grave,) he confidently ex- 
Gulf takes the name of i^fOis^, the sea of presses his hope that Grod wonM restore 
weeds, Kimchi en>lains it by Mpb, the riim. He asserts his interest in Jehovah 
papyrus, or bulrush. Gesenius refines by calling him " hie God." 

too much when he attaches to viw in 8. The prophet here resumes his de- 

this place the idea of binding round the scription of the circumstances of distress 

head like a turban. Assuredly Jonah to which he was reduced, his application 

had no such idea in his mind. He rather to Jehovah, and the answer which he 

describes how he felt, as if entangled by received to his prayer. The composition 

the sedge or weeds through which he of this and the following verses, like that 

was dragged. of verses 3 and 4, belongs to a period 

7. D^;i^, eecttone, cuttings, clefts, from subseauent to his deliverance ; yet while 

asp. to cut; Arab, (w^', abeddU, describing his condition, he occasionally 

* directs his language to Jehovah, towards 

resecmt. Thus the LXX. o-xt<rfMXf whom, as his deliverer, his thoughts 

op4»v. Vulg. extrema montium, Targ. naturally rose, ^i^^m, to be in a 

Kf^'W* ^^^ ^^^^ of the mountains, state oi faintness, swoon, from H^f ^ 

The word describes the deep identations cover, to involve in darkness, overwhelm, 

or clefh made in the roots of mountains LXX. well, as it respects the sense: '£y 

which project into the sea, or those . rf 4K\tlw€^v dir' c/iov rr^v ^n^xv^ Mov. 


9 Tbey that regard lying vanities 
Forsake their Benefactor. 

10 But as for me, I will sacrifice to thee with the voice of thanksgiving i 
What I have vowed I will perform : 

Salvation belongeth to Jehovah. 

11 And Jehovah commanded the fish, and it vomited forth Jonah 
upon the dry land. 

9. A striking description of idolaters, On reviewing this prayer, and weigh- 
but which may also be extended to all ing the import of its several terms, it is 
who prefer created objects, in any shape, obvious, tnat though Jonah was in a 
to God. D^, lit their mercy or good- state of consciousness while in the belly 
nese ; by metonymy for their Benefactor: of the fish, he had no idea that such was 
i.e. Gotl, the author and source of all his situation. On the contrary, he 

foodness : the Supreme Good. Comp. appears to have been under the impres- 
ts, cxliv. 2, where David calls God his sion that he was engulfed in the sea, 
"i^n. ITie word properly signifies kmdneu now forcibly carried along by its current, 
or6efii^i7^,anamost appropriately desig- now entangled among its weeds, and 
nates Him who is good to all, and whose now sinking into the profound ravines 
. tender mercies are over all his works, of its rocks. 

p t, ^ 11. Green and Boothroyd, on mere 

The Syriac reads, ,/ ^-y>^« Vj^. thy conjecture, remove this verse from its 

present position, and insert it before the 

mercy, which Green, on this authority hymn. Such a transposition Hitzig 

alone, admits into the text ! pronounces to be violent, unnecessary, 

10. Deeply sensible of the merciful and, in short, a perversion of the passage, 
interposition of Jehovah on his behalf, It is not stated where the propnet was 
Jonah now solemnly engages to give cast on shore, but in all probability it 
expression to his feelings of gratitude by was somewhere on the coast of Palestine, 
accompanying his presentation of sacri- According to some, the fish ckrried him, 
fice with a song of praise, and faithliilly during the three days and three nights, 
performing his vows, of which we may down the Mediterranean, and through 
conclude, the execution of his commission the Archipelago, and the Propontis, 
to go to Nineveh formed none of the into the £uxine sea, and deposited him 
least The paragogic n in nnj^ is on the south coast, at the nearest point 
intensive. Comp. Ps. iii. 3. In both to Nineveh ! Not to mention how the 
passages, the deliverance is ascribed to Rabbins make him reach that city by the 
Jehovah as its author, as the ^ in nM Tigris I ! 



This chapter contains an account of the renewal of the prophet's commission, 1,2; 
his preaching to the Ninevites, 3, 4 ; the universal humiliation and reformation 
effected by it, 5 — 9 ; and the reversal of the Divine sentence by which the city 
had been doomed to destruction, 10. 

1 And the word of Jehovah was communicated to Jonah a second 

2 time, saying : Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and make the 

216 JONAH. [chap. hi. 

3 proclamation to it which I order thee. And Jonah arose, and went 
to Nineveh, according to the word of Jehovah. Now Nineveh was 

4 a great city even to God, of three days^ journey. And Jonah began 
to enter the city, a journey of one day ; and he proclaimed, and 
said : Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown. 

5 And the men of Nineveh believed in God, and proclaimed a 
iast, and put on sackcloth, from the greatest of them, even to the 

6 least of them. And the subject reached the king of Nineveh, and 
he rose from his throne, and put off his robe, and covered himself 

7 with sackcloth, and sat in the ashes. And a proclamation was made 
through Nineveh, by order of the king and his grandees, saying. 
Let neither man nor beast, ox nor sheep, taste anything ; let them 

8 not feed, neither let them drink water. But let man and beast be 
covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily unto Ood ; and let them 
turn every one fix)m his wicked way, and from the violence which is 

3. DTi^ rffra m?, a ciiy great to God. out distinction of age or rank, put on 
This phrase has been variously explained, sackcloth, the usual attire of deep mourn- 
Some, with Kimchi, deem it merely a ing. 

superlative form; Gesenius construes 6 — 8. Who the king of Assyria was 
the ^ instrumentally, great through Oodf at the time, is not certain. Pul, the 
s. e, through his favour. Others consider first monarch of that empire mentioned 
it to be equivalent to D*ri^ *^, before by name in Scripture, dia not begin to 
God, Gen. x. 9. Thus the Targ. ;; oTg. reign till b.c. 769. Some are of opinion 
Of this last interpretation I approve, as that it was Sardanapalus ; if so, his re- 
it was most natural to refer the size of a pentance was the more remarkable, for 
city, of which the Hebrews could form according to the ancients he was pro- 
no adequate conception, to the Divine verbially notorious on account of his 
estimation. I have accordingly rendered profligacy. 

the words literaUy, as our preposition to ,c gt venere, et coenis, et plumis Sarda- 

18 often used to note opinion or estiniate, napali." Juvenal, Sat. iii. 
For the dimensions of Nineveh, as here 

given, see on chap. i. 2. The opinion It is said that he composed for hia 

of Abarbanel, that the diameter of the epitaph, *' Eat, drink, plaij; after death 

city is intended, is justly exploded. ^^^^ " no pleasure:' The description of 

4. It is impossible to determine how ^^^ mourning here given is very affect- 
far Jonah penetrated into Nineveh, since >"?• That the irrational animals should 
it is probable that in making his an- *>« represented as partaking in it, is for 
nouncement he would stop at different ^"0™ unnatural. 

places, as the crowds mightcoUect around « Non ulli pastos illis egere diebus 
him. Frigida, Daphni, boves ad flumina : nulla 

5. Wheniyfft*^]T?Mn, fttf/tmfijtfi Gorf, neque amnem 

is spoken of in reference to sucti as had Libavit quadrupes, nee graminis attigit 

previously been ignorant of him, it must herbam.** Virg, Eel v. 24. 

Be taken as involvine: the recognition of ., „ . •• n ^ 

his being and character as the true God, P<wt bellator equus, positis msignibus, 

and not simply their giving credit to the r. i ^'**°" , , 

announcements of his messengers. To ^^ lacrymans, ^utbsque humectat gran- 
express the latter, ) f^ is emplojred. ^*'^"» «*•*• ^«'''^- "• 8^- 

See Gen. xlv. 26 ; Is. liii. I. All, with- Plutarch informs us that when Masistias, 

CHAP. IV.] JONAH. 217 

9 in their bands. Who knoweth but that God may turn and repent, 

and turn away from the fierceness of his anger, tiiat we perish not. 

10 And God saw their works, that they turned from their wicked way, 

and God repented of the evil which he had said he would inflict 

upon them, and he inflicted it not. 

a Persian genera], was slain, the horses the present case having been conditional, 

and mules were shorn, as well as the was repealed on the performance of the 

Persians themselves. impliea condition. To what extent the 

9. The Jewish interpreters follow the repentance of the Ninevites was genuine 
construction put upon the words n^^ "P, in its character, and how lon^ the refor- 
who knoweth, in the Targum : vr ^ niation of manners here specified lasted, 
P^ TT^'f^^t whoever is conscious that we are not informed ; but there is reason 
there are crimet in his hands ; only to fear it was of short continuance, for 
Kimchi proposes another, "Tn rmD n3 after their city had been besieged for 
mi«m, He who knoweth the ways of three years by Arbaces the Mede, it was 
repentance; but it is obviously a formula taken and destroyed. Diod. Sic. ii. 26, 
expressive of great guilt, yet involving &c. Thus fell the ancient Assyrian 
the hope of pardon. Comp. Joel ii. 14. dynasty, and gave place to that of the 

10. God is anthropopathically said to Bfledes, which continued till the time of 
repent, when he changes his mode of Cyaxeres, when Nineveh, which had 
procedure, or acts differently from what been rebuilt, was again destroyed, and 
nis promises or threatenings had given finally ceased to be an imperial residence, 
reason to expect. The threatening in See Preface to the Book of Nahum. 


The selfish and repining spirit of the prophet, and the means employed by Jehovah 

to reprove and instruct him, are here set forth. 

1 But Jonah was exceedingly displeased and vexed. And he 

2 prayed to Jehovah, and said : Ah ! now, Jehovah ! was not this 

1. Unwarrantable attempts have been 1 Sam. xv. 11 ; 2 Sam. vi. 8. Grief and 

made to soften down the character of anger are passions nearly related; and 

Jonah, as exhibited in this chapter. The in illustration of this application of nrr, 

utmost that can be advanced in extenua- to bum, the following instances may be 

tion of his conduct, is, the strong tincture adduced : — 

of national prejudice with which his _/ baX'^trai koX ovk ev© wv 

spirit appears to have been imbued. J aaiT-2 Cor, xl 29. 

Comp. Luke IX. 54. ?rnn, however, seems '^ '^ » 

to be here used, not in the sense of being 'AXX* o KaXoy/jci; jc^o/xa i rrjv Kopbiavy 

enraged or angry, but in that of being Kal iroXX' vnip rjyMv r&v yvyaiKmv, 
the subject of grief or sorrow, Comp. ax^ofiai, Aristoph. Lysist, v. 9. 

F F 

218 JONAH. [chap. iv. 

my word while I was yet in iny own country ? Wherefore I anticipated 
it by fleeing to Tarshish ; for I knew that thou art a gracious and 
merciful God^ long-suffering, and of great kindness, and repentant 

3 of the evil. And now, O Jehovah I take, I pray thee, my life 

4 from me ; for my death were better than my life. And Jehovah 
said to him : Art thou much vexed ? 

5 And Jonah went out of the city, and sat to the east of the city^ 
and there made a booth for himself, and sat under it in the shade, 

6 till he should see what would happen in the city. And Jehovah 
God had appointed a ricinus plant, and he caused it to rise up over 
Jonah, to be a shade over his head, to deliver him from his 
affliction : and Jonah rejoiced exceedingly on account of the 

** £heu disperii! voltus neutiquam hujus Jer. i. 12. Thus the LXX. cc axf>6dpa 
placet 7 * 

rrw& incedit, pectus orrfe*." XfUmftrai uv; the Syr. fi^^ ^^^ 

Plaut, Mercat, Act iii, Sc, ^, y, 14, .^ j .u ri, _. ,^ ,,, . jr- i. 

.f%: and the Targ. ^^1??^ w^nsT' Kimchi 

"Turn TWO exar«< Juveni rfo/cj- oasibu. ,^„ >wb -rt rm oh. Art thou much 

ingens. ^neid. v, 172. g^^^^j^ 3^^ '^jd,, vm, }mn V3f xm. 

And the declaration of Cicero : " Non ^. ■; ,^„^ f^^ renderin«, WiTl 

•"f?'' .'^ «»■*• ^'>^'- -■ EP«'- «<^ pieving do thee any good? and, Doe. 

o ™ J • V X T 1 beneficence offend thee ? are totally to 

2. 'SI, my word, i.e. what I spake ^ rejected 

witUn myself my cogitation, os i. ^ -(^^ ^;„^^j determine on what day 

here taken m the seoM of doing anything j„„^^ abandoned his labours among the 

in order to anticipate •"other. Jonafi Ninevites; but it is evident from the 

acknowledges that he used aU despatch conclusion of this verse, that it must have 

in hi. attempt to leave PalesUne. The y^^^ ^^fo^ j^^ j, „f the forty day. 

dewnption of the Divine goodncM here gpedfied in his announcements, 

given «rce8 verbally with that exhibited '^e. 1»2 I take to be the apocopated 

Joel 11. 13. He recollected the numerous puture of Hiphil, having o^nj^ for 

instances m which, instead of executog -j, nominative. JV?B, ^ kikaion or 

his threatenings, Jehovah had, m the ,^^^ ^^ (Ricinus communis, Linn.), 

exercise of his patience, borne .with the ^^^^ky known by the name of Palma 

guilty, and even mterposed with lUus- chriiti. The word is the same as the 

trious acts of pardon; and he was afraid Egyptian KIKI, and the Talmudie Kik, 

of compromising hi. character by an- wHh the Hebrew termination. In Arabic 

nouncmg what he had reason to expect . 

might never take place. it is called f%^\i ElrKheroa, which is 

4. "sj^nT! avD?, most modern versions C>^ 

improperly render, " dost thou well, "or, not to be confounded with fJi^^ ^^ 

" is it right in thee to be angry ? " their ^ 

authors not adverting to the fact that the Karra, the cueurhita^ LXX. KoXokvv^. 

Hiph. Infinitive of 3V is often used Our English rendering gourd is equally 

adverbially in the acceptation, greatly, inappropriate. This plant is indigenous 

exceedingly^ thoroughlyf or the like. See in India, Palestine, Arabia, Africa, and 

Deut. ix. 21, xili. 15; 2 Kings xi. 18. the east of Europe, and on account of 

In like manner the finite form nW^^Pifiip^, its singular beauty is cultivated in 

CHAP. IV.] JONAH. 219 

7 But God appointed a worm, at the rising of tlie dawn, on the 

8 morrow, and it injured the ricinus, so that it withered. And it came 
to pass at the sun-rise, that God appointed a sultry east wind, and 
the sun beat upon the head of Jonah, and he fainted, and requested 
that he might die ; for he said, My death were better than my life. 

9 And God said unto Jonah : Art thou much vexed on account of 
10 the ricinus ? And he said : I am much vexed, even to death. And 

Jehovah said : Thou art affected on account of the ricinus, with 
which thou hadst no trouble, and which thou didst not rear, which 

gardens. It is a biannual, and usually from xOyi, it signifies to be quiet, silent, 

grows to the height of from eight to ten &c., which better agrees with the idea 

feet. It is chiefly remarkable on accoimt of sultriness. 

of its leaves, which are broad, palmate, 9. The words rnoiy '^j \ m n'p'n, the 

and serrated, and divided into six or LXX. translate, 2<l>6dpa Xtkvmjfuu cyoi 

seven lobes. Only one leaf grows on a cox Btwarop, which nearly agree with 

branch, but being large, sometimes those of our Lord, Mark xiv. 34. 

measuring more than a foot, and spread 10. DVi, properly signifies to be affected 

out in the shape of an open hand with by the sight of anything ; hence to 

the fingers extended, tneir collective feel concern on account of it, to take 

shade imords an excellent shelter from pity or compassion. I have employed 

the heat of the sun. It is of exceedingly the passive form of our verb to affect, 

quick growth, and has been known in in order to present in the translation a 

America to reach the height even of word equivalent to that which is here 

thirteen feet in less than three months, used in the original. There seems no 

When injuredit fades with great rapidity, necessity for taking the Hebrew verb in 

See on ver. 10, Celsii Hierobot pt. ii. two acceptations. The formula, nV^^i^ 

L273 ; Michaelis, Supplem. No. 2263 ; *^ JiJJ^J^^ rrn, lit. tohich was the son of a 
isenmUUer, in the Biblical Cabinet, night, and perished the son of a night, is 
vol. xxvii. p. 125; Michaelis, Bibel obviously intended to express the extra- 
Ubersetz., note on the passage, where ordinary rapidity with which the ricinus 
there is a plate with an excellent repre- put forth its leaves and afterwards 
scntation of a ricinus. How much such withered. That the tree itself was 
a shrub, throwing its palmy branches instantaneously produced, cannot be 
over the small hut which tne prophet proved from this mode of speech, any 
had erected, must have contributed more than from the use of the verb rn^, 
to his relief in the sultry environs of ver. 6 ; otherwise we should be obliged, 
Nineveh, may easily be imagined. His for the sake of consistency, to maintain, 
joy is emphatically described in the last that the whole tree was miraculously 
clause of the verse. destroyed, and had entirely disappeared 
8. The on^ xvr\ or east wind, is the during the night. Trn, and 1?^ are strictly 
sultry and oppressive wind which blows antithetical. But, as all that was re- 
in the siunmer months across the vast quired in the one case, was that the 
Arabian desert, and produces universal broad spreading leaves should wither, so 
languor and relaxation. It resembles as no longer to afford protection to Jonah, 
the Sirocco, only is free from its damp- though the trunk remained ; so all that 
ness, and consequently more destructive was necessary in the other was to give 
to vegetation. Superadded, as in the to the tree which had been previously 
present instance, to the heat of the produced, such an extraordinary accele- 
moming8un,it is exceedingly oppressive, rated power of germination, that the 
According to the versions, n^i^nn sig- leaves, which would otherwise have re- 
nifies withering; otherwise, as derived quired some longer time to come to 



[chap. IV. 

11 came in a night, and perished in a night : and I, I should not be 
afFected on account of Nineveh, that great city, in which are more 
than twelve times ten thousand human beings who cannot distinguish 
between their right hand and their left, and much cattle ? 

maturity, were brought to perfection in 
the course of a night, f), a son, is used 
idiomatically to express what is pro- 
duced, or exists, during the time pre- 
dicated of it. Thus it is resolved in the 
Targ. TaH njjn^ vffryi vrn jnn vffsi *?, 
tiohich this night was, and in another night 

11. The peculiar force of the appeal 
lies in the immense number of rational 
creatures which must have perished had 
Nineveh been destroyed. Estimating 
the age of the children at about three 
years, and assuming them to have formed 
a fifth part of the population, which is 
the allowance generally made, we shall 

have six hundred thousand as the number 
of inhabitants. In order to enhance this 
number, and render it more affecting, 
til at of the irresponsible children is esti- 
mated; and if this did not produce a 
suitable impression upon the mind of 
the prophet, the number even of irra- 
tional animals is adverted to, the latter 
being far superior in point of mechanism 
and utility to the shrub for which he 
was so much concerned. 

There is something in the abrupt man^ 
ner in which the book closes which is 
highly calculated to produce its effect on 
the mind of a reffecting reader. 

M I C A H. 


According to the introductory statement, chap. i. 1, Micah 
was a native of Moresheth, which some take to be the same as 
Mareshah, ver. 15 ; but it is rather the town called Moresheth-Gath, 
ver. 14, which, according to Jerome, lay in the vicinity of the city 
of Eleutheropolis, to the west of Jerusalem, and not far from the 
border of the country of the Philistines. 

His name, HD^'p, Micahy or, as it is given in full in the Chethib, 
Jer. xxvi. 18, »TD^D, Micaiahy signifies, who is like Jehomh ? 

The time at which he flourished is stated in the introduction to 
have been that of the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah ; «. e. 
somewhere between b. c. 757 and b. c. 699 ; in addition to which 
statement, we have a positive testimony to his having prophesied 
in the days of Hezekiah, Jer. xxvi. 18, where chap. i. 12 is 
verbally quoted. He must, therefore, have been a contemporary 
of Isaiah and Hosea, and is not to be confounded vdth Micaiah the 
son of Imlah, 1 Kings xxii. 8, who flourished upwards of a hun- 
dred years before the reign of Jotham. 

Hartmann and Eichhorn would refer the period of his ministry 
to the reign of Manasseh ; but their hypothesis is justly rejected 


by Jahn, Rosenmiiller, De Wette, and Kiiobel, on the ground^ that 
all the circumstances brought to view in his prophecies, perfectly 
harmonize with the state of things in the days of the kings whose 
names are here specified. The unrestrained licence given to idol- 
atry in the reign of Ahaz, will sufficiently account for the numerous 
gross and crying evils for which Micah reproves the Jews, without 
our having recourse to the atrocities perpetrated in that of Ma- 
nasseh. It is true, Hezekiah issued orders, that idolatry should be 
put dovni, and the worship of the true God re-established ; but 
there is no reason to believe that the reformation was carried out to 
the full extent of his wishes. The relations also of the Hebrews 
to the powerful empires of Assyria and Egypt, are in exact accord- 
ance with the history of the same times. 

The prophecies of Micah are directed partly against Judah, and 
partly against Israel ; but by far the greater number are of the 
former description. He predicts the destruction of the kingdom 
of Israel, and of Samaria its capital ; the desolation of Jerusalem 
by the Chaldeans, and the consequent captivity of the Jews ; the 
restoration of the Jevrish state ; the successes of the Maccabees ; 
and the advent and reign of the Messiah. He also administers 
reproof to different ranks and conditions of men, and furnishes 
some striking representations of the Divine character. 

His style is concise, yet perspicuous, nervous, vehement, and 
energetic ; and, in many instances, equals that of Isaiah in boldness 
and sublimity. He is rich and beautiful in the varied use of 
tropical language ; indulges in paronomasias ; preserves a pure and 
classical diction ; is regular in the formation of his parallelisms ; 
and exhibits a roundness in the construction of his periods which 
is not surpassed by his more celebrated contemporary. Both 
in administering threatenings and communicating promises, he 
evinces great tenderness, and shows that liis mind wajs deeply 
affected by the subjects of which he treats. In his appeals he 
is lofty and energetic. His description of the character of Jehovah, 
chap. vii. 18—20, is unrivalled by any contained elsewhere in 

Several prophecies in Micah and Isaiah are remarkably parallel 


with each other ; and there is frequently an identity of expression, 
which can only be fairly accounted for on the ground of their 
having been contemporaneous writers, who were not strangers 
to each other's prophecies, and their having, in a great measure, 
had the same subjects for the themes of their ministry. See 
on Isaiah, ii. 2 — 4. 

The book may be divided into two parts : the first consisting 
of chapters i. — v. ; and the second, the two remaining chapters, 
which are more general and didactic in their character. 



The prophet commencea by summoniDg universal attention, whOe, in sublime 
language, be describes the descent of Jehovah to punish the nation, 1 — 5 ; he 
predicts the destruction of Samaria by the Assyrians, which he pathetically 
laments, 6 — 8 ; and then the advance of Sennacherib against Jerusalem, 9 — 12 ; 
concluding with an enumeration of certain towns of Judah, the inhabitants of 
which had more especially enjoyed his ministry, but were to share in the 
desolating effects of the Assyrian invasion, and ultimately, with the whole land, 
those of the Babylonian captivity. 

1 The word of Jehovah which was communicated to Micah the 
Morashthite, in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of 
Judahj which he saw concerning Samaria and Jerusalem. 

2 Hear, all ye people ! 

Attend, O earth ! and its fulness ! 
And let the Lord Jehovah testify to you, 
The Lord from his holy temple. 

1. ^ f ff pnto , contracted ^Pf^jrp, a gentilic, than the bare name. The words ctq?, 
and not a patronymic, as some have peoples, and ^, earthy are by many, 
imagined. See the introduction, and on and recently by Hitzis, confined to the 
ver. 14. tribes and land of the Hebrews ; but the 

2. It is not a little remarkable, that sublimity of the style, and the parallel 
Micah should adopt as the first sentence passages, Deut. xxxii. 28, xxxii. 1 ; and 
of his prophecy, that with which his Is. i 2, induce to the conclusion, that 
namesake concluded his denouncement the prophet had all the inhabitants of the 
against Ahab, 1 Kings xxii. 28. Hengs- globe in his eye. Thus Justi, Maurer, 
tenberg is of opinion that he quoted the and Ewald. d9s, all of them, is an 
words designedly, in order to show that instance of irregular construction, in 
hisprophetic agency was to be considered which the third person is put for the 
as a continuation of that of his prede- second, DpV3, all of you. The same con- 
cesser, who was so zealous for God, and struction is repeated in 7f^^^ which the 
that he had more in common with him LXX. render according to the sense. 

CHAP, i.l MICAH. 225 

3 For, behold ! Jehovah is coming forth from his place ; 
He will descend, and tread upon the heights of the earth. 

4 The mountains shall be molten under him. 
And the valleys shall cleave asunder, 
Like wax before the fire. 

Like water poured down a precipice. 

5 By the transgression of Jacob is all this, 
And by the sin of the house of Israel. 
What is the transgression of Jacob ? 

Is it not Samaria ? 

And what are the high places of Judali ? 

Are they not Jerusalem ? 

ictit ndvTfs ol kv avTJ. Comp. Amos cannot properly be explained, except on 

vi. 8 ; Is. xlii. 10. Instead of nJ^'J"^, the principle of reference to a volcano. 

four of Kennicott's MSS. read DTf'»» rrtrr ; That of wax occurs Pb. Ixviii. 3, xcvii. 5. 

and, instead of 'J'W repeated, upwards of Comp. 

fifty of his and De Rossi's read rnrr ; but " Quasi igni 

as the former cannot be altered on the Cera super calido tabescensmultaliques- 

slight authority by which it is supported, cat." Lucr. vi. 512. 

?h.''w?.1.'^ J*!^'^""*"*"'*"! '° '"'"PJ Some MSS. read rtojn. the hilU, instead 
the latter readme, smce the second ^crvry^r^^ *i. n V * u • i 

^- " -'^f«tl/'a repetition of the ::.°I^ion1l£; ^lfl'^\^l 

first LXX. Kvpios Kvpios, Syr. h^ "^ore difficult reading. tiId, a descent 

'J-^ or precipice, from tj, to go, or come 

\Los^, the Lord of lords. It has ff- T>>e events referred to were the 

' t-^ ^ destruction of the kmgdom of Israel by 

been doubted whether by Vsh^bp^t, his Shalmaneser, and the invasion of Judah 

holy temple, in this place, the temple at by the armies of Sennacherib and Nebu- 

Jerusalem or heaven be meant ; but the chadnezzar, by the latter of whom the 

language expressive of descent, which is Jews were carried away captive. The 

employed in the following verse, would form h?^ nan marks the futurity of the 

seem to determine the correctness of the event, and transmits a future significance 

latter interpretation. Comp. 1 Kings to the following verbs, 

viii. 30 ; Ps. xi. 4. Jehovah would bear 5. Jacob and Israel are applied to both 

testimony against the Hebrews, not any kingdoms in common, and are merely 

longer by his prophets, as he now did, used as synonymes for the sake of variety, 

but by the judgments wliich he would After explicitly declaring, that the awful 

inflict upon them. punishment which was about to be 

3, 4. These verses are explanatory of inflicted was on account of the sins of 

tbat which precedes them, and set forth, tlie people generally, the prophet, by the 

in highly figurative language, the course forcible employment of double interro- 

of the Divine judgment, and the tre- gatives, the latter of which, being in the 

mendous consequences that would follow, negative, greatly strengthens the appeal, 

The terrible majesty and resistless power traces these sins to their respective 

of Jehovah are expressed in images sources — metropolitan corruption. By 

chiefly borrowed from earthquakes and metonymy the efiect is put for the cause, 

volcanic eruptions. Comp. Amos iv. 1 3 ; For ^ used as a neuter, see on Jonah i. 8. 

Ps. I. 3, xcvii. 5 ; Is. Ixiii. 19, Ixiv. 2 ; For n^Brr the LXX., Targ., a considerable 

Hab. iii. 5. For a striking image of the number of MSS., agd four of the earliest 

same nature, see Jer. 1. 25, 26, which printed editions, the suigular. The 

G 6 

226 MICAH. [chap. i. 

6 Therefore I will make Samaria a heap in the field, 
The plantations of a vineyard ; 
I will hurl her stones into the valley, 
And lay bare her foundations. 
7 All her images shall be broken to pieces, 
All her rewards shall be burnt with fire, 
And all her idols will I lay waste ; 
For with the reward of a harlot she collected them, 
And to the reward of a harlot they shall return. 

Syr. and Vulg. agree with the Textus valley below ; and that such was actually 

Receptus. rn^rrrntD|, the high places of the case, the present phenomena of the 

Judah^ vere the elevated spots on ruins strongly attest. " The whole face 

mountains and hills on which the Jews of this part of the hill suggests the idea 

erected chapels and altars for unlawful, that the buildings of the ancient city 

and very often for idolatrous sacrifice, had been thrown down from tbe brow of 

&c. 1 Kings xii. 3, xiv. 4 ; £zek. vi. 6. the hill. Ascending to the top, we went 

That these existed at Jerusalem, see Jer. round the whole summit, and found 

xxxii. 35 ; and for the length to which marks of the same process everywhere." 

the practice was carried in the time of — Narrative of the Scottish AJission of 

Ahaz, see 2 Kings xvi. 4. Instead of Inquiry, pp. 293, 294. ''r»T|n, and crT|Q, 

nto^, the LXX., Syr., and Targ. translate, ver. 5, are from the root "tj^, to flow, 

asifnMon, «», were the true reading: pour, or hurl doum. For njw rpiD^, comp. 

What is the sin of Judah ? but though Ezek. xiii. 14. The very foundations of 

the latter word is found in one of Kenui- the edifices were to be laid bare, great 

cott's MSS., and in the margin of and ponderous as the stones might be. 
another, it most probably originated in a 7. The prophet now delivers a special 

desire to render the parallelism complete, prediction against the objects and accom- 

and cannot be allowed to encroach upon paniments of the idolatrous worship, 

the present text which drew dowu the judgment of God 

6. Both in this and the preceding upon the devoted city. The "oh^ were 

verse Samaria is taken up first, because the images or idols, whether carved, 

its destruction was to precede that of graven or molten, which were erected in 

Jerusalem, and also, perhaps, to afibrd the temples, for the purpose of receiving 

the prophet an opportunity of afterwards religious adoration. LXX. rd ykvnra. 

expatiating more at large on the state of ^sv), properly means the wages or reward 

things in Judah during the approaching of prostitution ; from nsn, to give a 

invasion. So complete should be the present or reward. The word is here, as 

overthrow of the nurthern capital, that elsewhere, employed in application to 

its site would resemble a heap of stones idolatry, viewed as spiritual adultery or 

or rubbish that had been gathered out fornication. Comp. Is. xxiii. 17, 18 ; 

of a field; it would even be reduced to Ezek. xvi. 31, 34; Hos. ix. 1. Kimchi, 

what we may suppose it originally to Abarbanel, Michaelis, Maurer, and 

have been, a place for the cultivation of others, are of opinion that the riches, &c., 

the vine. Vmeyards were most com- of Samaria are thus spoken of, because 

monly planted on the south sides of her idolatrous inhabitants imagined, that 

hills or mountains, on account of their they were rewards bestowed upon them 

exposure to the sun ; and in all pro- by their gods for their zeal and devoted- 

bability that of Samaria had been appro- ness to their service. It is more likely, 

priated to this purpose before it was however, that the rich gifts or presents 

purchased by Omri, 1 Kings xvi. 24. are meant, which the apostate Israelites 

The stones of the city are graphically dedicated to their idols, and with which 

said to be hurled down into tbe deep they adorned their temples. Comp. 

CHAP. I.] MICAH. 2rt 

8 Therefore will I wail and howl ; 
I will go stripped and naked ; 

I will set up a wailing like the wolves, 
And a mourning like the ostriches. 

9 For her wounds are desperate ; 
Surely it hath come to Judah ; 

He reacheth to the gate of my people, 
Even to Jerusalem. 

Ezck. XVI. 33, 34. Newcome seems to Thus the LXX. dyvir65(Tos, The Syr. 

incline to the idea, that the rewards of ^ 

harlotry, literally taken, are intended, - -'^u- ^or which compare ^, Is. xx. 2. 

because these were appropnated to the por D% wolves, and narrtD?, ostriches, 

l"?rr^'^°^^''^«^^ll?\"'"r?"' «^« «" JI-- *"i- 22, and Poco^ke's ver^ 

with u^i onlv Hitzjg thmks, tha a ^i^borata note on the present verse. Thi 
more costly kmd of idols is meant by the *^ 

term, such as were made of silver, and Arab, haa here, . JoLluU) (JjLe> ^'^« the 
were of sufficient value to be carried ^* 

away as spoil. The entire establishment wolves, and -»•! d-jlJL) (JjL«» ^«^« l^ 

of idolatry was to be broken up ; the idols Sr 

were to be cut in pieces; such as were of jackals. The former Michaelis renders 

wood, to be burnt in the fire ; and what- crocodiles, but less properly, on account 

ever was costly was to be removed by of the combination. The ancient render- 

the enemy to Assyria, there to be again ing, dragons, is altogether to be rejected, 

devoted to idols, instead of n|^|i?, three Both kinds are selected on account of 

ofDe Rossi sMSS., three more originally, the piteously howling noise which tney 

and perhaps one more, the Brixian and make, especially in the night, 

another ancient edition, without place 9. n«^, the Pahul Participle of v^3M, 

or date, read n^ in Pual, which two of to be desperately sick ; spoken of a wound, 

Keniiicott's exhibit with Vau Shurek to be incurable. There is no necessity, 

instead of the Kibbutz. The Syr., Targ., with Michaelis, to have recourse to ^3, 

and Vulg., likewise have the passive, but and so to regard the form as the elongated 

in the plural. The LXX. render, crvvij' future of the first person singular. The 

yayt; which agrees with the common followingnoun,rrrrt3p,beingin the plural, 

punctuation. the same number might be expected in 

8. So terrible should be the destruc- the Participle ; but it is a rule of Hebrew 

tion with which the northern kingdom syntax, that when, as in this instance, 

would be visited, that it called for the the predicate precedes the noun, the 

most marked tones and signs of sorrow, number of feminine plurals is frequently 

In these the prophet declares he would neglected. Comp. Jer. iv. 14. What 

indulge, that he might thereby affect the the prophet has in view is the irretriev- 

minds of his countrymen. ^)% with able ruin in which the Israelites as a 

Yod, may have been occasioned by the nation would be involved. But he not 

preceding form rMv; but there are only beholds, in prophetic vision, the 

other verbs which do not reject it in the devastation of Samaria and its depend- 

future, as "^j Ps. Ixxii. 14. ^^, or, as encies by the Assyrians; he sees their 

the Keri has it, ^^, some interpret of invasion of Judah under Sennacherib, 

mental bereavement, a state in which the and their in vestmentof Jerusalem. Comp. 

mind is <f««pot/f</ of its reasoning powers; Is. x. 28 — 32. The nominative to nM| 

but, combined as it here is with dVi^, is the calamity implied in iTp^sp : that to 

naked, it must be referred to the body, vy} is 3::Sm, the enemy, understood. There 

and was in all probability designed to is the utmost propriety in the distinctive 

•describe the feet as stripped of shoes, use of the genders in this place ; for 

228 MICAH. [chap. i. 

10 Tell it not in Gath ; 
Weep not in Acco : 

At Beth-aplirah roll thyself in the dust. 

11 Pass on, thou inhabitant of Shaphir, naked and ashamed ; 

though the inhabitants of Judah suflfered Arabs, and is known to Europeans by 

from the Assyrian invasion, the calamity the name of SL Jean iTAere, which it 

did not reach those of the capital : it was obtained in the time of the crusades, and 

merely invested by the troops of Rab- is celebrated in later times by its holding 

shaken, and was relieved by their mira- out a siege of sixty-one days by the 

culous destruction. See Is.xxxvi.xxxvii. French army, and its destruction by the 

10. Comp. 2 Sam. i. 20, where the explosion of a magazine during the 

words ^T^rnMrn^i occur, though not in bombardment in 1840. It is situated on 

the same order of arrangement. The the north angle of a bay of the same 

Philistines would hail with joy tidings name near the foot of Mount Carmel. Tr% 

of any disaster that might befal the nrrb, lit. the House of Aphrah^ or simply 

Hebrews, and especially that occasioned rne^, Ophriih, Josh, xviii. 23 ; 1 Sam. 

by the Assyrian attack. Deeply, there- xiii. 1 7, a city in the tribe of Benjamin, 

fore, as the Jews mi?ht be afflicted, they The ^ is here merely the sign of the 

are cautioned by Micah not to give genitive. The verb xih^ which occurs 

such public expression to their grief as only in Hithpael, signifies to wallow or 

would reach the ears of their natural roll, as in dust, ashes, or the like. See 

enemies, but to repair to Beth-Aphrah, a Jer. vi. 26, xxv. 34 ; £zek. xxvii. 30. 

city in the tribe of Benjamin, and there While the Hebrews were not to expose 

deplore in secret the calamity which had the wretchedness of their condition to 

overtaken the land. Reland, Harenbcrg, the contempt of foreigners, it became 

Hitzig, Maurer, and Ewald, take i3^ to them to bewail it within their own 

be a contraction of ^B9f , which Gesenius borders. *^nrr, roU thyself, is to be 

(Lex. tub. voc, *^) is inclined to adopt preferred to'nv^^7, TroU myself. It is 

According to this construction, tne the reading of the Keri, and many MSS. 

rendering will be, weep not in Acco, i.e. have it in the text. The Syr., Targ., and 

Ptolemais, a maritime city in the tribe of Vulg., have the third person plural, which 

Asher. Other instances of 9 being is more easily traceable to 'cJ'Va.irr than to 

dropped, we have in ^ for y}, ^ for Vpa, *rjti')Drn. Besides, it seems more natural 

&c. ; and certainly the parallelism with to connect this verb with ^9 in the 

n3^, the continued list of the names of following verse, than to suppose that the 

cities, and the regularity of the paro- prophet resumes his lamentation ver. 8. 

nomasias ^t^ — my^ ; ^3an — to| ; Tnss^ n^. Some take the verb to be the second 

'^, are all in favour of this interpreta- feminine of the preterite, with the Yod 

tion. Though Acco was allotted to the paragogic ; but every difficulty is re- 

Asherites, they never took possession of moved by adopting the imperative, 
it, Jud. i. 31, and its inhabitants are, 11. In v^) ^, the second singular 

therefore, appositely classed alon^ with feminine of the verb is followed by the 

those of Gath, as taking pleasure m the second plural masculine of the pronoun, 

reverses of the Israelites. The readin? on the principle that though the collective 

of the LXX. oi 'Evoicd/i fu}^ is in all participial noun T\ix^ is feminine, it was 

probability a corruption of o2 cv *Aic€i /X17, designed to include the inhabitants of 

which quite accords with the preceding both sexes, ppj is not redundant, as 

oi €v U6 ufj. The Arab, has jjJL Justi asserts, but'emphatic, as the DaftVw 

^^ ^ incommodi. 'I'C^, Shaphir, means fair 

MjJi\ J, And those who are in Akim. The or beautiful Dr. Robinson states that 

r* S? there are still three villages of the name 

name *A«ci; occurs in Strabo, xvi. 2, 25. of Sawdjir, which are noted on the map 

_, . .„ ,1 ,i> >,t L 1 as lying nearly halfway betw^een Ashdod 

The town is still called Uc. -^^'^«, by the ^^^ Eleutheropolis, a position not much 

CHAP, i] MICAH. 229 

The inhabitant of Zaanan goeth not forth ; 
The wailing of Beth-ezel will take away continuance from you. 
12 Surely the inhabitant of Maroth pineth for her goods, 
Because evil hath come down from Jehovah, 
To the gate of Jerusalem. 

differing from that assigned by Eusebius Samaria, as Ephraim Svrus conjectured, 

and Jerome to Saphir, Palestine, vol. ii. The words ^^^ o^ rrg^^^lP^n^S'iB^p have 

p. 370. Hitzi^ and Ewald think that greatlv perplexed interpreters. Some 

"vpa}, Shamir, is meant, which is enii- regara iBpQ as the Aramaic Infinitive, 

merated among the citiesof Judah, Josh, and connect it with the preceding rfti^ • 

XV. 48, which Eusebius calls 2a^ip, and, 'supposing 3!^, the enemy, under- 

The Chald.of theTarg. TDp^|W7|^J>Tta^ stood, to be the nominative to n^., 

is very improperly rendered in the Latin, explain rnip^ of a military post. But 

*' Transite vobis qui habitatis in pidchri- this construction affords no tolerable 

tudine," though the LXX. had translated sense. Others render rRp^, measure, 

the word by jcaXco^. The Syr. has conjecture, and the like, contrary to all 

%''. * ^ usage. For other interpretations, see 

^2L4.> |^>Qifiifc,tfiAa6i<re«o/5'AapAtr. Pococke, in loc. It seems best to abide 

To Samaria there seems no good reason by the idea suggested by the root "icq?, to 

to refer it, since all the other places remain, continue, endure, and interpret, 

specified in the connexion were in -^*/or the wailing of Beth-ezel, it taketh 

Judah. ii$b rry, lit nakedness, shame, oway its continuance from you; i.e. the 

for shamefully naked, ue. entirely so. inhabitants of that city cease to mourn 

Comp. as to form, TTV^f P«- xlv* 5. on your account. The Shaphirites are 

What is here predicted is, that the addressed, as having gone at once into 

inhabitanU of Shaphir were to be led captivity and oblivion. Most likely their 

away as captives by the Assyrians ; only city was larger and more populous, and 

for the sake of effect the imperative is on t^w account was attacked by the 

used. See on Is. vi. 10. For the naked Assyrians, while the smaller towns in 

condition in which captives were re- the neighbourhood escaped. Gesenius 

moved, see on Is. xx. 4. ^, Zaanan, thinks that in ^ there is an allusion to 

in all probability the same as pf , Zenan, ,, Arabic etvmoloffv \ i^\ *-»/« ^* 

a city ^n the tribe of Judah, Josh. xv. 37. ^^^ ^^''*'' etymology Jjujj, firmly, or 

It properly signifies the place of flocks; deeply rooted in the earth, as what was 

but to form a paronomasia with it, the so might be expected to continue ; but 

prophet employs the verb vir ; or the this is very doubtful, 
peculiar orthography of the noun may 12. 0{ rfng^ Maroth, (bitternesses,) we 

nave been adopted in order to make it have nowhere any account. nivo, 

correspond in appearance and sound with Maarath, Josh. xv. 50, to which New- 

the verb. Comp. |^, ^, and n^^, which come refers, appears to have been a dif- 

are only different modes of expressing ferent place. From the relation in 

sheep or flocks. The inhabitants of this which it is here put to Jerusalem, it 

city, under the influence of fear, did not probably lay between the afore-men- 

venture forth from their retirement to tioned towns and the capital, against 

condole with their neighbours who had which a great army under Rabshakeli 

been taken prisoners by the enemy, or, proceeded from Lachish, and doubtless 

they did not come forth to their rescue, plundered all that came in their way. 

LXX. 2twacip. Aq. 2(vady. ^^Mrrrr^, 3to} r^, Newcome, after Houbigant, 

Beth-ezel, in all prooability the same as changes into rno^ 7i^, and renders, is 

^, Azel, Zech. xiv. 5, but where the sick unto death ; but altogether without 

town so called was situated, we are not authority. The meaning is, that the 

informed. Tojudge from the connexion, inhabitants were pained or grieved on 

it must have been in the vicinity of account of the property of which they 

Shnphir and Zaanan, and not near had been robbea by the enemy. Thus 

230 MICAH. [chap. i. 

13 Bind the chariot to the swift steed^ O inhabitant of Ladiish I 
(She was the beginning of sin to the daughter of Zion) 
Surely in thee were found the transgressions of Israel. 

14 Therefore thou shalt give a divorce to Moresheth-Gath ; 

The houses of Achzib shall prove false to the kings of Israel. 

15 Farther, I will bring the possessor to thee, O inhabitant of Maresbah ! 
He shall come to Adullam, the glory of Israel. 

Roseninuller, Gesenius, De Wette, and all connexion between Lachish and 

Hesselber^. The former *3 is not causa- Moresheth-Gatb ; the fonner city having 

tive, but IS used, as frequently at the been taken by the Assyrians, was no 

beginning of a verse, to express certainty, longer able to afford protection or support 

For the last clause, compare ver. 9. to the latter. The nominative to *3Fifi ia 

13. For Lachiihf see on Is. xxxvi. 2. rapr in the preceding verse. Vv is equi- 
vS^ and vyob, form a paronomasia, xlfyy, valent, in this connexion, to ^. it^jto ^ 

signifies a fleet courser. Arab. , yg^., ^oretheth, the birth-place of Mi'ckh, 

® •' s/^y' (gee Preface) is here said to belong to 

cucurrit, Q^n is in the masculine, though Gathy most probably because it was in 

connecting with n^^ in the feminine, its vicinity, and under its jurisdiction, 

because pTaced first in the order of the when in possession of the Philistines, 

words. The word occurs only here, but ^T^^, Achzib, There were two cities of 

obviously has the signification of the this name, one on the sea-coast, between 

. , ^ ,. ., 4 ,,^ . Acco and Tyre, now called by the Arabs 

Arab. >},, Zi^avi/. As a noun nm sig- ,, _ '' ' , , . 

^^ P \ ,. , ,. \ C-^JI,£z-Zi6,Jo8h.xix.29;Jud.L31; 

nmes broomj because this shrub was used ' ^ 

for binding. In the middle clause of and the other in the tribe of Judah, 

tlie verse there is a change of person between Keilah and Mareshah, Josh, 

from the second to the third, but in the xv. 44. That the latter is here intended, 

last clause the second is resumed. For isevidentfromthe connexion; for though, 

a similar instance, in which, for the sake at first view, the mention of the kings of 

of graphic effect, the third person is Israel might lead us to suppose that a 

thus abruptly introduced, see Is. xxii. 16. city bordering on the northern kingdom 

Lachish appears to have formed the link is meant, yet the fact that Israel is 

of idolatry between Israel and Judah. sometimes put for the whole people of 

Lying on the frontier of the former the Hebrews, and sometimes even for 

kingdom, she was the first city in Judah the kingdom of Judah, as 2 Chron. 

thatwasledawayby the sin of Jeroboam, xxviii. 19, proves, that the mere use of 

and from her the infection spread, till at the term can form no objection to this 

length it reached Jerusalem itself. In construction of the passage. It was most 

the prospect of a sudden attack, it be- probably the same place that is called 

hovcd the inhabitants to use all despatch 3^3, Chezib, Gen. xxxviii. 5. By an ele- 

in removing their families, and what gant paronomasia, tt^w 'pa, the houses of 

property they could take with them, to a Achzib^ are said to become at3«, deceif/ul, 

distance. Lachish was besieged by Sen- Comp. am ^, a deceitful torrent^ i. e. 

nacherib before the threatened attack on one which having dried up, disappoints 

Jerusalem, 2 Kings xviii. 14. the hope of the traveller. Job vi. 17 — 19; 

14. a^^ is used of the presents or , i o a u . l^ ^ ^ r/-^ • •. 
dowry sent with a wife, 1 Kings ix. 16, "'«''• *^- ^^- ^"'^- «-r''>>. /?/='»'. "■""" 
and of letters of divorce sent with her vanusque fecit. The expectations of 
when she is dismissed by her husband, further aid from the families, or inhabi- 
In the acceptation cf awoorcXXoficvovr, tants of that place, should prove fruitless. 
messengers, as given by the LXX., it 1 5. ^ is a defective reading of m^, 
nowhere occurs. The term appears to which many MSS. have in the text In 
be here employed metaphorically to de- VTii* and TTtino is another paronomasia, 
note the breaking up, or dissolution of Mareshah lay in the plains of Judah, 

CHAP. II.] MICAH. 231 

16 Make bald thy head, and shave it because of thy darling children ; 
Enlarge thy baldness like that of the eagle ; 
For they are gone into captivity from thee. 

Josh. XV. 44. It was fortified by Rebo- graphical part of bis denunciations by 

boam, 2 Chron. xi. 8, and was famous addressing himself to the land of Judab, 

for the victory obtained over the £thio- and calling unon her to put on signs of 

pians by Asa, 2 Chron. xiv. 9, 10. deep-felt grief on account of the removal 

According to Josephus, Antiq. xii. 8, 6, of her inhabitants, yy^^ land, is to be 

it had been in the power of the Idumeans, supplied, rather than |^^ na, daughter of 

but was retaken uy Alexander the son Zi<m» Baldness, and cutting off the 

of Aristobulus, Antiq. xiii. 15, 4, xiv. beard, are tokens of mourning in the 

1, 4. The possessor or occupier here East, as they were among the nations 

predicted is Sennacherib, who took of antiquity. Ezra ix. 3 ; Job i. 20; 

Mareshah and the other fortified cities Jer. vii. 21, xvi. 6, xlviii. 37. "Regulos 

of Judab, 2 Kings xviii. 14. To point quosdam barbam posuisse et uxorem 

him out with greater emphasis the article capita rasisse, ad indicium maximi luctus" 

18 used : ^^?, " The possessor." 0^19, Suetonius, in his Life of Caligula, chap. v. 

AduUanit was another city of Judah in "When K haled ben Walid ben Mogai'rah 

the same direction, and near the former, died, there was not a female of the house 

Josh. XV. 35. It was a royal residence of Mogairah, either matron or maiden, 

in the time of the Canaanites, Josh, who caused not her hair to be cut off at 

xii. 15; was fortified by Rehoboam, his funeral." Harmer's Observ. iii. p. 5. 

2 Chron. xi. 7 ; and had villages de- One species of eagle is called the bald 

pendent upon it. Neb. xi. 30. Of "i^ eagle, from the circumstance of its having 

Tinto; various interpretations have been its head almost entirely bald ; but they 

given ; such as the wealth or riches of all more or less exhibit baldness during 

Israel, their multitude, their nobility, the moulting season. D?^n, delights, 

their weight of calamity, &c. Some take f^om aj?, Arab. ^, amatorius fcemina 

the words to be in the nominative, some ^ 

in the accusative, and some in the gestus, to delight, be delighted^ live 

vocative case. The most natural con- delicately. It is in the former of these 

struction is that of our common version, acceptations tliat the noun is here used, 

according to which they are in apposi- As but few of the inhabitants of Judab 

tion with Djn^, Adullam, and express could have been carried away by Sen- 

the superior situation of the place and nacherib, it is obvious the prophet must 

its neighbourhood. Thus also Schmidius, have a much more desolating calamity 

Rosenmiiller, and Hesselberg. in view in this verse, viz. the Babylonish 

16. The prophet concludes this geo- captivity. 


Having announced the punishments which were to be inflicted upon his people 
for the evils in which they indulged, Micah now proceeds to specify some 
of these evils, 1,2; and renews his denimciations, 3 — 5. He then censures those 
who could not endure to hear the tnith, but wished for predictions of good, and 
shows that no such predictions could reasonably be expected by them, 6 — 11 ; 
concluding, however, with gracious promises of restoration after the captivity, 
12, 13, 

232 MICAH. [chap. ii. 

1 Wo to those ivho devise wickedness, 
And &bricate evil upon their beds ; 

In the morning light they effect it^ 
Because it is in the power of their hand. 

2 They covet fields, and take them by force, 
And houses, and take them away : 

They oppress a man and his house, 
A man and his possession. 

3 Wherefore thus saith Jehovah : 

Behold ! I devise an evil against this family, 
From which ye shall not withdraw your necks, 
Neither shall ye walk haughtily ; 
For it shall be an evil time. 

1. Comp. Ib. X. 1, 2. In the verbs render, laxyei ij x"f>i Gen. xxxi. 29, and 

^^t^t andn^, is evidently a ^adation. Deut xxviii. 32. That "3 is to be taken 

The first describes the conception of the causatively, and not conditionally, ig 

evil purpose in the mind ; the second, evident from the connexion, 

the preparation or maturing of the 2, Before d^pq repeat tto^. Fifty-two 

scheme ; and the third, the carrying of MSS., six by correction, two originally ; 

it into effect. Comp. Ps. Iviii. 3 ; Is. xli. 4 ; four ancient and nineteen other printed 

Hos. xi. 9. The n in rntop is the feminine editions ; the Alex. MS. of the LXX., 

used as a neuter, to agree with the the Targ., Vulg., and Arab., omit i before 

nouns pM and v^, as forming a neuter ^. The parallelisms in this verse are 

plural accusative. The phrase 'BTbij very elegant. 

occurs also Gen. xxxi. 29 ; Prov. iii. 27; 3. aiprr and nyn correspond here to 

and with the negative, Deut. xxviii. 32; "7^ and T\ in ver. 1. nn&pp Rosen- 

Neh. V. 5. It is rendered by the LXX. miiller and Maurer understand to signify 

ovic ^pap frp6v rov 6t6v x^^P^^ avrmPf " certum senus hominum nequam et per- 

which the Syr. gives without the negative: versum ; ' as if the prophet intended to 

single out such of the people as com- 

](^/q:^ tOaJ;A ^-ifilo. <ind mittedtheatrociousactssnecifiedver 2; 
|;7u-» ^si^ ^»^f^}^ ^«..*«w ^^j jj jg ^^j.^ j^j^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ whole 

people, viewed as rebellious and corrupt, 
lift up their hands to God. Vulg. quomam ig meant. See on Amos iii. 1 The figure of 
contra Deum est manus eorum. Some a yoke is here employed for the purpose 
consider the words to be equivalent to of expressing the hesLVj and oppressive 
the Dextra tnihi Deus of Virgil, and nature of the bondage to which the He- 
appeal to Job xii. 6, and Hab. i. 11, brews were to be subjected. otS/o, thence, 
where, however, the phraseology is has the force of a pronoun in\his place, 
different; while others take ^ to be the ^ ^ , ^ -^ 
shorter form of the demonstrative pro- LXX. «{ <5i/. S)T. atl^- Comp. Gen. 
noun njM. But the true meaning seems to iii, 23 ; 1 Kings xvii. 1 3 ; Ezek. v. 3. So op- 
be that given in our common version, pressive should be the yoke, that it would 
according to which "v is to be taken in be impossible for them to hold them- 
its literal signification of power, strength, selves erect LXX. o>dot. Targ. no^. 
&c. Thus Pococke, Rosenmiiller, Bauer, tv^. The term nrfri is selected with 
Dathe, De Wette, Gesenius, Hitzig, and special reference to the elated and 
Ewald, after the Targ. f^ry^ vMi n^ nw, haughty manner in which they had 
and Kimchi, D«3»fT \ms^ dt3 ro «r o, conducted themselves. It is properly 
became there is power in their hand to a substantive, from on, to be high, but is 
oppress the poor. Just as the LXX. here used adverbially. 

CHAP, n.] MICAH. 233 

4 In that day shall one sing a ditty respecting you, 
And employ a doleful lamentation, 

And say : We are utterly destroyed. 

He hath changed the portion of my people, 

How hath he withdrawn it from me ! 

To an apostate he hath divided our fields ! 

5 Therefore thou shalt not have one to cast the line by lot. 
In the congregation of Jehovah. 

6 Prophesy not ; those shall prophesy 
Who will not prophesy of these things : 
Reproaches are incessant. 

thii Mashal was to be employed b\' the ... _x> i • « au i. j r 

Jewi them^lves, and iot by their «' ^''^ ^"^ *^^^« «>^ ^^ ^^nd of 

enemies, ie evident from its tenor, as it the purchaser; Arab. .U, hue iUucam' 

follows in the verse. D^^i therefore, is •^ 

not to be rendered against you, but on mota fmt res, iranshit. The verb is 

jfottr aceouni, irn? ^ ^Vh n4A^, nehi, here employed to convey the idea of a 

nikydhf form an degant paronomasia, change of masters, or the passing of the 

There can be no doubt that ^p, lamentO' land of the Hebrews into the power of 

/fOM, is derived from nnj, to lament; but their enemies. 34^ is a verbal noun, 

whether rrrn be Ukewise derived from it, from the Pilel of 3^, to turn, turn back ; 

and consequently merely the feminine of here used in a bad sense, one who has 

7P» or whether it be the Niphal of the turned back, or away from God ; apo- 

substantive verb rrn, to be, is disputed. §taie, rebel, idolater. Coinp. Is.xlvi]. 10, 

The harshness that would arise from Ivii. 17; Jer. xlix. 4. The idolatrous 

rendering the words, One ihall lament king of Babylon u meant 

mih a lamentatum, it ii done ! militates 5. p^ is a repetition of that ased at the 

against the latter derivation ; whereas, beginning of ver. 3, and for the same 

by taking all the three words as cognates, purpose. The nominative to ^, thee, is 

having the same signification, the sentence D|, people, occurring in the preceding 

is at once easy and forcible. The relative verse ; and the denunciation relates to 

position of the verbs vfp\, nn^, and iQt^, con- their being completely at the disposal of 

firms this construction. Thus the LXX. their enemies: none of themselves being 

and Vulg. xal BpifWfi&tiaeTai Bpi^vot Iv permitted to allot to them portions of the 

^xAci, et cantabitur eantieum aim tuavi- land for inheritance. According to 

tote. And the Arab., ^nploying for the Hitzig the words are addressed by the 

two first words terms cognate with une^odly Jews to Micah himself, and 

i- . ,. intimate that they would put him and 

the Hebrew, ^^#s^V — y .Jij. rrrp ^^ f^^^y ^ ^^^^ £^^ prophesying 

against them, 
is the feminine of ti^, just as rr^^ 6. The words n^^i^^k<^pD*^'_«npr)iH, 

is of Jp, and ri^ of *9S. The femi- which contain a smooth and elegant 

nine is added to the mascidine for the paronomasia, are very enigmatical, but 

sake of emphasis. Comp. Is. iii. 1, must either be rendered, "Prophesy not, 

only there the nouns are joined by the they say to those who should prophesy : 

copulative i. The three verbs above they shall not prophesy to such. Or : 

specified are used impersonally. The "Prophesy not; they shall prophesy 

nom inative to the following verbs, tp^, who will not prophesy of such things." 

«h9^andp^, is Jehovah, understood. 1RD, In the former case the interdicting 

H H 

234 MICAH. [chap. n. 

7 What language, O house of Jacob ! 
Is the Spirit of Jehovah shortened ? 
Are these his operations ? 
Do not my words benefit him that walketh uprightly ? 

language of the rebellious to the prophets any deficiency on the part of the Spirit 
is simply given, and then we have the of prophecy ? whether the judgments 
Divine declaration, that it should be as denounced were operations in which 
they desired. They should be judicially Jehovah delighted, and were not rather 
abandoned to their own ways ; and, as procured by the wickedness of those 
they would not hearken to the prophets on whom they were to be inflicted ? and 
when they predicted evil, they snould be whether it was not a fact which expe- 
deprived of their ministry altogether, and rience had ever verified, that the Divine 
not receive from them any predictions communications were productive of 
of ffood. In the latter, the langua&e is good to men of sincere and consistent 
entirely that of the people, by which piety ? In "Via^ the n is used as a quali- 
they not merely stop tne mouths of the lying demonstrative with all the force of 
true prophets, but declare that those an indignant exclamation, in order to 
only should be permitted to prophesv to point out the flagrant character of the 
them who abstamed from denunciations language employed by the Israelites. 
of evil. I'he former requires t^ftj!^ to be *flD^ is the Pahul Part, signifying what is 
supplied before f0^2 ; the latter, t^ said or spoken, and with the n prefixed, 
before nmy^. The formula J^l^fn is dictum I Almost all the versions and 
used ver. 11, both in reference to the Lexicons assign to this participle the 
persons to whom the prediction is signification of being called or named ; 
addressed, and to that which is the but this notion attaches to the verb only 
subject of the prophecy : r^'^^^fP*?, " I in Niphal, which, in such case, is uni- 
will prophecy to thee ©/"wine." Though formly followed by the preposition \ See 
contrary to the Masoretic division of the Is. iv. 3, xix. 18 ; Hos. ii. 1. The LXX., 
words, I prefer the second of the above Aq., Vulg., and Targ., have read '^^t 
modes of construction, as being the easier which is found in four of Kennicott's 
of the two. The use of the paragogic MSS. Ewald : "Odes Wortesl" As "OS? 
] in ]«^2 forms no objection ; for though nn, short of breath or spirit, is con- 
it Is most commonly found at the end of trasted with creM Tpi<, long-suffering, Pro v. 
a sentence, yet there are many instances xiv. 29, and is obviously equivident to 
in which it occurs at the beginning, or d^Qm is;?, ver. 17, (comp. nnis^, Exod. 
in the middle. See Gen. xviii. 28 — vi. 9,) most of the modems render in 
31; Exod. xviii. 26; Deut viii. 3; the present instance, /« Jehovah prone 
1 Sam. ii. 22; Ps. xi. 2, Ixviii. 13 ; Is. to anger f but prophecy being the sub- 
viii, 12. For f)"T?n, see on Amos vii. 16. ject to which reference had just been 
In the concluding words of the verse, made, it is more natural to understand 
rrta^ 3D* >ft, literally, calumnies depart not, rrtrr mn, the Spirit of Jehovah, in its ap- 
the Jews indignantly tax the prophets propriated meaning, as designating the 
with exposing them to contempt by Divine Author of prophetic communi- 
incessant castigation and reproof. Of cations ; and to tatce the verb in the 
this interpretation Maurer observes, " ut sense of weakness or inabilitg, Comp. 
facillima et simplissima per se est, ita ad t isp^, short of hand, Is. xxxvii. 27. 
nexum est aptissima." The verb occur- rn^j, these, like n^, ver. 6, refers to the 
ring first, is in the masculine singular, judgments which the Lord had threat- 
though the noun is a feminine plural, ened to inflict. The interrogative form, 
See Gesen. § 144. Ward's edit. asfrequently, requires a decided negative; 

7. The prophet boldly meets the such judgments are not Jehovah's usual 
charge expressed in the concluding operations. Comp. Is. xxviii. 21 ; Lam. 
clause of the preceding verse by asking, iii. 33 ; Mic. vii. 18. In '^fnsi T$p, the 
Whether the absence of auspicious pre- substantive, which is used adverbially, is 
dictions could possibly be ascribed to placed first, for the sake of emphasis, 

CHAP. II.] MICAH. 235 

8 But of old my people hath risen up as an enemy ; 
Ye strip oiF the vestment as well as the robe 
From those who walk along securely, 

From those who are returning from battle* 

9 The women of my people ye thrust out from their darling home ; 
From their children ye take away my glory for ever. 

10 Arise ! depart ! for this is not the place of your rest^ 
Because of pollution it will destroy, 
And the destruction shall be grievous. 

and on this account also it takes the (by transposition of the first two letters 

article, which properly belongs to ^*i. of n^tp, which is much more frequently 

A similar instance of transposition occurs . ^t a l ti a 

in ^ •?;, Job xxxi. 26, where the sub- »" "^^') ^^'"P- *^« A™^' *V-» t^^/tinfn- 

stantive is likewise used adverbially, iumy pec. toium cwrptu invohensy from 

For the meaning of the phrase, comp. i a ■ ,».,«/. ^ 

Oh ^bfr, Prov. ii. 7 ; Vnbp rfh, Is. Ivii. 2. U^y etrcumdedU. Before ?^ repeat 

8. ^ at the beginning of thb verse is the preposition o. The passive par- 
strongly adversative. Very different ticiple is here used intransitively to de- 
was the character of those whom the scribe those who were returning after 
prophet was now reprovine. ^r^« having defeated their enemy in battle, 
properly yeaierday, is taken by some to and who might therefore be considered 
signify lately ; but it is more in keeping perfectly secure. Even they were way- 
with Uie spirit of the passage to render laid by their countrymen and neighbours, 
it anciently, of old, or the like. See on and robbed of the spoils which they 
Is. zxx. 33. The rebellious conduct of had taken in war. 
the Hebrew nation was no new thing. 9. In nv^>? and rr^, there is, as fre- 
It had characterised every period of its quently, a transition from the plural to 
history. LXX. c/iir/Doo-^cv. Abulwalid, tne singular pronoun. As the prophet 
contrary to the usage of the language, refers to war, it is most likely he intended 
divides the word into r^ and Vn3, and ren- by the '* women," the widows of those 
ders, on the contrary. Thus also theVulg. who had fallen in battle, and who ought 
The ^ in ^^^ is expressive of manner ; to have been objects of special sympathy 
comp. prf), Is. xxxii. 1. ^^op is selected and care. Instead of which, both they 
to correspond in alliteration with ^on^, and their fatherless children were expelled 
and is here equivalent to ^^^, or ^. ft-om their homes, and robbed of their 
It refers, not to '^7^ immediately follow- property. ^Tin, my ornament, collec- 
ing, but to the persons of those who were tively for the ornamental clothes which 
plundered. Though divided by the they wore, and with which they had 
accent, np^ and ihm are to be regarded been provided by Jehovah. The Holy 
as asyndeta; the former, signifying the Land, and everything connected with it, 
large loose garment which was worn was his, so that whatever was enjoyed 
immediately over the tunic, and which by its inhabitants, was to be regarded as 
being indispensable to the Orientals, is peculiarly a Divine gift. Comp. Hos. 
placed first, for the sake of emphasis ; li. 8. cmv^, for ever, i. e* never to make 
the latter, the costly robe of fur, or other restitution. Some think there is refer- 
rich stuff, the robbery of which, under ence to the command to restore the 
the circumstances described, was a mat- pledee before sun-set, Exod. xxii. 25, 
ter of course. So great was the rapacity but this is doubtful, 
of the lawless characters spoken of, that 10. As the Imperative is frequently 
they were not satisfied with the more used by the prophets to express more 
valuable part of the dress, but likewise strongly the certainty of a prediction 
possessed themselves of what was less than a simple future would have done, 
costly. Comp. Matt. v. 40. For rnpjto tt^ wy are to be so understood here. 

23G MICAH. [chap. ii. 

11 If any one, conversant with wind and falsehood, lie, saying : 
I will prophesy to thee of wine and strong drink, 

Even he shall be the prophet of this people. 

12 I will surely gather thee entirely, O Jacob ! 
I will surely collect the remainder of Israel ; 

I will put them together like the sheep of Bozrah, 
Like a flock in the midst of their pasture ; 

See on Is. vi. 10. Hitzig preposterously bein? familiar with the wind : so utterly 

considers the words to be addressed by worthless was the instruction which they 

the pitiless Jews to the persons whom communicated. nn if^j is otherwise 

they oppressed by expelling them from equivalent to rmtfw, Hos. ix. 7, and ^j^ 

their homes. They are obviously to be i^ to i^;i^m|3, Jer. v. 31. Dathe thinks 

viewed as the language of Jehovah, this verse would better fit in after Ter. 6, 

threatening them with a removal from but there is no authority for the trans- 

their own country, which they had pol- position ; and« besides, there is a singular 

luted by their crimes, to a foreign and propriety in bringing forward the crown- 

heathen land. Canaan was conferred mg sin of the Jews, viz. their preferring 

upon the Hebrews as a regtf or place of false prophets to the faithful messengers 

quiet enjoyment, after their fatigues and of Jehovah, just before introducing the 

troubles in the wilderness, Num. x. 33; glorious prediction of their restoration 

Deut. xii. 9 ; Ps. xcv. 11. Before nrii, from captivity in the following verse, 
supply f>f. The definite article in n^s^ri 12, 13. Theodoret, Kimcfai, Calvin^ 

is equivalent to the pronominal affix D^ Drusius, De Dieu, Grotius, TarnoYius, 

and is to be rendered accordingly. A and others, consider these verses to be a 

land may be said to destroy its inhabi- denunciation of punishment, and not a 

tants, when it withholds from them the promise of deliverance ; while StruenseSy 

means of subsistence, and forces them Hezel, Michaelis, and Forsayeth (in 

to leave it. With such reference it is Newcome) regard them as the langtiage 

deftcribed as devouring them and spewing of the false prophetsi continued from 

them out of it, Lev. xviii. 28, xx. 22, ver. 11. Ewald, who takes the same 

xxvi. 38; Ezek. xxxvi. 12 — 14. The view, thinks they were originally written 

comparison of these passages shows the by Micah on the margin of his manu- 

propriety of the Piel ^ip, and renders script, and has printed them in Italics, 

unnecessary the passive forms ^¥71? and within brackets. Most modern inters 

^^9 which some have proposed. For preters, however, and among them 

rjP?,comp. the Arab. ^^ marbuiJuH, ^jOBenmmer, Dathe, Justi, Hartmami, 

' ' ■ '^ \^j^ •* ' Maurer, and even Hitzig, are unanimous 

only its significations would seem to be in viewing them as predictive of the 

taken from the idea of a violent or deadly restoration of the Jews after their disper- 

disease. Thus n;^^^ n^, a grievom sion. The manner in which the prophet 

cnne^ 1 Kings ii. 8. Gesenius renders concludes the preceding verse, proves 

Y^O} ^, corruptio vekemenlissima. that he had finished what he had to 

11. Micah reverts to the subject of deliver respecting the favour shown to 

smooth and flattering predictions, which false prophets ; and his sudden and 

he had spoken of ver. 6, and shows that abrupt transition to better times is so 

so corrupt had the people become, that entirely in accordance with the manner 

no prophet might expect to be acceptable of the prophets, that the last-mentioned 

to them who did not sanction their interpretaUon at once recommends Itself 

sinful indulgences. To those who did, as the true. The point most difficult to 

they would give a ready ear. As rm determine is the period to which the 

signifies both loiW and gpirif, there is prophecy has respecU Most Christian 

great force in representing those who expositors explain it of the appeiurance 

pretended to inspiration as walking or of Christ, and his collecting of believers 

CHAP. II.] MIC AH. 237 

They shall be in commotion, 
Because of the multitude of men. 
13 The Breaker is gone up before them ; 
They break through and pass to the gate ; 
They go out at it ; 
Their King passeth on before them, 
Even Jehovah^ at their head. 

into his church ; but this construction is is seldom we meet with the article 

altogether arbitrary, resting on no other prefixed to a noun taking the pronominal 

foundation than the principle of giving affix, as in 'r^^; yet see Josh. vii. 21, 

a spiritual interpretation to whatever viii. 33. By p^, the Breaker^ some 

may, by possibility, be so interpreted, understand Cyprus ; but the identity of 

So far is there from being anytning in structure between this sentence and the 

the phraseology of the text to warrant two with which the verse closes, compels 

such appropriation of it, that the very us to interpret the term of Jehovah 

terms compel to an adoption of the himself,who, through the instrumentality 

literal sense. Kimchi, Jarchi, and the of that monarch, removed every obstacle 

Jews generally, as also several modem which prevented the return of the 

ChrisUan writers, maintain, that the Hebrews to their own land. When his 

prophecy relates to the future literal providence so visibly interposed, it was 

restorationofthe Jews under the Messiah, easy for them to break down the minor 

For my part, I cannot but regard the barriers which had confined them in 

more immediate restoration from the Babylonia, and triumphantly to march 

literal Babylon as the theme of the out through the gates of the hostile cj^. 

inspired announcement. The deliverance To intimate that they should suffer 

predicted is the same to which reference molestation firom no enemy by the way, 

IS made chap. iv. 10, the scene of which God is represented as eoin£ before them, 

is there expressly declared to be Babylon, like a monarch at the nead of his army ; 

" Jacob " stands here for the ten tribes, as just as he was said to go before his people 

in Is. xvii. 4 ; Hos. xii. 2 ; and " Israel " when they went up from Egypt, Deut 

for the kingdom of Judah, as in Obad. 18, i. 30. In the illustrious Deliverer here 

2 Chron. xii. 1, xix. 8, xxi. 2, 4. The exhibited, Rosenmilller recognises the 

two tribes and a half being few com- Messiah: **Perruptor, dfucri«»r, est 

pared with the ten, might well be de- enim cum n demonstrative. Loquitur 

scribed as rin^^ the remainder, which ergo de certa quadam persona, et anto- 

had been left in the land at the time of nomastice sic dicta, quse mox vucabitur 

the Assyrian invasion. To express the 09^, rex iUorum et n)^, ut non sit 

great extent of the population after the dubium, Nostrum deMessiacogitasse,seu 

return, it is compared to the large divino illo heroe, quo auspice, devictis 

collections of sheep in the folds of omnibus Judseorum hostibus, aureum 

Bozrah; a region celebrated for the seculum orbem beabit." And to his 

abundance of its flocks. The Targ., interpretation I accede, only restricting 

Vuiff., Gesenius, Winer, Hitzig, and the work of the Messiah, as here predicted, 

Ewald, render n^is^ eheep-foldy but this to his leading forth the Jews from 

■ignification of the word is totally un- Babylon. Comp. Exod. xxxiii. 14; Is. 

supported by usage, and is not allowed Ixiii. 9, in which we are taueht that the 

by Lee. llie LXX., mistaking a for Divine Logos delivered, and conducted 

the preposition, translate, Iv ^/^ci. It the Israelites through the wilderness. 

238 MICAEL [chap. iii. 


Having inserted in the two preceding verses a gracious prediction for the comfort 
of the few pious who might be living in the midst of the ungodly, the prophet 
proceeds to expatiate at greater lengUi against the latter, directing his discourse 
especially to the civil and ecclesiastical officers, who, by their example, exerted 
so baneful an influence upon the nation. The chapter may be divided into three 
parts, Ver. 1—4, an objurgation of the princes ; 5-^7, that of the prophets ; 
and 8—11, that of princes, prophets, and priests together. The chapter closes 
with a prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. 

1 And I said : Hear, I pray you, O heads of Jacob ! 
And ye judges of the house of Israel ! 

Is it not yours to know justice ? 

2 Who hate good and love evil ; 
Who strip their skin from off them, 
And their flesh from off their bones. 

3 Who devour the flesh of my people, 
And flay their skin from off them ; 
Who break their bones in pieces. 
And separate them as in the pot, 
And as flesh in the midst of the kettle* 

1 — 3. The ^ in ca^J is expressive of office, they were themselves perpetrators 

duty or obligation ; what the persons of the most flagrant acts of oppression 

spoken of were bound to do, and what and cruelty. Their inhuman conduct is 

might naturally be expected from them very forcibly described by the prophet, in 

in the station which they filled. 3rr is language borrowed from the process of 

here used, not of merely speculative slaying and preparing animals for food, 

knowledge, but of that which is practical, and the feasting consequent thereon. 

It was the province of the ma^strates to Comp. Ps. xiv. 4 ; Prov. xxx. 14. The 

exercise their judicial authority for the pronominal affixes in ver. 2, refer to the 

protection of the innocent, and the people, understood, and not to 3^n and 

punishment of evil-doers. But instead rv^ immediately preceding, which are 

of thus discharging the duties of their obviously employea as abstract neuters. 


4 Then they may cry to Jehovah, 
But he will not answer them, 

But will hide his tsuce from them at that time ; 
Because they have corrupted their doings. 

5 Thus saith Jehovah respecting the prophets. 
Who cause my people to err ; 

Who bite with their teeth, and cry, Peace ; 

But against him that putteth not into their mouth 

They prepare war. 

6 Surely ye shall have night without vision ; 
Ye shall have darkness without divination ; 
Yea, the sun shall go down upon the prophets, 
And the day shall become black over them. 

7 Then shall the seers be ashamed, 
And the diviners confounded ; 
They shall all cover their beard ; 

For there shall be no response from God. 

Though many MSS. read v\ with the under a religious pretext, were adopted 

Keri, yet there are others which exhibit against them. Thus the Targ. V*;Ad pi 

TOrXf tlie proper pointing of the Chethib. M^JipTiiVj^panp'TpjiijTTBjpnJ, They firophety 

No codex supports the emendation peace to him who feeds them mUi dinners 

><f9 instead of i^. The LXX. may, of flesh. The phrase is purposely selected 

or may not have so read. The etymology in order satirically to expose the selfish- 

of rn^ is uncertain, but that it signifies ness of the deceivers. For the meaning 

a vessel for boiling in is clear from its of «>3R, to sanctify^ as here used, see on 

being here parallel with Tp* and in Is. xiii. 3 ; Joel i. 14 ; and comp. Jer. 

1 Sam. ii. 14 with t^, "w and "fln^. vi. 4. 

4. 1H; then, and M<nnriQ»|, at that iime^ 6, 7. So completely should the pre- 
are anticipative of the period of divine dictions of the false prophets be dis- 
judgment The infliction of such judg- proved by the judgments that were to be 
mentis implied, not expressed. The more Drought on the nation, and so painfully 
emphaticflilly to convey an impression should they themselves experience these 
of Its certainty, the prophet takes it for judgments, that they could no longer 
granted. Goa is saia to hear or answer have the efirontery to practise their 
prayer, when he grants what is suppli- deceptions. Under such circumstances 
cated; and to hide his face, when he they could not pretend to deliver any 
disregards or afibrds no relief to the divme oracle to tne people. The words 
suppUant. y^t with the LXX., Syr., do not imply that they ever had really 
Justi, Dathe, and others, I take to be received any such oracles : they merely 
causal, as in Num. xxvil. 14 ; 1 Sam. professed to have received them, o is 
zxviii. 18 ; 2 Kings xvii. 26. here to be taken privatively, and not in 

5. xsrjf^ C3*?f3n, who bite with their the signification of o6, propter^ &c., as 
teeth, the antithesis requires to be under- interpreted by some. The obscuration 
stood in the sense of eating the food of the heavenly bodies, or of the light of 
supplied by the people. While such day, is frequently employed by the 
supplies were granted, the false prophets prophets, as it is by oriental writers 

Eredicted prosperity ; but if they with- generally, to denote affliction or calamity, 

eld them, measures of a hostile nature, Amos viii. 9. D^, LXX., in 2 Sam. 

240 MICAH. [chap. hi. 

8 But truly I am full of power by the Spirit of Jehovah, 
And of judgment and might ; 

To declare unto Jacob his transgression, 
And to Israel his sin. 

9 Hear this, I beseech you, ye heads of the house of Jacob ! 
And judges of the house of Israel ! 

Who abhor justice, 
And pervert all equity ; 

10 Building Zion with blood, 
And Jerusalem with wickedness. 

1 1 Her heads judge for reward, 
And her priests teach for hire ; 

Her prophets also divine for money ; 
Yet they lean upon Jehovah, saying : 

xiz. 25, iivara^, the mutiache or beard, liver in full, the message wbich he had 

which is held in high estimation in the commenced, ver. 1, employing the same 

East, and in exhibiting which, properly formula, Mpvtn^, as he also does chap, 

grown and trimmed, the Orientals greatly vi. 1. The remaining verses of the 

pride themselves. To hide it, therefore, chapter furnish a noble specimen of that 

by covering it, was regarded as a striking bold and uncompromising fidelity which 

mark of sname or sorrow. See Lev. characterised his ministry, 

xiii. 45; 2 Sam. xix. 25; Ezek. xxiv. 10. n^i, the LXX., Syr., Tm., and 

1 7, 22. Vulg., render in the plural, but no Hebrew 

8. Full of conscious sincerity, and codex exhibits the variation. The authors 
of his divine commission, in the execu- of these versions doubtless r^;arded the 
tion of which he was sustained by the participle as a collective, which mode of 
supernatural influence of the Holy Spirit, construction we must adopt, or, with 
and zealous for the glory of God, and Michaelis, we must suppose that the 
the recovery of his people, Micah avows prophet had Shebna, la. xxii. 16 — 18, 
his readiness, with all boldness, to an- Jehoiakim,orBomeotherparticular prince 
nounce to them his inspired message re- in his eye ; the former interpretation is 
specting their sins. His character and preferable. n*OT, Mood, used for the 
conduct formed a perfect contrast to wealth obtained by shedding the blood 
those of the false prophets. The com- of its owners. Comp. Jer. xxii. 13 ; 
pound particle D^, and the jlronoun Ezek. xxii. 27 ; Hab. ii. 12, in the latter 
^^ are here emphatic. Il3, means the of which passages Q^i and nj^ are used 
supernatural power necessary for the as parallels, with the same partiele, T^a. 
general discharge of the prophetic office; 11. "vyai^ is a gift or bribe given to a 
comp. di/vflfitff, Luke i. 17, xxiv. 49; judge to obtain freedom from punish- 
Acts i. 8 ; C6^, a sense of moral rec ment. Receiving bribes was strictly 
iUude, distinguishing clearly between prohibited by the Mosaic law, Exod. 
right and wrong, and impellmg to the xxiii. 8; Deut. xvi. 19. That the ^^Bp, 
advocacy and maintenance of such priests, were authorized by that law to 
actions, as are conformable to the Divine act in the capacity of ordinary religious 
law ; and rnnni, moral courage, or a bold teachers, does not appear. Tneir being 
and intrepid spirit, inciting its possessor thus employed by Jenoshaphatis narrated 
to throw aside all timidity in defending as something altogether extraordinary, 
the cause of God and truth. Comp. 2 Chron. xvii. 7 — ^9. Besides attending 
2 Tim. i. 7. to the ceremonial observances, they had 

9. The prophet now proceeds to de- devolved upon them the decision of con- 


Is not Jehovah in the midst of us ? 
No calamity shall come upon us. 
12 Surely on your account 

Sion shall be ploughed as a field, 

Jerusalem shall become heaps, 

And the mountain of the house woody heights. 

troveraiesy Deut. xvii. 8 — 11, xxi. 5; temple. That which was their boast 

£zek. xliv. 24, cases of leprosy, divorce, and confidence, was to be converted into 

&c. Lev. X. 11. They were to lay down a wilderness. "^ signifies not only a 

the law in such cases, and pronounce forest, but also a thicket of shrubs, a 

the final sentence. Comp. Mai. ii. 7 ; rough or rugged locality, from the Arab. 

Dent, xxxiii. 10; and see Michaelis ^ . ,. , . 

on the Laws of Moses, Art. lii. They f'^,atper,saUhrwufint;dtffieihitncei8u, 

are here associated with Uie judges, aj^er locus. The whole verse contains 
because m certain cases they gave a a description of utter ruin and desolation, 
jomt verdict; and in the time of the The enunciation of such a prophecy 
prophet were equally avaricious and cor- evinced the greatest intrepidity on the 
ruptible. The verb tso^, to dwme, p^rt of Micah, and is quoted as an in- 
being only used of false nrophets, shows g^nce of prophetic boldness, Jer. xxvi. 
that those reproved by Micah were of ig^ 19, fhe ploughing of the city by 
that description. Comp. Judell. With the enemy, which has its parallel in 
aU their wicked perversion of right, they Horace, lib. i. Od. 16, 
hypocritically claimed an interest in the <. r • • 

favour of God, and scouted the idea that " Impnmiratque muns . . , „ 

the calamities denounced by his true Ho^^^^e aratrum exercitus msolens, 

prophets could ever overtake them, has by some interpreters been referred 

Comp. Jer. vii. 4, 8 — 11, where the same to what is recoraed in the Talmud, 

presumptuous confidence in the Divine noticed by Jerome, and repeated by 

presence in the temple, is exposed and Maimonides, that Titus Annius Rufus, 

condemned. an officer in the Roman army, tore up 

12. We have here at last an awful with a ploughshare the foundations of 

epiphonema, in which the destruction of the temple ; but little or no credit is to 

the metropolis is expressly and par- be given to the story. See Deylingii 

ticularly predicted. The wicked leaders Observationes Sacr. pt. v. pp. 448, 450. 

of the people were now building and Robinson's Palestine, vol. ii. pp. 2, 8, 

beautifying it, by expending upon it The circumstance, however, tnat what 

their unrighteous gains, ver. 10; but Micah predicts, relates to the city as 

the time was coming when it should be distinguished from the temple, clearly 

completely desolated. " Zion " desig- militates against this application of his 

nates the site of the city of David on language. Equally inapposite as to the 

the south; ''Jerusalem," the houses fulnlmentof the prophecy are the appeals 

occupied by the inhabitants generally in to the present partially cultivated state 

the centre and the north ; and ** the of Mount Zion, since the destruction to 

mountain of the house," Moriah on the which it points was not the more distant 

east. Instead of fV, the Chaldee ter- devastations under Titus and Adrian, 

mination, five MSS., five others originally, but the more proximate under Nebu- 

and the Babylonian Talmud, read D*^. chadnezzar. For the accomplishment, 

n*|rr, the homey i.e. kqt €^x^y, the see Neh. ii. 17, iv. 2; Lam. v. 18. 

I I 

24a MICAH. [chap. iy. 


By a sudden transition, as at chap.ii. 13, the prophet passes from hb denunciation 
of punishment, to a description of the glorious state of the church subsequent 
to the restoration from the captivity in Babylon. He predicts the establishment 
of the kingdom of Christ upon the ruins of idolatry, and the accession of the 
Gentiles, 1, 2; the peacefiil nature of his reign, 3, and the security of his sub- 
jects, 4. He then abruptly introduces his captive countrymen, who, having been 
recovered to the worship of the true God, declare, that, however the idolatens 
around them might adhere to their several systems of creature-worship, they 
would never renounce the service of Jehovah, 5. The Most High promises to 
gather even the weakest of them from their dispersions, restore their national 
existence, and reign over them for ever, 6 — 8. The intermediate invasion of 
Judea, the captivity in Babylon, and the liberation of the Jews, are next de* 
picted, 9 — 11. Upon which follows a prediction of the victories which they 
should gain over their enemies in the times of the Maccabees, and of the reverse 
which took place on the establishment of Herod by the Roman power. 

1 And it shall come to pass in the last of the days, 
That the mountain of Jehovah's house 

Shall be established on the summit of the mountains. 
And be elevated above the hills. 
And the people shall flow to it. 

2 Yea, many nations shall go, and say : 

Come, let us go up to the mountain of Jehovah, 
To the house of the God of Jacob, 
That he may teach us his ways, 
And that we may walk in his paths ; 

1 — 3. On the general identity of this verbal discrepancies, which are few and 

prophecy with Is. ii. 2 — 4, see the note trivial, will be best seen on consulting 

on that passage, to which the reader is Newcome, who exhibits the Hebrew 

also referred for the interpretation. The text of both prophets in parallel columns. 

CHAP. IV.] MICAH. 243 

For out of Zion shall go forth the law, 
And the word of Jehovah from Jerusalem. 

3 And he shall arbitrate among many people, 
And give decision to many distant nations, 

So that they shall beat their swords into coulters, 
And their spears into pruning-knives ; 
Nation shall not raise a sword against nation, 
Neither shall they learn war any more. 

4 And they shall sit, each under his vine, and under his fig-tree, 
And none shall make him afraid ; 

For the mouth of Jehovah of hosts hath spoken it. 

5 Though all the people should walk 
Each in the name of his god, 

Yet we will walk in the name of Jehovah our God, 
For ever and ever. 

6 In that day, saith Jehovah, 
I will gather the halting, 
And collect the outcasts. 

And those whom I have afflicted. 

The sense is the same throughout. Calvin, in he. They witnessed the 

Twenty MSS., originally ten more, one eagernesswith which the idolaters around 

by correction, and the Complut. edition, them devoted themselves to the service 

read Tjtf instead of rj^. For *<^. »ft, of their gods — an eagerness which led 

thirty-six MSS., probably another, seven them to despair of their ever being 

originally, and six by correction, together reclaimed ; and they nobly resolved that 

with four of the early editions, read nothing should ever again move them to 

»^; and forwi]?; five MSS., four originally, abandon the service of Jehovah; but 

and now one, read m^. that, with equal earnestness, they would 

4. This beautiful addition, which is addict themselves to his worship, and 
not in Isaiah, appears to have been a the observance of his laws. ^ is here a 
common adage among the Hebrews to formula of concession : he it to that^ 
express a state of complete outward although, or the like. Comp. for this 
security. 1 Kings iv. 25; Zech. iii. 10. use of the particle, Gen. viii. 21 ; Exod. 
For a state of things precisely the reverse, xiii. 17; Josh. xvii. 18; Deut. xxix. 18. 
see my Biblical Researches and Travels ^B Dtii^, to walk in the name of any oney 
in Russia, &c. p. 436. means to frame one's conduct according 

5. Many interpreters have been puz- to his will, to act by his authority, and 
zled how to reconcile the statement in accordance with his character. D«>, 
made in the beginning of this verse with name, is often used for the person him- 
the prediction contained in verse 2 ; and self. Comp. the phrases njrr y^rr^ rpn ; 
Hartmann ffoes sofarasto assert, that it nJrrnnM^, to uxuk in the way of, to 
was originally a marginal gloss, written foUow Jehovah. It seems here to be 
by a dinerent pen, and afterwards inserted specially employed in reference to reli- 
in the text. The difficulty will be re- gious worship. Comp. Zech. x. 12. 
moved, if we consider the words to be 6 — 8. That the subject of these verses 
those of the Jews during their dispersion, is the restoration from Babylon, and the 
*' Hie spectanda est diversitas temporis." re-establishment of the Jewish state, 

gi4 MICAH. [chap, IV. 

7 And I will make the halting a remnant. 

And those that had been &r removed a strong nation ; 
And Jehovah shall reign over them in Mount Zion, 
From henceforth, and for ever. 

8 And thou, O tower of the flock ! 
O hill of the daughter of Zion ! 
To thee it shall come, 

Even the former rule shall come, 

The kingdom of the daughter of Jerusalem. 

and not any spiritual gathering of men ence to the strength of Jerusalem, and 

generally to tne church of God, is placed the watchful care exercised by the 

beyond dispute by the prediction that the government he characterises her as 

scattered and afflicted remnant of Israel TipVTip, the iower of the fioek. Some, 

was again to become a Urong naiMn^ indeed, think with Jerome, that a place 

ver. 7, and by the use of the phrase of this name, to which reference is made 

njtnrn nJjHp^rr, the former rule^ ver. 8, Gen. zxxv. 21, and which that father 

which can only be interpreted of the says lay about a mile distant from Beth^ 

theocratic government at Jerusalem, lehem, is intended ; but, from its being 

When the Hebrews first returned to in apposition with J^^sr^^, mound ^ 

their own land, they were few in number, the aattghter qf Zion, a fortified hill or 

amounting only to 42,360 ; but they elevation on the eastern part of Mount 

rapidly increased, and in the time of the Zion, and here put for the whole, such 

Maccabees not only became an inde- interpretation is inadmissible. For ^, 

pendent state, but acauired such power com p. Is. xxxii. 14 ; 2 Chron. xxvii. 3, 

that they vanquishea the formidable xxxiii. 14; Neb. iii. 26, 27, in which 

Syro-Grecian armies. The Asmonsean last passage ^?rK?, the tower, is mentioned 

family possessed supreme authority from along with it, which is doubtless identical 

Mattathias to Herod the Great To the with ]m, Is. xxxii. 14. The word is 

above interpretation no valid objection derived from ^, to swell, become tumid, 

can be taken on the ground that Jehovah j^^^^ \j^ ^^^^ lahoramt, pinguendo 

IS said, ver. 7, to reign for ever over w-^' , 

those who were to be assembled, d^, ctrca perinaum capri, &c. Toy 'O^Xav 

eternity^ or long indefinite duration, k€lKovii.€vov v^Xov. Joseph, de Bell. 

whether applied to the pastor the future, Jud. lib. vi. cap. 6, § 3. The LXX., 

must always be determmed by the nature Aquil., Symm., Syr., and Vulg., confound 

of the subject It is very often used of the word with ^, thick darkness. The 

the Mosaic institutes, Exod.xii. 14, 17, Targum applies the passage to the 

xxvii. 21, xxviii. 43 ; Lev. iii. 17. Itis Messiah : 'J^n DTg,|pTn?!pi>rTtonMn>s59»« 

even employed to denote the period of the **VX^ »«nO^ wtpjj flft fi*si H^wb^, *' jfad 

seventy years' captivity, J er. xviii. 1 6. For thou, O Messiah of Israel, who artludon 

nj^ and nrrnn, comp. Ezek, xxxiv. 16 ; account of the sins of the congregation of 

Zeph. iii. 19. nHjnsn is the Niphal par- Zion, to Oiee the kingdom will come ; " but 

ticiple of M^, to be removed Syr. there is no more foundation for this 

* V interpretation, than for that of Jonathan 

^OtbiOl} elongavit, removit. Arab, on -Yjr^. Gen. xxxv. 21 : |9np7 kjih 

, Ijk II., recessit, ahscessit. Having »" " /.liS "■> **'.'i • 7\ pioce 

w/" ' * » from whteh King Messiah %s to be revealed 

employed metaphors taken from the at the end of the days,'* whatever use 

treatment of sheep, Micah calls the may be made of it in the vrayofargu^ 

Jewish people, in tneir collective capa- mentum ad hominem in reasoning with 

cityi "^7?. ajlock. Comp. njrniy, thejlock the Jews. ^ in njb isaperiphraus of the 

of Jehovah, Jer. xiii. 17; and in refer- genitive. 

CHAP. iv.J MICAH. 2*5 

9 Why, now, dost tliou cry aloud ? 
Is there no king in thee P 
Have thy counsellors perished ? 
That pains should have seized thee 
Like a woman in travail ? 

10 Be in pain, and bring forth, O daughter of Zion ! 
Like a woman in travail ; 

For now thou shalt go forth from the city. 
And shalt dwell in the field. 
Thou shalt even go to Babylon ; 
There thou shalt be delivered, 
There Jehovah shall redeem thee. 
From the hand of thine enemies. 

11 And now many nations are gathered against thee, 
That say : Let her be profaned ! 

And : Let our eyes look upon Zion. 

12 But, as for them, they know not the designs of Jehovah, 

9. n^ is not here used in its temporal of Jerusalem, when removed from the 
signification, bat merely as a particle city, should be located in the open country, 
designed emphatically to draw attention till the whole were collected, and then 
to what follows. Five MSS. and another they should all be conveyed to Babylon, 
originally, supported by the LXX. and 1 1. The nations here referred to were 
Targ., read n^, which is the usual those which composed the army of 
form. The prophet plunges at once into Nebuchadnezzar, or which joined that 
the circumstances of consternation in army in its attack upon Jerusalem. The 
which the inhabitants of Jerusalem would more immediate neighbours of the Jews 
be placed on the approach of the Chaldean are no doubt specialTy intended. Com p. 
army. The questions relative to a kinff Lam. ii. 16 ; Ezek.xxxv.; Obad. 12, lt3. 
and his council are put ironically, and These defiled Jerusalem when they shed 
provoke the answer, " Yes, we have, but the blood of her citizens and profaned 
they are nothing worth : they cannot her sacred places. } n^ is used, like 
protect us, nor contrive any means of ^ n|n, Obad. 12, in an emphatic sense, to 
escape." ^^^ the LXX. treat as a col« denote the malienant delight with which 
lective : i) /SovXi; aov. the enemies of tne Jews feasted on their 

10. ^1, instead of Tna, for the sake calamities. For the use of the feminine 
of euphony. Comp. in reference to singular inn with the dual masculine, 
childbirth, Job xxzviii. 8 ; Ps. xxii. 10. comp. 2 Sam. x. 9 ; Jobxx. 11. Nothing 
Having employed the metaphor of a is more common in Arabic than to employ 
parturient female, the prophet carries it the feminine form of the verb when the 
on in this verse, strikingly depicting the agent is any thing irrational or inanimate, 
condition of anguish and distress which The singular number is employed as the- 
the Jews had to anticipate before they simpler form of the verb. It may be 
should enjoy deliverance. The Baby- observed, however, that, instead of ^TJ9 
lonish captivity, and its happy termina- in the plural, four MSS., two of the most 
tion, are predicted in express terms. Both ancient editions, the Syr. and Targ., read 
werelikewiseexpresslyforetold by Isaiah, ^3^9 in the singular. The LX A. have 
the contemporary of Micah, chap, xxxix. the plural. Soth I'pniq and KTP are 
7, xliii. 14, xlviii. 20. The repetition of optative in force. 

D^, there, is emphatic. The inhabitants 12, no^is a nominative absolute, used 

246 MICAH. [chap. iv. 

Neither do they understand his purpose ; 

For he shall collect them as sheaves into the threshing-floor. 

13 Arise ! thresh, O daughter of Zion ! 
For I will make thy horn iron, 
And thy hoofs copper, 

And thou shalt beat in pieces many nations ; 

Thou shalt devote their gains to Jehovah, 

And their substance to the Lord of all the earth. 

14 Assemble yourselves now, O daughter of troops ! 
We are besieged ! 

for tbe sake of emphasis. The enemies Symm., Theodot, the Syr., and Vulg., 

of the Jews had not the most distant idea, all have the second person, cni, Arab, 
that the object of Jehovah in permitting i.*l '^ 

his people to be so treated was to recover fj^^ probibmt; sacrum, quod non est 

them from idolatry, and thus prepare ^^,^' ^..^ ._._ . j _ i. j j * 

them for a triumphlmt mtoration. ^fhe '^Z^^lTtL^ make soared, devote, 

meUphor takeu fn,m the procew of "^!,*" ^^ ?«?!'" ' ^.'^'^JH 

thresUg out grain is frequency used by T^'^^^^t iLT^^l \^^^ 

the propheU to denote^ the complete t^t"!^x \^^}^^i^ 

de<ti£ctU of a people. Comp. Jer. «'««"»?« their temple., go the triumph- 

li.33. For the mSnner in whio^ thi, thl^tw.'JT.?;?^ k'".^ •' ' f '^ ?" 

• J T — wbicn they acqmred bv their victories in 

pnn^ 1. earned on, see on Is. xxvm. y^^^^fyj^ ^ ,^,J^f j^h„,,^^ ,„^ 

13. A continuation of the metaphor. !?Pr.«'Li?i!!sTr!!'P/ T^^Maccabean 

Comp. for a red parallel. Is. xli. 15, 16. ^T* ToS^^it^T^ '°- ^ 
Th«rsU hnwever a Tervnutural instance '** * COnMOC' ^^f trOOjp, to be a 

?mix"d meuSri^rivTfc^^^^ ~"-«- Jeru«dem iscallela ^*^ 

destructive power Mged in the horn of % *^'^' <"» wcount of the «eat body 

the ox, though it is'^not employed in <>f "I'J'^T quartered withmTier wjdis, 

threshing, whfch gre.Uy adds ti the force ?"«* V* *' ,'>«"°""dmg dutncts. That 

of the piUige. 'That' 135, Aon,, should * "Zt™*^/?; "f °<»' *• enemy, that 

here be employed to .i™ify th^ homy » "^dreMed the close coherence of the 

wbstance forming the loof of the ol foms with those oftheprecedmg context 

cannot be admitted. Comp. 1 Kingi f"®^^^^'^ Fortheparonomana 

xxii.ll. The horn was a symbol of SK.Tri„7'f!' ^^P" ?!?.• ^'f '^; 

power exercised in subduing and punish- ^^ ~™" " .•'='=*P"'^™ "f 7^', ■» '? *^ 

iW enemies. The Orientals give to or ««*e mc»«w« ; but that it also sign,- 

» * • nes to assemble as troops, see Jer. v. 7. 

Alexander the Great the epithet of •«> #«. 

Syr. |.>ay^ ^ portion or detachment of 
^jJ-aiJ, bicomis; and the kings of ' ^x^ 

^"^ an army. Though at D^ the enemy is 

Macedon were actually in the habit of understood, it is better to construe it 

wearing the horns of a ram in their impersonally, and give it in our language 

casques. 'i^ffJJiJ'J I take to be the second in the passive. In ^i^ and i^ is 

person feminine, the Yod being a frag- another paronomasia. Most understand 

ment of the old form of the personal by the Tot^, judge, Zedekiah, who was 

pronoun ^TyA, regularly preserved in the treated contumeliously by the Baby- 

Syriac. Compare, for other instances, lonians ; but it seems preferable to refer 

fjjipto, Ruth iii. 3; ''^^t Jer. xxxi. 21, it to some of the chief rulers of the Jews 

though they are pointed with a Sheva, at the time of the siege of Jerusalem 

and Uie Keri directs that they should be described by the prophet; or the term 

read J^npto and tffif^. The LXX., Aquila, may be used collectively. The position 


CHAP, v.] MICAH. g47 

With a rod they have smitten on the cheek 
The judge of Israel ! 

of Hengstenberg and some others, that Michaelis thinks was that by Sosius, the 
it is selected on purpose to mark a period Roman general, b.c. 37, when Antigonus, 
durinjf which no king of the house of the last of the Asmonsan dynasty, was 
David reigned, might be allowed, were obliged to submit to the superior power, 
it not for the influence of the foregoing Whether this prince be specifically in- 
to^, with which it forms the paronomasia, tended I shall not determine. So much 
Though the LXX. have rendered the is certain, that he was most con- 
term by ^vXa£, Aq., Symm., and Theod., temptuously treated by Sosius ; see 
have KpiTifv. Tlie siege in question Josephus, Bell. Jud. lib. i. cap. zviii. 2. 


Having just adverted to the calamitous circumstances in which the Jews should be 
placed at the commencement of the reign of Herod, the prophet foretels, in a 
very explicit manner, the birth of the Messiah, which was to take place during 
the lifetime of that king, 1. A prediction is then introduced respecting the 
final dealings of God towards the nation previous to that illustrious event, 2, 
on which the permanent and universal nature of the new dispensation is an- 
nounced, 3. The subject of the victories of the Jews over the Syro-Grecian 
armies is again taken up, 4 — 8 ; and the chapter concludes with threatenings 
both against the Jews in the time of Micah, and the enemies by whom they 
were to be punished, 9 — 15. 

1 And thoui Bethlehem Ephratha ! 

Art sinall to be among the thousands of Judah, 

1. Michaelis remarks, '' If not even a might be expected, they difier as to the 

word were found in Matt. ii. 5, 6, ex- person of the Messiah. The Targum 

planatory of our text, I should believe has, ^ p(M T3^ T^^ MBPfip p^ naii?, ^ 

the subject to be Christ, who was born woJjnjSnp ppTBl^Taia^T^WTitoj, **From 

in the reign of Herod. The whole thee the Afeuiah shall come forth before 

thread of the prophecy in the preceding me, to exercise dominion over Israel, 

chapter leads me to him, and the time tiohose name was announced long ago, 

of his birth." The Messianic application from the days of old.** The position of 

of the prophecy was formally made by Theodore of Mopsuesta, Grotius, Dathe, 

the Jewish Sanhedrim, in their official and some others, that Zerubbabel was 

repl]^ to Herod, Matt. ii. 5, 6 ; and is intended, is now given up by all ; and 

admitted both by the Rabbinical and moat interpreters of the German school 

the rationalistic interpreters, though, as find their notion of an ideal Messiah 

Si8 MICAH. [chap. v. 

Yet from thee shall He come forth to me 
To be Ruler in Israel, 

sufficiently convenient in explaining this but the opinion rests upon nothing 

and other passages, as it relieves them beyond the construction which these 

from all investigation in regard to positive writers have put upon the term as occur- 

historical personality, on^^ Beth- ring in Jer. xlviii. 4, and Zech. xiiL 7, 

tehemt literally, the House of Bread, which passages, when closely examined. 

. , t n '. r I .1 Tw admit of no other signification being 

Arab. ^ v::^! Bett Lahm, the House attached to the word but that of littU, 

of Flesh, It was a small town in the ^^ 'f^f^oie, or esUem^ though it may 

t;^e of Judah, built on the slope of a !!!TJ? ^^^T^^ !^A!^ 

first of the line of Jewish kin^. nxiM, 1^2^^ that of the Syriac, in the latter. 

Ephrath, Gen. xlvm. 7, or, as it is com- ^ I 

monly written, with the n paragogic. In none of the cognate dialects has the 

nrn^, Ephratha^ appears from the pas- word the signification of greatness or 

sage just cited to have been the origmal dignity, nm tv^ is literiuly UtUe m 

name of the place. This word has much respect of being, liiiie to exist, or be 

the same signification as Beth-lehem, reckoned. There is no occasion to resort 

being derived from n^, io be fruiHul; to the hypothesis that ) here forms a 

and no doubt the place received both comparative, and is equivalent to ]t3. 

names from the fertility of the region. What the prophet asserts is, that Beth- 

Dr. Robinson observes respecting the lehem was positively little in point of 

present aspects of the town : " The size or population, to rank with tne other 

many oHve and fig-orchards and vine- subdivisions of the tribe of Judah. 

yards round about are marks of industry Comp. 1 Sam. xxiii. 23. The tribes 

and thrift ; and the adjacent fields, were subdivided into rAm^i^, families^ or 

though stony and rough, produce never- clans, the chiliads or-thousands of which 

theless sood crops of grain." Biblical had heads or princes, to whom, from this 

Researches in Palestine, vol. ii. p. 161. circumstance, was given the name of 

The names occur as parallels in the C3^ n^. D"^ ^^Cm^ princes and heads of 

stanza, Ruth iv. 11 : — thousands. It is highly probable that at 

—^^ l|H ,■ ^y y^ the time to which the prophecy refers, 

: Dn^'n\p D^in^ *^ ^^^ ^^ *^** ®^ *^® prophet, the place 

1 , .*'«'••« V. * r I T might not have been able to muster a 

It was likewise called Bethlehem Judah, thousand men. No mention is made of 

Judges xvii. 7, xix. 1 ; Ruth 1. 1 ; Matt, it among the cities of Judah enumerated 

ii. 6, in order, it is thought, to distinguish jogh. xv., though, with many others, it 

it from another place of the same name jg found in the text of the LXX. Nor 

in the tribe of Zabulon, Josh. xix. 15. joes it occur in the list, Neh. xi. 25, &c. 

tT?^, as well as n^. is of the masculine it ig gpoken of in the New Testament as 

gender, contrary to rule in Hebrew, but ^o^^^, a village, or hamiet, John vii.42. 

m accordance with Arabic usage, in ]„ the present day its inhabitants are 

which the names of cities are sometimes ^ted at eight hundred taxable men. See 

put in the masculine. In the present d^. Rohinson, ut sup. Yet, small and 

instance, however, the change was doubt- inconsiderable as Bethlehem was, it was 

less occasioned by nja, which is of that to have the distinguished honour of 

gender, being strongly prominent to the gj^ing birth to the Messiah, 
view of the prophet. Pococke, in the 

notes to his Porta Mosis, chap, ii., and in " O sola magnarum urbium 

his commentary on the passage, labours Major Bethlem, cui contigit 

hard to support the opinion of Tauchum Ducem salutis ccelitus 

and Abulwalid, that T^ has the two Incorporatum gignere." 

contrary significations of little and great; Prudentius, Jfynm. Epiph, 77. 

CHAP, v.] MICAH. 249 

Whose comings forth have been of old, 
From the ancient days. 

Between the former wid the latter ^Yitii the words Jjl^l J, have crept 
half of the verse w a marked antithesis. w^j— ^^' r 

In this respect, hS! and vn^o, corre- into the text from the preceding clause, 

spond ; the former, designating the Though 07^ is used of past duration ab- 

future cofning forth of the Illustrious solutdy in reference to God, Deut. 

Ruler here predicted, when he should xxxiii. 27, yet it is most frequently e'm- 

actually assume human nature ; the latter, ployed to denote past, especially ancienl 

his ancientcomtfi^f/orM, when he created time, and is synonymous with d^, with 

the world, and appeared to Moses and which it occurs in poetic parallelisms, 
the patriarchs, and revealed to them the ^ a * - 

Divine will. The idea conveyed hy the ^o™P- *»>« A**»>- f^* praceuU ; tern- 
noun must be identical with that ex- ^. ^ " ^ 

pressed by the verb. Abenezra, Abar- P^ antiquum. Syr. yj^, ante, coram. 

banel, Grotius, Hartmann, Rosenmiiller, in Pg. xliv. 2, trt^ ^ occurs, just 
Gesenius, Hitzie, Maurer, and Ewald, as tjj\» 'gj does in 'the present verse ; 
give oriffifui as the signification of rfwfto, ^^^ ';„ p^. Ixxvii. 6 we have DTgp dt^» 
and regard the term as referring to the and onpj^ rnytf corresponding to each 
Davidic extraction of the Messiah. This other. ^Comp. also Micah vii. 14, 20; 
signification is likewise strenuously main- Mai. iii. 4, That the dogma of eternal 
tained by Hengstenberg ; but, instead of generation or emanation is taught by 
finding any reference to the ancient qu^ prophet, does not appear ; but the 
family of David, he adopte the opinion actual preexistence of our Saviour, and 
that the object of the prophet is to teach ^jg active comings forth, in the most 
tlie eternal existence of the Messiah, ancient times, for the accomplishment of 
His position,, however, is perfectly un- the Divine purposes, he not obscurely 
tenable, since nothing can be more in- teaches. Thus Piscator : " Verto egres- 
congruous than the ascription of locality giones, nempe egressiones a Deo Patre 
to eternity, which he expressly does in ad sanctos Patres Adamum, Noachum, 
the translation, " his goings forth (in the Abrahamum, Isaacum, Jacobnm, quibus 
sense of places of going forth,) are the apparuit seseque familiari sermone pate- 
ancient times, the days of eternity, i. e. fecit." For the interpretation of Calvin, 
the very ancient times." None of the ^^jat the eternal decree respecting the 
nassages which he alleges, proves the future birth of the Messiah is intended, 
local signification ; they all describe the there is no foundation whatever. The 
act, not the place or time of egress, term VgJta, Ruler, here employed, is that 
p before rr$i and in Q^tr XfV, is used in uged by David in his Messianic Ode, 

its temporal acceptation, marking the 2 Sam. xxiii. 3 ; 

terminus a quo. The LXX. t^oJ^oi ^^ ,^^ 

ovrov oir apxns i$ riiitp»v aumvos, :iyrfi*rio^^ 

Syr. ^ |fi.*AAJ J^ aiaa^O Comp. Jcr. xxx. 21 :— 

M V V ^'^P ^^^1*^ "^JP 

ha!^ i-i^Q^ '* ^^^^ going forth is vcc ^a^^■ V?tftaJ 

from the beginning, from the days of the *^ hm y^ mvPFi n^ ^ 

ages.*' Vulg. *'Et egressus ejus ci initio, a j ^ dh3 »^ rtt^ 

dUbus atemUatUr The Arab, though , r "• " '" * 

unwarrantably free as a version, gives Comp. also Is. xi. 1 — 4. 'n,iome,\s not 

, ^, ^ .. r ^ without emphasis. The Messiah was to 

pretty much the true sense : J^Jp^^ ^^^^ for the express purpose of carrying 

Jt^l 1>\ JJU JjUI >, ''Whose i"*o ctfect the will of his Father in the 

7***" (*•• "^^ 1-^.7**" ^* salvation of men; and though Israelis 

goings forth in Israel are from the days specially mentioned as the sphere of his 

of the age" It is, however, not unlikely, rule, it is not to the exclusion of the 

K K 

250 MICAH, CHAP. V. 

2 Nevertheless he will give them up 

Till the time when she who is to bear hath brought forth, 
And the rest of his brethren 
Shall return to the sons of Israel* 

3 And He shall stand, and feed in the strength of Jehovah, 
In the majesty of the name of Jehovah his God. 

Gentile world, as ver. 3, and numeroiu people are more than once spoken of in 

passages in other prophets clearly show, language strictly literal. Toe birth of 

For the verbal discrepancies between the Messiah, in so far as regards ita 
the Hebrew text of Micah, and the quo- place, and the preexistence of his 
tatiou Matt. ii. 6, the reader is referred person, had been predicted ver. 1 : the 
to the commentators on the latter pas- prophet, who, as already noticed, was 
sage. It may suffice to remark here, contemporary with Isaiah, and in all 
that the Hebrew words cannot with any probability was acquainted with his 
propriety be rendered interrogatively, celebrated prophecy respecting the np)9, 
as some have proposed, and that the quo- Is. vii. H, now further adverts to the 
tation in question, made by the Sanhe- interesting fact by a somewhat indefi- 
drim, and not by the evangelist, is nite, but by no means obscure refer- 
obviously given from memory, and not ence to his virgin mother. This view 
with any view to verbal accuracy. is further confirmed by the use of 

2. Notwithstanding the glorious pro- tiie pronominal affix in Tii^, which un- 

spect afforded by the promise of the questionably belongs to the Messiah, the 

Messiah, it was not to supersede the immediate antecedent, and not, as a 

state of suffering to which the nation collective, to Israel, as given in the 

was to be previously reduced on account LXX. and Targ. By his ** brethren " 

of its sins. Into that state it was to be cannot be meant the Gentile believers, 

brought by the Chaldeans, and was not which some interpreters have alleged, 

to be fullv restored till about the time referring in proof to Ps. xxii. 22 ; Ueb. 

of his birth. The return from Babylon ii. 11; but his brethren according to 

was only partial at first ; but, encouraged the flesh, those who still remained in 

by the prosperity which attended the re- foreign parts, but who were to be brought 

establishment of the theocracy, others who back to Judea, in order that they might 

resided in the East were induced to fol- be there to receive him, when he should 

low, and multitudes returned from Egypt come forth to be ruler in Israel. The 

and other parts, before the Christian era. preposition ^ conveys here the idea of 

The words rn^ rrfff are susceptible of superaddition. The foreign Jews were 

two interpretations. They may either to be gathered in addition to those who 

be referred to the Jewish church, and bad already been collected. It is 

regarded as descriptive of her deliver- thus more expressive than ^. That the 

ance from suffering, set forth under the phrase ^toj »3>, the ehUdren of Israel, is 

metaphor of a travailing woman ; or, not here to be taken in its distinctive 

they strictly and literally apply to the application to the ten tribes, but denotes 

mother of the Messiah. The former the descendants of Jacob generally, may 

interpretation is adopted by Lipman, be inferred from the fact, that it is thus 

Munster, Vatablus, Grotius, Drusius, appropriated after the Babylonish cap- 

Dathe, Justi, and others ; the latter by tivity, the period to which the prophecy 

the greater number of expositors — among refers. It is well known that the Macca- 

oth^r moderns, by Seeker, Michaelis, basan coins bear the inscription, ^nv'^^pv, 

Hartmann, Rosenmiiller, Hitzig, Maurer, the Shekel of Israel. Comp. for this use 

and Ewald. This construction of the of the term Vtnte?, ver. 1 of the present 

Passage alone suits the entire connexion, chapter, 
t would appear altogether incongruous 3. The verb "i^ signifies not simply 

to introduce a tropicsu designation of the to stand, but also to stand firm, to endure, 

church, in a verse in which the Jewish continue. This latter acceptation is 

CHAP, v.] MICAH. 251 

And they shall continue ; 

For now shall He be great unto the ends of the earth. 

4 And This Same shall be the peace. 
When the Assyrian shall invade our land, 
And tread our palaces, 

We will raise against him seven shepherds, 
And eight anointed men. 

5 And they shall afflict the land of Assyria with the sword. 
And the land of Nimrod at the entrances thereof; 

adopted here by many, who think it remains to add on this verse, that instead 
better suits the character of the predicted of ri|i, to feed^ two MSS. and some 
kine, who is otherwise represented as printed editions read r»n, to tee, while 
sitttng upon his throne, and not standing, the LXX. and Arab, exhibit both read- 
But, as the following verb n^, signifies ings ; and that three MSS. and another 
to feed a flock, there is the greatest originally, the Syr., Targ., and Vulg., 
propriety in presenting him to view in read ^^ or u^, they shall return, or 
the attitude of the good shepherd, who he converted, instead of the current 
stands, that he may survey the whole reading ^^, they shall remain. The 
of his sheep, and be in readiness to LXX. have vfropf ovo-t. 
defend them against all attacks. Com]p. 4, 5. The words D^^rnrrrn, And This 
Is. Ixi. 5. The pastoral metaphor is Same shall be the peace, are intimately 
beautifully expressive of royal care and connected with the preceding words, but 
protection. Comp. Iliad i. 263 : have no relation to those which follow, 
fx" TT tj\ I A ' 2 ' except in so far as the victories there 

S "' ^ "' '" ••»'»"''«' '«'* *« ?"'« *e way for that 
"** ' ^ state of the Jewish affairs during which 
where the scholiast has, Paa-ikta Sxkciv. the Messiah was to appear in the world. 
See for this use of the Hebrew verb n|n, m, This, This Same, is used emphatically, 
2 Sam. V. 2, vii. 7. The power and glory with reference to the Messiah, who had 
of the Messiah here predicted are those just been spoken of. Comp. for a similar 
with which, as Mediator, he is invested, use of the pronoun. Gen. v. 29 ; Exod. 
Comp. Is. xi. 2 ; Matt xxviii» 19 ; Heb. xv. 2. ^^fpeace, is put, by metonymy, 
ii. 7—9. Jehovah being called " his for the author and introducer of re- 
God," intimates his subordinate official conciliation. Comp. Gen. xlix. 10; Is. 
relation. Comp. John xx. 17. If o^ ix. 5 ; Zech. ix. 10 ; Eph. ii, 14, 17 ; 
njn;, the name of Jehovah, be not here Col. i. 20. D>85, signifies to restore things 
a periphrasis for Jehovah himself, it majr to their former state, to make restitution ; 
be regarded as descriptive of his attn- in Hiph. to restore, or cause to be at 
butes, or the character in which he hath 

revealed himself to mankind. The no- peace. Comp. the Arab. Ju» reifite- 
minative to ^ofr\ must be the subjects ' 
over whom Messiah reigns, understood, grare, sanare. The substantive is with- 
These were to consist not of believing out the article, as frequently in the 
Jews only, but likewise of believing prophetic writings, when the object is to 
Gentiles in the remotest regions of the impart energy to the language, by con- 
globe, as it follows in the verse. Comp. densing the mode of expression. If 
for ^^D^, " the ends of the earth," m tra^ be taken to signify the ancient 
reference to the amplitude of the king- Assyrian empire, the reference will be 
dom of Christ, Ps. ii. 8, xxii. 28, Ixxii. 8. to the threatened invasion in the time of 
The verb conveys the idea of security the prophet; but this construction ill 
and permanence. Such was to be the suits the connexion, in which respect is 
character of the new dispensation. It had to the more distant future; and 

252 MICAH. [chap. v. 

And there shall be deliverance from the Assyrian, 
When he shall invade our land, 
And when he shall tread our borders. 

what follows, relative to the resistance f]^|^ ^^Ovo cities, when theW inhabUanU 

of the Jews, does not agree with any ^^ 

fluccessful events in the history of that are of <me accord "hocmsji^VthXel. The 
people during the Assyrian rule. I numbers ^evm and et^A/ appear to be used 
cannot, therefore, but think, that the to denote indefinitely a full and sufficient 
term is employed by our prophet to number, as in Eccles. xi. 2. '' Give a 
denote the empire of the Seteucidse, portion to seven, and also to eight.* 
founded by Seleucus, one of the generals Comp. also Job v. 18; Prov. vi. 16, 
of Alexander the Great, by whom he xxx. 15, 18, 21; Amos i. 3, 6, 9, &c 
was invested with the government of So the Greek rpW fcai rcrpcuetr, and the 
Babylonia and Media, and who, under Latin ter quaterque. Were they to be 
the title of King of Syria, subjugated taken literally, there would be no great 
all the countries from the Hellespont difficulty in selecting the number from 
to India and the Jaxartes. On the the Maccabsan period ; but the corn- 
same principle that Darius is called parison of the above passages shows that 
nr^^l^i^, the kinff of j^tsyria^ Ezra y 1, 22, such a process would be unwarraated. 
though that empire had long ceased to D^, ehepherds^ and o^ ^^p, princefy 
exist, the title might be applied to men, are synonymous, signifying those 
Seleucus and his successors. To them, who took the lead in opposing the 
during the period of their reign, belonged enemy, and who administered the afiairs 
** the land of Assyria, "which is also here of the Jews at the time. Because ^ 
called " the land of Nimrod" because, also signifies 1o pour out a Ubalion, 
according to the proper rendering of Michaelis is inclined to render the 
Gen. X. 11, that monarch went forth phrase D^H^l^p^, «afrt/?eef o/'in<7t, and to 
from Babylon into the country of Assyria, interpret it of such as sacrificed their 
where he built Nineveh and other cities life in defence of their country. Not 
there named. According to this in- only, however, is the parallelism opposed 
terpretation, the prophecy in these two to this construction of the meaning, but 
verses relates to the noble an 1 success- also the use of ^V\ in other passages, 
ful opposition which the Maccabees Thus Josh. xiii. 21, ^^rrp'Spp, princes 
offered to Antiochus Epiphanes, when (Com. Ver. dukes) ofSihon; and £zek. 
he marched against Jenisalem, pillaged xxxii. 30, fei^ VO^ nofi^, there are the 
the temple, and desecrated every object princes of the north. The title properly 
sacred in the estimation of the Jews, signifies anointed, those who had been 
By rousing a spirit of patriotic piety in consecrated to their ofiice by anointing 
the breasts of their countrymen, they with oil; and thus is equivalent to 
not only recovered their sacred city from 0*^1^. In the present instance it is 
the enemy, but, after a series of the used tropically, without any reference 
most brilliant victories, drove him to the * * ^ * « " ' 
gates of his own fortified cities, and to the ceremony. Syr,|^]> ^lOVoi. 

finally succeeded in securing the national jarg. wta«'3T3n; Arab.. ,.U!I ^^Ltc, 

independence. It is to this protracted, ^ -rT« *..-»">« • (^^»^;* Sr**'' 

but triumphant struggle, that reference great men. rnn, to feed, being here used 

is made, Dan. xi. 32. The assertion of in connexion with " the sword," must be 

Hartmann, that«^*^3 T^ ianot Hebrew in taken metaphorically, and means to con- 

it« construction, and that, consequently, sume, devastate, or the like. To refer 

•wtfH is to be connected with dV?^, is xsr\ to wn as its root, is altogether in- 

without foundation ; for we meet with admissible. The repetition in these two 

the very same construction in rr^SMttJv verses possesses peculiar elegance. ^TJ 

vhBi% Numb. vi. 2. Thus also in Arab, is used impersonally. Instead of o^ in 

• • It ......I 1 1» ... the singular, «^^ in the plural, is the 

'^^b LSb uS^ y^' ''^' (i/iW.*^ reading of thirty-four MSS., originaUy 

CHAP, v.] MICAH. 253 

6 And the remnant of Jacob shall be in the midst of many people, 
Like the dew from Jehovah ; 
Like the small rain upon herbs, 
Which waiteth not for man, 
And tarrieth not for the sons of man. 

7 Yea, the remnant of Jacob shall be among the nations. 
In the midst of many people, 

Like a lion among the beasts of the forest, 
Like a young lion among the flocks of sheep, 
Which, if he pass through, treadeth down and rendeth. 
And there is none to deliver. 

8 Thy hand shall be high against thine adversaries. 
And all thine enemies shall be cut off. 

9 And it shall be in that day, saith Jehovali, 

That I will cut off thy horses from the midst of thee ; 
And I will destroy thy chariots. 

four more; the Soncin^, Brixian, and prophecy closes^ The words are ad- 

Complut. editions; the Soncin. Prophets, dressed optatively to Jehovah, and may 

and all the ancient versions. be consiaered as those either of tlie 

6, 7. The former of these verses depicts prophet, or as designed to be adopted by 

the beneficial influence which the re- the Jewish church, 

mainder of the nation, after its restora- Her enemies were the enemies of 

lion, should exert, by spreading the Jehovah. 

knowledge of the true God among the 9 — 14. The prophet now returns to 

nations in the midst of which they were times nearer his own, and predicts the 

situated ; their signal victories against beneficial moral changes that were to 

such formidable armies, attracting atten- be efiected in the condition of his country- 

tion to Him whom they worshipped, and men by the Babylonish conquest and 

to whom they ascribed their success, captivity. They had, contrary to the 

During the existence of the new Jewish express command of the Lord, Deut. 

state, the members of the theocracy had xvii. 16, kept up a formidable body of 

much intercourse with foreigners, multi- cavalry, and war-chariots ; trusted in 

tudes of whom became proselytes to the their fortified cities ; encouraged sorcery,, 

faith of Jehovah, and were thus prepared and indulged in abominable idolatry. 

to receive the gospel, when preached by These were all to be removed, when the 

the apostles. The idea of number lies Jewish state was broken up ; and after 

both in ^, the dew, and o*?^*?, the rain ; God had employed the heatnen in punish- 

and the sudden raising up of the Jews ing his apostate people, they in their 

was to be as entirely a work of Divine turn should be punished for their obsti- 

providence, and independent of human nate adherence to idol worship, notwith- 

aid, as the production of these material standing the testimony borne against 

elements. The seventh verse describes their conduct by the Jews who lived 

the formidable character of the Jews in among them. This portion of the chapter 

reference to the hostile nations by which is strikingly parallel with Is. ii. 6 — 22. 

they were attacked. For the accu- For D^P^, see on Is. xlvii. 9 ; for Q\:3to, 

mulation and the rise in the meaning comp. ^ipt Is. iii. 6 ; and for on^, 

of the verbs *T}^^ op^] "Q^, comp. Exod. see on Is. xvii. 8. As tr^ had already 

XV. 9 : Ptof 3*^ ?i"Tj^ bji^. occurred in the acceptation of cities^ 

8. Here the prosperous aspect of the ver. 10, we should scarcely expect it to 

254 MICAH. [chap. vi. 

10 I will cut off the cities of thy land, 
And rase all thy fortresses. 

11 I will cut off the sorceries from thy hand^ 
And thou shalt have no diviner?. 

12 I will cut off thy graven images and thy statues from the midst of 

And thou shalt no more worship the work of thine hands. 

13 I will break down thine images of Astarte from the midst of thee, 
And destroy thy cities. 

14 And I will execute vengeance in anger and in wrath, 
Upon the nations which have not been obedient. 

be again used ver. 13. To remove the Astarte, occurring immediately before 
difficulty Michaelis compares the word in the verse. In all the ancient versions 

with the Arab. i^Xy arbor semper viretu : *^® Z^^^ " rendered by cUUs, except 

<^ the Targum, m which it is translated 

Arnold, with the Arah. ,U, spehmcus; ^*^^^^*' Some refer the relative itfM 

> at the end of ver. 14 to D^, and in- 

others propose to read cw, woods, i.e. teTret, unheard of vengeance, but it is 

groves, supposing the initial Yod to have ™°r® natural to connect it with crts, 

been absorbed by that with which the »»«'««««» *« immediate antecedent, and 

preceding word terminates ; while others ^ regard the prophet as describing the 

would change the word into Dny, wit' refusal of the pagans, who had enjoyed 

nesges, understanding thereby the statues opportunities of leamine the true religion 

&c. belonging to idol- worship. There *^™ .*^® •^®^*> ^ listen to the in- 

seems, however, to be no absolute B*™ction8 which had been tendered to 

necessity for departing from the signifi- *^*®™- '^^"" '^^ Targ. ]B^**?j?»^ifOQ» 

cation cities, only we thereby understand ^T^> " the peoples that have not received 

such as were specially appropriated to J** doctrine of the law" LXX. iy roit 

idolatrous uses, as Jerome suggests. «^''*o'ty, dvff cSjr ovk fl<rfiKova'Q9. Syr. 

Comp. Vyarirrjn^, the city of the house, ,J ,f ^ ^ i * - ' , 

or temple of Baal, 2 Kings x. 25, by ^^^ ^ M? ^-'•^I pcifi^» thepeoples 

whichismeantaseparatepartof Samaria, who have not hearkened. In the same 

where the temple was situated. This way Michaelis, Hartmann. Justi, Dathe. 

construction is required in order to form Hitaig, Maurer, Ewald. 
a parallelism with xsy^^ images of 


It was not sufficient for the prophet to predict the punishments that were to be 
inflicted on the Jews ; he was required to press the subject upon their attention, 
which he does in a very affecting manner, by calling a public court, in which the 
inanimate creation is summoned to supply evidence, 1, 2. An appeal is then 
made by Jehovah to the accused party, respecting his kindness to the nation 

CHAP. VI.] MICAHi 255 

from the earliest period of its history, 3 — 5. Convicted of guilt, the people are 
represented as deeply anxious to obtain, at any cost, reconciliation with God, 
6, 7 ; and are pointed by the prophet to the only source whence it was to be 
obtained ; while, at the same time, they are reminded of the high properties and 
obligations of true piety, 8. He next demands attention to the threatened 
judgments, 9 ; specifies some of the crimes on account of which they were to be 
brought upon them, 10 — 12; repeats the threatening, 13; shows the blasting 
effects of the Divine wrath upon all their undertakings, 14, 15 ; and traces 
the evil to its true 80urce~-the idolatries of the kingdom of Israel, 16. 

Hear ye now what Jehovah saith : 
Arise ! plead in the presence of the mountains. 
And let the hills hear thy voice. 
Hear, O ye mountains ! Jehovah's controversy, 
And ye rocks, the foundations of the earth ; 
For Jehovah hath a controversy with his people, 
And will contend with Israel. 
O ray people ! What have I done to thee ? 
With what have I wearied thee ? 
Testify against me. 
Nay, 1 brought thee up from the land of Egypt, 

1, 2. It is not unusual with the pro- hm is here to be taken in the signification 

phets to make appeals respecting the of apud, coram, and is equivalent to 

enormity of human guilt to the inanimate ^9^, before^ just as the forms D*^1V^1^?^^» 

parts of creation, as if it were impossible Gen. v. 24, and OT^^jj^ "^jfennf xlviii. 15, 

for it not to inspire them with life, and are identical in meaning. D*ppt^ or as it 

call them forth as intelligent witnesses of is spelt □*3n*v in a great many MSS., and 

what hath taken place in their presence, in four early editions, standine absolutely, 

See Deut xxxiL 1 ; Is.i. 2; Jer.ii. 12, 13. must be taken as a substantive, and not 

By a similar personification the moun- as an adjective qualifying VTMnipMa. Arab, 
tainsand durable foundations of the earth ..t ^ ^.^ _.. ■..• . ..i 

are here summoned to apoear in the ^^h 'ieM, caruuM ; Ji\, petra. ^f^, 

court of heaven. Jehovah, however, ^ . , j j a a j 

instead of bringing forward the charge f'^ T%'^; ^«^f ^^T?^ "'if T I'l 9'' 

abdicates,as it were, his right, and leavei '" 'f'\ ^f i^l'^^'F / ^ .?" ; 

it to the guilty party to IxzL the case. JP'^'^'^.a'^^i^a^' If foundaUonuoJ 

Comp.Is.xliii.26. ^n the appeal to <^* earM, the Arabs call the mountains 

the lofty and ever-during mountains, in • j| ^\ tj^^ ^take», or posts of the 

which the puny affairs of man could ^*^J ^ 

excite no prejudice, and which might earth, 

therefore be regarded as quite impartial 3, 4. The Israelites are asked, in the 

judfi^es, there is something inexpressibly kindest and most affecting style, what 

sublime. Dnnnnijtan, does not mean, ground of complaint they had against 

contend u^iM the mountains, as if they Jehovah, which could have induced them 

were the party to be accused, but to to act the part they did. Comp. Jer. 

carry on the cause in their presence, ii. 5, 31. He had demanded or them 

256 MIC AH. [chap. vt. 

And redeemed thee from the house of slaves ; 
And sent before thee Moses, Aaron and Miriam. 

5 O my people ! remember now how Balak the king of Moab 

And how Balaam the son of Beor answered him ; 
[Remember what happened] 
From Shittim to Gilgal, 
That ye may know the benefits of Jehovah. 

6 With what shall I come before Jehovah ? 
With what shall I bow to the high God ? 
Shall I come before him with burnt offerings P 
With calves of a year old ? 

nothing that was unreasonable. *? at mJj^j rrj-wj^pijSTfl^^p ]to^KTMp)H|TO 

the beginning of ver. 4, is very ex- " fVere not mighty deeds performed for 

pressive, and is equivalent to nayt on the you from the plain of Shittim to the 

contrary, or the like. Instead of liaving home of Qilgal t " Thus also Munster, 

done any thing to alienate them, God had Vatablus, Grotius, Calvin, Dathe, De 

shown the utmost kindness to them from Wette, Michaelis, Hartmann, and others. 

the beginning ; not only rescuing them There was a peculiar propriety in specify- 

from Egyptian bondage, but providing ing these two places. Shittim was the 

them with inspired leaders. Miriam is name of a valley in the country of Moab, 

mentioned, on account of the prominent where, on account of the impurities 

part she took in celebrating the Divine committed with the Midianitish women, 

interposition for their deliverance. She is twenty-four thousand Israelites were 

caUednM*:)|ri,Mepro/>A«toM, Exod. XV.20, destroyed. The evil was so great that 

because she led the female chorus which it might have caused the Lord to abandon 

rehearsed the inspired song of Moses, them entirely ; but he mercifully spared 

The Targ. on Mican adds : M^3^nMn^, to them as a people, miraculously divided 

instruct the women, Comp. Numb. xi. 2. the Jordan to afford them a passage, 

5. The kindness of Jehovah to his and gave them actual possession of 

people was manifested, not only in Canaan, the land promised to their 

furnishing them with inspired teachers, fathers. In proof of this last act of the 

but also in counteracting the designs of Divine goodness, Gilgal is singled out 

Balak, who wished to engage the pro- from other places, because it was there 

phetic influence of Balaam against them ; they made their first encampment in 

for that avaricious prophet was com- the promised land. It was situated 

pelled, contrary to the cherished desire between Jericho and the Jordan, but no 

of his heart, to pronounce blessings upon trace of its site now remains. nVr n\pn^, 

them instead of curses. See Numb, the benefits of Jehovah, Comp.Jud.v. II ; 

xxii. xxiii. xxiv. The words 19 D*ffiTaJn.]p 1 Sam. xii. 7 ; Ps. xxiv. 7. In this way 

^^% from Shittim to Gilgal^ are not the phrase is interpreted by Tanchum, 

to be construed with those imme- Grotius, Drusius, and by most of the 

diately preceding ; for Balaam did modems. Calvin observes : " Per Justitias 

not cross over Jordan to Gilgal, but intelligit beneficia quemadmodum multis 

was slain in the land of Midian, as we aliislocis;" and paraphrases thus: "Ut 

read Numb. xxxi. 8. Nor are we, with ipsa experientia tibi demonstret quam 

Ewald, to suppose them to be a mar- verax, quam beneficus, quam misericors 

ginal gloss; but have merely to supply semper merit Deus erga genus vestrum." 

the ellipsis P^np, tvhat happened, and 6, 7. The Jews, convicted of guilt, 

repeat *>3}, remember, from the first clause are represented as most anxious to pro« 

oi die verse. To this effect the Targ. piitate the Divine favour. They could 

CHAP. VI.] MICAH, 257 

7" Will Jehovah be satisfied with thousands of rams ? 

With ten thousand rivers of oil ? 

Shall I give my first-born for my transgression ? 

The fruit of my body for the sin of my soul ? 

8 He hath showed thee, O man ! what is good : 

And what doth Jehovah require of thee, 

not deny the charges that had heen ancients, on calamitous or dangerous 

brought against them ; nor could they emergencies, for the rulers of the city or 

put m any plea of justification. They the state, to prevent the destniction of 

stood condemned before God and the all, to offer up the most dearly beloved of 

universe. The language which they their children, as a ransom to divine 

employ is not such as the prophet would vengeance." ^m is the future in Niphal 

have taught them, but sucn as well of the root vjC^, to bend, bow oneself doitn, 

accorded with the notions which were Comp. Ps. Ivii. 7, cxlv. 14. Instead of 

Srevaleut among them, some of which ]y«5^3, rivers of oU, the LXX. who have 

ad been learned from their heathen x^H'^P^^ fr«$ya)y, or, as the Alex. MS, 

neighbours. How much soever they reads, dpv&v, have read ]^ ''i» i j, fat 

mightformerlyhavegrudged the expense sheep; which rendering is followed by 

of prescribed offerings, th^ are now the Vnig, and Arab., but is unsupported 

willing to bring the most costly and by any other authority. The translator 

abundant, rams by thousands, and oil was evidently misled by an improper 

sufficient to fill myriads of rivers; nay, view of the parallelism, 

what is more, human victims, and of 8. The questions put in the prece- 

these the moat endeared, their own ding verses do not involve anything 

offspring. In \^ 'Xl3 rrtaai, myriads of like irony, as Rosenmiiller and Maurer 

torrents of oil, is a double hyperbole, imagine, but manifestly argue a deep 

quite in the style of the Orientals. For anxiety about an atonement, and at the 

n^3f), as thus used, comp. 1 Sam. xviii. 7 ; same time the grossest isnorance of what 

and for-)ojS^9, Job xx. 17. The fact was necessary to constitute that atone- 

of the presentation of human sacrifices ment. In replying to them, the prophet 

is fully established in the ancient history first of all shows, that the ignorance of 

of all nations. This barbarous custom thejseople was culpable. Thev had been 

was especially prevalent among the furnished with revelations of tne mind of 

Phoenicians, and was by them introduced God upon the subject. ^^V^f He (i.e. 

into the north of Africa, where it con- Jehovah) hath shown or manifested it to 

tinued till the proconsulate of Tiberius, thee / or, the verb may be taken im- 

According to Porphyry, the book of personally* and rendered in the passive : 

Sanchoniathon was fall of examples of It hath been shown thee. No MS. supports 

such sacrifices. That they obtained tm, /«;ii/«Ao«;, the reading of the Syr.« 

among the idolatrous Israelites is clear Vulg. and Arab. Had they searched 

from Jer. xix. 5, xxxii. 35, who offered the Divine records they could not have 

their children to Moloch or Saturn, af^er failed to discover, that, whatever pre- 

the example of their Phoenician neigh- scriptions relative to sacrifices had been 

hours. Eusebius, in his Prsepar. Evangel, delivered to them, they had never been 

lib. iv. 16, enters at length into the taught to attach to them any moral 

subject I and adduces a passage from efficacy, but the contrair. Both reason 

Philo Byblius which has a special bearing and revelation combined to invest them 

upon the present text : "EOos ^v toU with an ulterior reference. What that 

frdkaioU, tp raU fuydkaU avfifhopah reference really was, the Apostle plainly 

r&v Kivdvvtov, avrl rrjf iravray ipBopat teaches U8, Heb. x. 1.: 2/aav ydp ifx^^ 

TO HrADHMENON TON TEKNON o v6fu)t r&v fitWovrav ArAGflN :— 

rov9 Kparovvras ^ irrfXcws i^ tOvovSf tig the ate-np of the prophet. Comp* 

c^ayijv lircdcdoVot, Xvrpov rot9 riftopoir Heb. ix. 23, where the sacrifice of 

Baifio^i, " It was customary among the Christ is, by way of eminence and dis« 

L "L 

268 MICAH. [chap, vi. 

But to do justice, and love mercy. 
And be diligent in walking with thy God ? 
The voice of Jehovah crieth to the city, 

tinction, called Kptirrovat Ovalai, Of to anything; here, to apply it carefully 

this, the only iotrinsically valuable and sedulously to devotional and other 

atonement, the Levitical sacrifices, were spiritual exercises, which are essential to 

vfTodcivfiara, instructive examples, or communion with God. Thus the LXX. 

types, which were intended to suggest troifiov thai ; Theod. aail>aki^ov : the 

and foreshadow it; and, connected as fifth Greek version, ^poirriC<ptv ; the Syr. 

they were with the prosressive develop- *. , ,r i .. .. 1*1. 

merits, which, fronT time to time, were j^2^ i»'"«'"' ' ^ulg. sobatum. The 

made of the sacerdotal character, and ^^^^ ^f i^umUUy, which is that adopted 

the personal oblation of ihe Great De- {„ ^^^ common version, seems to have 
fiverer promised from the begiimmg, 

the worshippers were without excuse if been derived from the Arab, ij^ji ^i^* 

they did not, like Abraham, rejoice in , , . . , . 

the anticipation of his day. Having '<> ^ram ones horse, t.e. by rendering 

referred the inquirer to the revealed him *M6intMiOT and patient of restraint ; 

method of reconciliation, with a tacit i^j^^^ [^^ ; ^^,^ j^„^ ^^p^. 

intimation of the importance of availing G wv^ 

himself of it, Micah proceeds to describe cifafui. See A. Schultens on Prov. xi. 2. 

the conduct which alone could meet with while this grace is an indispensable 

the Divine approval. The piety required attribute of true religion, and lies indeed 

by Jehovah, he sums up under three at its yery foundation, it is only one of 

heads : strict equity m all our transac- the several important qualities of which 

Uons with our fellow men ; a heart set jt ig composed. The term employed by 

on doing them good, according to the the prophet comprehends them sJi. 

claims which they have upon us; and Michaelis renders, mil gewitsenhafiir 

diligent attention to everv thing belong- torgfalt, "with conscientious solicitude." 

mg to converae with God. Comp. Deut. The comment of Jerome is not unworthy 

X. 12, 13. See also, as contrasting a ofnotice:— « Itapraecipiturut prseparati 

right state of the heart and life with simus ambulare cum Domino Deo nostro, 

ceremonial services, 1 Sam. xv. 22 ; Is. nulla horadormire, nuUo tempore securi 

'• V<r~1w' « ^* ^•'' ^*~2^ » „ ^™°' esse debemus, sed semper expeetare 

V. 22—24 ; Hos. vi. 6. A still more patremfamilias venientem et diem for- 

compendious description of genuine re- ^idare judicii, et in nocte bujus seculi 

ligion 18 given by our Lord, under the dicere : ego dormio, et cor meum vigilat." 

threefold division of Kpia-is, JXcoy and yg^ri b the Hiphil Infinitive, used ad- 

j-ro-Ttff, Matt, xxiii. 23 ; or, as Luke verbially. Bps, Butler and Lowth, Mr. 

has for the last, tj/v ayanrfv rov eeov, Peters, and some others, are of opinion 

chap. XI. 42; which shows how com- that the sixth, seventh, and eighth verses 

pletely mistaken Campbell is in referring contain a dialogue between Balak and 

It to the social virtues, and rendering it Balaam ; but there does not appear to 

fidehty There can be little doubt that be sufficient ground for it. The con- 

Christ had the passage of Micah in his nexion of these verses with verse fifth 

eye. »;?, Arab. Jud, fecit, elahoravit in " "O^ ^^ «!?«« « they suppose. 

C 9. On the ground of the foreseen 

re aliqua; paravit ; aUo, industriut et determination of the Jews, notwithstand- 

^ ing their present professions of repent- 

solert; Syr. Iiv^t . astutus, callidui ; ance, to persevere in a line of conduct 

' \ >j' diametrically opposite to that required 

Eth. X^O, vaUdu,, conttam fuit ; to ^^ *« Most Hig^, the prophet proceeds 

'• ' J > to summon their attention to the certainty 

he apt, ready, diligent, to bend the mind of the judgments that were to be inflicted. 

CHAP. VI.] MICAH. 259 

(And he who is wise will regard thj name) 

Hear ye the rod, and Him who hath appointed it. 

yf} for i*yrft, to the citi/^ i.e. Jerusalem, njpn, I am a man of prayer ; Prov. xiii. 6, 

by way ot eminence. As she was pre- nw^n, ««, for nmnxir^, the man of sin, i.e. 

eminent in privilege, so she was also the sinner; xix. 15. r6s9, indolence, for 

in regard to wickedness and guilt, rn^ TfTSpxSrH^ the man of indolence, &c. What 

Gesenius refers to an obsolete rootn^, greatly favours the reading *)9^nKT is 

which he thinks may probably have its occurring only in this place, whereat 

meant to tta$ul, stand out^ and so to he. ^(of V]!, and other forms of vi^ ^^^ ^> 

From such a root both this noun, and are of frequent occurrence. It was 

ti|^ being, subsistence, substance, may quite natural for copyists and punctatoni 

most naturally be derived. The signi- to substitute the former for the latter, 

fications will then be, that which really but not the latter for the former. As 

if, something soUd or substantial, real to the ancient versions, the LXX. may, 

Mtisdom, wealth, power, security, deliver* as frequently, have translated from 

ancey or whatever ebe best agrees with hearing, and thus have mistaken the 

the context. Comp. the Arab. J^,. pronunciation of m for that of ^!, 

'^ u> which It so nearly resembled. The 

in the acceptations juvit restitmtque common reading best suits the connexion, 

eegrotum medicina; abundavit opibus Before announcing his message, the 

vir; JuA., opulentia,abundantiaopum; P^^^phet parenthetically declares, that, 

* -7 "^ "^ whatever might be the treatment it 

^y largitus est. The noun is used in would receive from the bulk of the 

p-aralleU8mgwithn9?i7,««rfo«,n^,cotoi- peop'e- «« truly wise would regard it 

;»/, rr^, <uti»tancV,\ Hre^gth,]^, a " Gods niessage, and having special 

^iM.&c. The LXX. who render U by ^f^f *»''," "vealed character aa 

^ c* Q jn 1 ^ ' * A.f thereby disclosed, would find in it 

oX,0«. ^e,ia, yxyt, tronipuh a<T<h- gecurity and consolation in the approach- 

Acta, povAi), give in the present text the . / •*• rp, r lu t j 

-«-u ^1 • «- ifi ♦! «.. f. ,1 -««j ww^-,-, >ng calamities. The name of the Lord 

verb omoti, as if they had read »*ow, . % *i .. j * - *! ^ 

from Vf^ • but thev mav after all have ^ frequently used to express the sum 

irom r^ but tney may, alter all, nave ^ ^ j j^-^j^^^ attributes, and often 

attached the sjime signification to rw^. ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ j^.^^^j^ ^ ^.^^.^^^^ 

The Syr. has li£u^a*» doctrine; the not merely to see, but to recognise 

T ..«ou^ J ' , riM . .. practically, to experience. 1 Sam. xxiv. 

Targ. «3?^, feocAm. Ihe construction ^,3 p,. xxxiv.13, lixxix.49; Lam. Hi. 1. 

of the word here will depend upon the Contrasted with TO>rnn:, gee Is.xxvi. 10: 

reading of the following verb. If, with rtnjnwjnyjjbj. ^n^o, the LXX., Syr., 

seven MSS., origmally one more, and ^^'j and, among the moderns, New- 

apparently wiother, one correcte^ and ^^„| ;„j g^^j, take to signify tribe, or 

oneintheinargui,theLXX.,Syr£arg^, collectively tribes, and render in the 

Vulg, and Arab., we read TwpVT. vocative. The Targ. adopts a metaphor- 

UCMV......V., ..=. .V. .uv... A.1 *»» <•■«<= »oW^, O Kmgand Prmce! The accepu- 

we have to supply the substantive verb, ^^^'^^^ „ emblematical of punishment, 
and the ellipsis of ), to or /or. On the ., ^^^ .^ji^j ,„ j^e connexfen. Comn! 

translators and interpreters, understand ^ ,„ ^„^^f ^^^ ^^ ^ ^{^^ significa- 
w before rp^, and take the noun m •'^ *^ ^ 
the signification solid, or sound wisdom, tion of the Arab. SCy minatus fuit ; 
That ^ is frequently to be thus under- 
stood before abstract nouns, comp. Ps. while others would read TTff, congrega- 
cix. 4, nJpi'^H, I am prayer, for «>V\»f ti^n. There is no necessity for departing 

«60 MICAH. [chap. ti. 

10 Are there still in the house of the wicked treasures of wickedness. 
And the accursed scanty ephah ? 

11 Can I be innocent with wicked balances. 
And with a bag of deceitful weights ? 

12 Whose rich men are full of violence. 
And her inhabitants speak falsehood ; 
Tlieir tongue in their mouth is deceitful. 

13 I will surely smite thee incurably, 
Rendering thee desolate on account of thy sins. 

14 Thou mayest eat, but thou shalt not be satisfied, 

from the ordinary signification of 'V^^ to frequent. The Hebrews were wiach 

Jix, appoint. The only real difficulty lies given to the falsification of their weights 

in the feminine suffix n, which does not and measures, though such conduct was 

grammatically agree with m^p ; but even repeatedly prohibited by the law, Lev. 

this may be removed by taking the suffix six. 35, 36; Deut. xxv. 13 — 16; and 

as a neuter, or as referring to n|^ the elsewhere severely condemned in their 

calamity f understood, Comp. Jer. ix. 1 1, sacred writings. See Prov. xi. 1, xx. 10; 

ISiVrMt hore Gemeine und wer sie bestelltl and, for the practice, comp. Ezek. xlv. 

"let the community hear, and he that 9,10; Hos. xii. 8; Amosviii. 5. •««?[, 

appoints it," understanding thereby the aceursedy from cxpi, to be angry, indignant. 

king as principal ruler. Hitzig and This participial form presents the object 

Maurer, as in our common version, both as suffering the effects of anger, or as 

making Jehovah the nominative to the marked with the Divine displeasure, 

verb. Comp. Jer. xlvii. 7. TT3?«, ver. 11, the LXX., Sjrr., and Targ., 

1 — 1 2. Several crimes are here have read in the third person n3r., though 

specified as a sample of those which the two last render it in the plural. As 

abounded, and on account of which the the MSS. show no variation, the present 

Divine judgments were to be brought reading must be retained ; but as this 

upon the land. For ^ at the beginning verb is never used transitively in Kal, 

of a sentence, comp. Gen. xix. 12. we cannot refer the nominative to God, 

Forty-nine MSB., thirteen more origi- and interpret it of his inquiring whether 

nally, and perhaps one other, with one he could treat the persons in question as 

in the margin, read ^^17, the man, in- innocent, but must regard the prophet 

stead of v^; and this is also the reading as putting the question, for the sake of 

of the Soncin., the Brixian, and five effect, into the mouth of one of them* 

other printed editions, and has the ap- selves, and makin? him ask, how he 

Eroval of Jarchi, Abenezra, and Abar- could possibly lay claim to the character, 

anel, but it affords no suitable sense; while ne had none but instruments of 

and, with ^ in Kennicott's MS. 201, fraud in his possession ? The antecedent 

must be regarded as the result of inter- to n fjjM, whose, ver. 12, is w, city, ver. 9. 
pretation. Owing to the same cause, 13. In this, and the following verses, 

numerous MSS. and editions have vSmti. severe judgments are threatened against 

The LXX., S3rr., and Vulg., have read the people on account of their iniquitous 

xi¥Si, the fire ; but there cannot be any practices. The LXX., Sjrr., Vulg., and 

doubt, that it is only another form of Arab., render V'^, I have begun, or, / 

'^, there being merely an omission of triU begin, as if it were the Hiphil of V^, 

the Yod, as there clearly is, 2 Sam. xiv. but it is that of n^, to be in pain, sick, 

19 ; and the Aleph corresponds to the &c. As here used with the infinitive of 

same letter in the cognate forms: Chald. rt&n, to smite, inflict punishment, it gives 

n^. Syr. ZU). Arab. ^}, eU, e^UtU. litSr^rnl^^^t/Su'nT^ 
The ellipsis of ^ before rn is not un- 14. ntf; is not to be referred, with 

CHAP. VI.] MIOAH, 261 

For thou shalt be inwardly depressed ; 

Thou mayest remove, but thou shalt not rescue. 

Or what thou rescuest I will give to the sword. 

15 Thou mayest sow, but thou shalt not reap; 

Thou mayest tread the olive, but thou shalt not pour out the oil ; 
And the grape of the new wine, but the wine thou shalt not drink. 

16 The statutes of Orori are strictly kept, 
And all the work of the house of Ahab, 
And ye walk in their counsels ; 

That I may make thee desolate, 

And the inhabitants thereof an object of hissing ; 

Therefore ye shall bear the reproach of my people. 

Simonis and Gesenius, to the Arab. 16. Hartmann stumbles at the intro- 

, ,io-,, fame exinanUus fuU, but to Auction of this verse; but it is quite in 

w J the manner of the prophet, to recur to 

^Jm^. sequior, etimbecUlis, infirmiu ; and the wicked character of his people. 

^^ ,., 1 . . J 3 . 1 ""iGPf^. is best rendered impersonidly, 

was most likely mtended to express what though it refers to t», people, understood. 

we find in the Syr. {; , Z,^ ^, "the Hithpael is here intensive of Piel. 

■ t^"^ Omri is specially mentioned, because he 

diarrhcea shall be within thee." The was the founder of Samaria and the 

LXX. taking fjtTf^ for i|ti3rp, renders, kqI wicked house of Ahab, and a supporter 

(rKorda-fi eV trot, :&n is the apocopated of the superstitions of Jeroboam, 1 Kings 

Hiphil of X)3, 'to remove, and expresses xvi. 16—28. |3^^, m order that. The 

the attempt to save goods by removing Hebrews did not, indeed, commit the 

them out of the way of the enemy, wickedness described with the intention 

All the ancient versions have adopted of bringing upon themselves divine 

the signification of litn with t9, to seizes punishment ; but the punishment was as 

lay hold on, but that conjugation of 3t^, certainly connected with the sin, in the 

has also the si^ification, to remove any purpose of God, as if its infliction had 

thing. See Joo xxiv. 2. been the end at which they aimed. 

15. nn "liTFi. Oil was expressed from *<ter» *?» rein, ye shall hear the reproach 

the olive, by stamping or treading it out of my people, i.e. your own reproach, 

with the foot, in the same way as grapes that which you have deserved ; only the 

were trodden. Hence the name ]t^ nj, meaning is so expressed, in order to 

Gethsemane, or the oil-prettf Matt, derive a hich aggravation of their guilt 

xxvi. 36. Oil is indispensable to oriental from the relation in which they stood to 

comfort, being used for anointing the Jehovah. The LXX. have Xawy, which 

body, and penuming the garments. It intimates that they either read OTp^, or 

is also a very common ingredient in food. ^, as a defective masculine plural. 


Before concluding, the prophet once more reverts to the wickedness of his people, 
which he depicts with the darkest colours, 1 — 6. He then represents them in 
their state of captivity, brought to repentance, and confidently expecting the 

262 MICAH. [chap. vii. 

Divine interpoution, wbich would be rendered the more conspicuous by the com- 
plete destruction of tbeir enemies, 7 — 10. The restoration of Jerusalem, and 
tbe conversion of the hostile nations, are next predicted, 11, 12; while the 
previous desolation of Judea is traced to the sins of the inhabitants, 13. Turning 
to Jehovah, he prays for the undisturbed and prosperous condition of tbe restored 
nation, 14 ; to which a gracious response is given, 15. The overthrow of the 
nations hostile to the Jews, and their reverence for Jehovah, are then pointed 
out, 16, 17; and the prophecy closes with a sublime and exulting appeal to bis 
gracious character, 18, and an assurance that tbe covenant people should expe- 
rience the full accomplishroent of the sacred engagements into which he had 
entered with their progenitors, 19, 20. 

1 Alas for me ! 

For I am as when they gather the summer fruit, 

As when the vintage is gleaned : 

There is no cluster to eat, 

No early fig which my soul desireth. 

2 The pious hath perished from the land, 
And there is none upright among men ; 
They all lie in wait for blood ; 

They hunt each other into the net. 

3 For evil their hands are well prepared ; 
The prince asketh, 

1. In no part of bis prophecy does 2. Comp. Ps.xii. l,xiv. 2; Is. Ivii. 1. 
Micab so fearfully describe tbe universal onn, rendered in most of the versions 
corruption of manners which prevailed destruction^ signifies also a net^ wbich is 
among the Jews as in the first six verses so called from its enclosing or shwUling 
of this chapter. The picture is peculiarly up whatever it catches. Occurring-, as 
applicable to tbeir character in tbe it here does, in connexion witli tbe verb 
wicked reign of Ahaz, during which the 'i^j to hunt, it is preferable to take it in 
prophet flourished, and was awfully this acceptation. The Orientals employed 
anticipative of that which they again the net for hunting, as well as for nshing. 
exhibited during the reigns immediately The word is here in the accusative case. 
preceding the captivity. The preposi- 3. This verse is very differently ren-. 
lion 3 in "T^a ffffsi{ y^jr^^cwa, denoting time dered by translators. The version of it 
as well as comparison, the two nouns in which I have given appears to express 
construction must be rendered as if they as literally as possible the ideas, which, 
were verbs, though a literal translation it is generally admitted, the prophet 
would be, the gatherings of the summer intended to convey. yvV is frequently 
fruit, and the gleanings of the vintage, used to express the doing of any thing 
For TTVS^j the early Jig, see on Is. xxviii. 4. well, skilfully, aptly, and the like. Here 
The prophet compares the strong desire it is intransitive. Ewald, with Micbaelis, 
whicn be felt to meet with a sinde pious Vogel and Doderlein, mistakes the 
man, to that eagerness with wbich the meaning of the clause altogether, when 
traveller looks in vain for one of those be explains it of endeavouring by bribery 
delicious figs afler tbe summer has to prevail upon tbe magistrates to pro- 
advanced, nounce that to be good which in itself is 

CHAP. Yii.] MICAHi 263 

And the judge also, for a reward ; 

And the great man gives utterance to the desire of his soul ; 

They combine to act perversely. 

4 The best of them is like a prickly thorn ; 
The most upright is worse than a thorn hedge ; 
The day of thy watchmen, thy visitation cometh ; 
Now shall be their perplexity. 

5 Place no faith in a companion ; 
Trust not a familiar friend ; 
From her that lieth in thy bosom 
Guard the doors of thy mouth. 

6 For the son despiseth his father ; 

evil. ^wW, which he is obliged to con- volunt sibiacquirerepeccandilicentiam : 
vert into ^mw5, a Pual form, of which no quasi contexerent inter se funes, con- 
example occurs in the Hebrew language, nrmant hoc modo pravitatem." 
can only refer to the avaricious passion 4. Both ^^td, good^ and ">^, upright^ are 
of the ruler. It is, therefore, the wicked- here used superlatively. Comp. for this 
ness of their governors and judges, and use, Gen. xlv. 23 ; Is. i. 19; £xod. xv. 4. 
not that of the people themselves, which It freauently occurs in Arabic. VJi is 
the latter clauses of the verse describe, now allowed to designate a species of 
After "JmW supply THiaJ; and after T05«5,TCCiD. thortit a«d not a brier. As the Onow 
The substantive rnrr, like the Arab, stands before roop, it must be taken as 
, ., ,, f .* I. I. *i. fi^D emphatic comparative, which derives 
^, desideravit, volutt, has here the j^s force, not frim any adjective ex- 

signification, imA, desire, will See Pressed, but froni the noun to which it is 

sihultens on Prov. x. 3 ; and the Korftn Prefixed, as in Ps. Ixii. 10 ; Is. xli. 24 ;^ 

or it may have ongmally belonged as a 

ii. 81 : ^^^^ ^v^ ^f**J &^* Ul^I swffix to the preceding noun Tjj, m which 

Sr * -^ r • case ditid and oy& must have corre- ' 

JituSo],** andwheneveramessenger cometh sponded to each otiier, leaving an ellipsis 

I , , o^ the } which had just been used in 

to you with that which your touls desire pins. By ** the day of thy watchmen," 

not" Comp. Ps. Hi. 9; Prov.xi. 6; and ibe'period of calamity predicted by the 

for the cognate «5p3rw, Deutxii. 15, 20. prophets is meant. With this, the 

rQ|, signifies io intertwine, bind together, following rrvip^, visitation, is explicatively 

as the branches of trees, ropes, &c. ; parallel. For rooD rfi>, a day of per- 

here, metophorically, to effect by united ^lexity, see on l8.x'xii.5. The reference 

effort. Comp. the Arab. Li^UC, miscuit m D is not to the watchmen, improperly 

interpreted by some of false prophets ; 

* ▼ 

commiscuit, Syr. . j ^^\ concordavit. nor is it to be confined to the persons of 

^ rank and office described ver. 3 ; but to 

Dathe : conjunctis viribus exeguuntur, the people generally. 
The princes, judges, and great men, con- 55.-^ Arab. ,^], famUiarU 
spired to set aside all law and right m » i » — V -^ 

their treatment of the poor of the land, ^^^ius, from u-a)l, conjunxit, sodavit. 
The suffix n is to be taken as a neuter, 

and refers to the injustice practised by &c., a familiar, and, by implication, 

the rulers. Thus Calvin : ** Deinde com- a confidential, friend. ^WPt LXX. 

plicant ipsam pravitatem : hoc est hinc drtfuz^ci. Comp. DeuL xxxii. 15. The 

fit ut ^rassetur furiosa crudelitas, quoniam root ^)3, primarily signifies to wither^ fall 

conspirant inter se et gubematores et qui q^asleaves, and tropically to act wickedly. 

86* MICAH. [chap. yif. 

The daughter riseth up against her mother ; 
The daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law : 
A man's enemies are the members of his own family. 

7 But I will look for Jehovah ; 

I will wait for the God of my salvation ; 
My God will hear me. 

8 Rejoice not over me, O mine enemy ! 
Though I have fallen, I shall rise again ; 
Though I sit in darkness, Jehovah is my light. 

9 I will bear the indignation of Jehovah, 
Because I have sinned against him ; 

Till he plead my cause, and give effect to my sentence ; 
He will bring me forth to the light ; 
I shall behold his righteousness. 

irreligiously, as one that has fallen off at a distance from (he land of their 

from God. Comp. ^, Ps. xiw. 1 . ri^, fathers, they are brought to repentance, 

an airociotu deed. Gen. xxxiv. 7 ; Jud. and the exercise of true piety ; and 

xix. 23, 24. The state of things here seeking again to their covenant God, 

described is that of the most wretched they express the fullest confidence Uiat 

perfidiousness, anarchy, and confusion, he would in due time deliver them from 

m which the most intimate could have banishment n^, here used in Piel, 

no confidence in each other, and the signifies to look out for an answer to 

closest ties of relationship were violated prayer, divine aid, &c. Comp. Ps. v. 4. 

and contemned. Comp. Jer. ix. 2—6. 8, 9. Who the enemy intended by the 

— aXXorptovff dXXi;Xa>p rCvai navras rovs prophet is, cannot be positively decided. 

fuj a-irovdaiov£j kqX yopc ir TtKVfov, Koi Some interpreters think Babylon ; others, 

aBiXiJMvs adfX^wp, clKuovt olKtimv. Diog. Edom. For the former, see Jer. 1. 1 1 ; 

Laert. vii. 32. In language strikingly for the latter, Obad. 12; for both, Pf. 

similar, Ovid describes tne iron age : cxxxvii. 7, 8. ^Tia, daughter of Baby- 
lon, or dV"^ daughter of Edom, for 

** Vivitur ex rapto; non hospes ab hospite Babylon and Edom themselves, is under- 

tutus, stood in the feminine participle r^ 

Non soror a genero ; fratmm quoque mine enemy. For the idiom, see on Is. 

gratia rara est. ^ i. 8. The Jews understand Rome as 

Imminet exitio vir conjugis, ilia mariti ; professing Christianity to be meant by 

Lurida terribiles niiscent aconita no- the enemy. See Pococke on verses 9th 

vercae, ^ and lOlh. '< Light "and "darkness "are 

Filius ante diem patrios inquirit in used, as frequently, for prosperity and 

annos." adversity. The 9th verse contains a 

Metamorph, i. 144. beautiful specimen of submissiveness and 

patient endurance of suffering, from a 

Our Saviour appropriates the words to humbling conviction of the demerit of 

the treacherous and cruel treatment which sin ; accompanied by the firm persuasion, 

he taught his disciples to expect from that when tne chastisement had answered 

their nearest relatives, Matt. x. 35, 36 ; its end, Jehovah would graciously afford 

Luke xii. 53. deliverance. 7i^, righteoumtess, is here 

7. Having described the wickedness to be understood with reference to the 

of the Jews, the nrophet abruptly kindnett or favour which God was to 

changes the scene, ana introduces them show to his people, in strict accordance 

to view in that state of captivity in with the tenor of his promises, rather 

Babylon in which it was to issue. There, than to the punishment of their enemies. 

CHAP, vn.] MICAH. 265 

10 Mine enemy also shall see it, 
And shame shall cover her. 

She that said to me, Wliere is Jehovah thy God ? 

Mine eyes shall behold her; 

She shall now be trodden npon as the mire of the streets. 

11 In the day when thy walls shall be rebuilt. 
In that day the decree shall be extended ; 

12 In that day they shall come to thee 
From Assyria to Egypt ; 

From sea to sea, and from mountain to mountain. 

10. The deliverance of the Jews was the repetition of mvi d\*, thai day, which 

to be the occasion of the destruction of indisputably is the d^, day, spoken of at 

their foes, who, because the former had the beginning of verse llth. Whatever 

no visible object of worship, and had the decree or command was, the efiect of 

been delivered into their power, taunt- its promulgation was to be the coming 

ingly asked: "^^f^TftivS'^f where is Jeht>' of foreigners from different regions to 

vm thy God? llie feminine suffix refers the Jewish people, reassembling at Jeru- 

to.|^*?-ni, daughter ofZion, understood. salem, X^a^ Y^, T)ie most natural con- 

11,12. Micah resumes the language struction is, that the decree of God 

of prophecy, and, addressing Jerusalem, respecting the political changes that 

annoimces her restoration, and tlie way were to take place, was not to be con- 

tliat would be paved for the conversion fined to Babylon, but was to be extended 

of the surrounding hostile nations to the to all the countries round about Judea, 

true religion. Such appears to me to be in consequence of which great numbers 

the meaning of these verses, which have would become proselytes to the Jewish 

been very variously interpreted, ptr, faith. There is an ellipsis of the preposi- 

staitUe, decree, order ^ apptmtment, LXX. tion }, in, before D\*, day, in all the tnree 

p6fuita, Symm. «ircrayi), Theod. frp6- instances in which it here occurs. } be- 

orayfui, some refer to the tyrannical fore «p9 is not pleonastic, but is used, 

enactments of tlie Babylonians ; some to as in several other instances, after words 

the order of Artaxerxes, Ezra iv. 21 ; which imply condition or time. See 

some to the punishment decreed upon Exod* xvi. 6 ; 1 Sam. xxv. 27. m^ is 

the enemies of the Jews ; some to the used impersonally : ** one, they shall 

idolatrous statutes, with which the Jews come ; " it is rendered in the plural in 

complied ; 8f>me to the boundary of the the LXX., Targ., and Arab., and one of 

Holy Land ; and some to tlie preaching of Kennicott's MSS. reads ihv\ That ^ 

the gospel among all nations, of which last has originally been ^, the parallelism, 

interpretation Calvin says: "Sed locus compared with other instances of its 

hie non patitus seitaviolentertorqueri." occurrence, sufficiently shows. The 

Seeker, Newcome,Vogel,Ddderlem, and change of i into *% and mee versd, by 

others, join pn to pn^, and form a re- transcribers, owing to their great resem- 

duplicate verb pnpm of the whole ; with blance to each other, is very common, 

whom, as to meaning, Gesenius agrees. For example in rvi and non, 1 Cliron. 

who rejects ptr altogether, and renders, i. 6 ; d»?tVi and D'?J"», ver. 7 ; d*"3J and 

die* iUe procul uhett, Thesaur. p. 1284. 0*71, Ps. liv. 6 ; '^^ and "flm?, Ixxxi. 7 ; 

What would seem to determme the ]vn; and |vrv, Prov. x. 32 ; and especially 

meaning of the term, as here used, is the as corresponding to the present case, 

light thrown upon prn, to be distant, f^ and *f7», Ps, cxxxix. 20. The 

remove to a distance, 8ic,, by the geo- latter reading is found in fifteen MSS., 

graphical specifications contained in has been originally in eleven more, and 

verse 12th. The subject of both verses is in one printed edition. No objection 

is sufficiently proved to be identical, by can be taken from the preposition 

M M 

266 MICAH. [chap. vii. 

13 Nevertheless the land shall be desolate 
On account of her inhabitants, 
Because of the fruit of their doings* 

14 Feed thy people with thy crook, 
The flock of thine heritage ; 

That dwell alone in the wood, in the midst of Carmel ; 
Let them feed in Bashan and Oilead, as in ancient days. 

assuming the poetic form rjv, while in addresses a prayer to Jehovah, which, 
the following sentence we have "V ; the though hrie^ is distinguished for the 
same variety appears in ^v?^ and T^i poetical elevation of its style, and the 
ISam. xi. 7. Itisalso worthy of notice, appropriateness of its petition. Like 
that the LXX. have read ^^ at the manyother prayers in the Old Testament, 
beginning of the verse, as if it had heen it is prophetic in its aspect. The Jewish 
^Ipf, having rendered it al iroktig a-ov. people are frequently spoken of under 
By T^V, I understand Egypt, and not the metaphor of a nock| and Jehovah 
firUfication, Com p. 2 Kings xix. 24, as their sheplierd. See Ps. Ixxx. 1, 
Is. xix. 6, on which see my note. Upon xcv. 7, c. 3. They are also often repre- 
this construction, Assyria and Egypt are sented as his special heritage, Deut. 
contrasted, just as they are Is. xix. 23, iv. 20, vii. 6, xxxii. 9. Some understand 
where the same subject is treated of in ti^^v;^, dwelling alone or tolitariig, as 
almost the same language, vn, the river, descriptive of the condition of the Jews 
Kar c^x^ff t. e. the Euphrates, cor- in captivi ty, and 'tp^,/orM<, of the danger* 
responding in the parallelism to "ntfN, and annoyances to which they were 
Auyria, The Syr. and 1 arg. have mis- exposed while in that state. That it 
taken i^ in lAao, for Tyre ; as the latter ratlier refers to the security and pro- 
has T?> for Armenia, The concluding sperity of their restored condition may 
words of the verse, "trn nm p^ pn, stand fairly be concluded from the meaning 
irregularly for yy^ 7?^ Pjwi D^. It of similar language in other passages, 
does not appear that any specific moun- Thus, in the celebrated propheey of 
tains are intended ; the prophet describes Balaam, Numb, xxiii. 9, wnich, in all 
in general terms the natural boundaries probability, Micah had in view, we read, 
of the coimtries from which the persons ^^^nrr ^ Q**^^ p^, '^ °n?« Behold! the 
spoken of were to come. For a pro- people shall dwell alone, and ehall noi 
phetical illustration of these verses, see be reckoned among the nations, Comp. 
on Is. xix. 23 — 25. Deut. xxxiii. 28; Jer. xlix. 31 ; and for 

13. The conjunctive ^ in rnrrn is used "tp;, as used figuratively for a place 
antithetically to introduce a sentence of safety and cool repose, see Esek. 
predictive of what should take place xxxiv. 25. The meaning of the prophet 
previous to the arrival of the events is, that on being brought back to their 
mentioned in the verses immediately own land, thev should no longer be 
preceding. It has the force of but yet, mixed with, and exposed to enemies, but 
nevertheuss, or the like. However bright live by themselves in a state of un- 
the prospects which opened upon the disturbed tranquillity. For instances of 
Jews in futurity, they were not to forget the paragogic Yod aflSxed to participles, 
the punishment that was to intervene, see Gen. xlix. 11; Deut. xxxiii. 16; 
but ou^ht to repent of their sins, to Obad.3; Zech. xi. 17. That the Carmel 
wliich It was to be traced as its cause, here mentioned must be the cdebrated 
Some interpret f)Mn, the land, of Baby- mountain on the coast of the Medi- 
Ionia ; but this construction seems less terranean, see on Amos i. 2. The regions 
apt. of Bashan and Gilead, on the east of the 

14. In the believing anticipation of Jordan, were likewise celebrated for 
the fulfilment of the Divine f promises their rich pasturage, and were, on thia 
made to the covenant people, Micah account, chosen by the tribes of Reuben 


15 As in the days of thy coming forth from Egypt, 
I will show them marvellous things. 

16 The nations shall see it, and be ashamed of all their power ; 
They shall lay their hands upon their mouth ; 

Their ears shall become deaf. 

17 They shall lick dust like the serpent ; 

Like reptiles of the earth they shall tremble from their hiding- 
places ; 
They shall turn with fear towards Jehovah ; 
They shall be afraid of thee. 

18 Who is a God like thee. 

Pardoning iniquity, and passing by transgression, 

In regard to the remnant of his heritage ? 

He retaineth not his anger for ever, 

Because he delighteth in mercy. 

He will again have compassion upon us, 

and Gad, and the half trihe of Manasseh, tf^, and that the affix ^ refers, not to Je- 

Numb, xzxii. ; Deut. iii. 12 — 17. Comp. hovah, but to the people of the Jews. The 

as strictly parallel, Jer. 1. 19. fear ultimately produced in the minds of 

15. The answer of Jehovah to the their enemies was to be a religious fear 
prophet's prayer, assuring the nation, or veneration which should attract them 
that the same Almighty power which towards Jehovah as its object. Comp. 
had interposed in so remarkable a manner for this construction of ^ "Vft to exercise 
for their deliverance from £gy pt, would reverential regard towards God, Hos. iii. 5. 
again wonderfully appear on their behalf. Combined with the circumstances under 
C^mp. Jer. xvi. 14, 15. Such changes which the nations were to acknowledge 
of person as in % thy, and v, kirn, are the supremacy of Jehovah, was their 
common. The reference in both is to standing in awe of the political power 
the people of the Jews. of the Jews. See on Is. xix. 17. 

16. The rno^, pott^fr, spoken of, is that 18. Impelled by strong feelings of 
of the hostile nations, of which they gratitude at the anticipated deliverance 
were so proud, and which they regarded of his people, the prophet breaks out 
as invincible, and not that of the Jews into a strain of the sublimest praise and 
when restored, as Junius and Tremellius, admiration, and gives a description of 
Tamovius, Stokes, and some others, have the gracious character of God, unrivalled 
imagined. The latter half of the verse by any contained in the Scriptures. The 
most graphically describes the silence, uhreaevtif^'^^ passing by transgression, 
astonishment, and utter consternation, is a metaphor, taken from the conduct of 
with which they should be seized. Comp. a traveller who passes on without noticing 
Jud. xviii. 19 ; Job xxi. 5 ; Ps. cvii. 42 ; an object to which he does not wish to 
Is. Iii. 15. give his attention. The idea which it 

17. An equally graphic description of communicates is not, that God is un- 
the state of degradation and terror to observant of sin, or that it is regarded 
which the enemies were to be reduced, by him as a matter of little or no import- 
Comp. Ps. Ixxii. 9; Is. xlix. 23, lxv.25. ance, but that he does not mark it in 
For D^, crawlers, or reptiles^ comp. particular cases with a view to punish- 
Deut. xxxii. 24. The distinctive use of ^, ment; that he does not punish, but for- 
io, and X9ffrom or of, as here used, shows give. Comp. Pro v. xix. 11, Amos vii. 8, 
that there is not a change of person in m which latter passage the verb alone it 

268 MICAH. [cHAP.m 

19 He will subdue our iniquities ; 

Yea, thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the sea. 

20 Thou wilt grant the truth to Jacob, 
The kindness to Abrahaniy 

Which thou didst sware to our fathers 
From the days of old. 

Hsed. The opposite is expressed by toi^ It'is not only contrary to his interest^ 

]i^, to watch ifiiqwty, Ps. cxxx. 3, t^. to but it powernilly opposes and combats 

keep it in view in order to punish it. the moral principles of his nature, and 

rn^, remnarUf does not necessarily imply the higher principles implau ted by grace ; 

a small or inconsiderable numl>er, but and but for the counteracting energy of 

merely conveys the general notion of a divine influence, must prove victorious, 

surviving body of men : here it means Without the subjugation c»f evil jiro- 

those of the Jewish nation who should Densities, pardon would not be a hlettin^. 

be alive at the termination of the If the idolatrous and rebellious disposi- 

captivity. Yfiin, to delight, according to tion of the Jews had not been anbdued 

the Arl.. ,^/««, inJU^U lignu... ^vStrir^'xh^S;:^ 

prcjecit, properly expresses the hent or urevocaUe forgiveness of sins is forcibly 

propetuion of the mind, or what we expressed by casting them into the 

commonly call its iticUnatiom towards an depths of the sea. What is deposited 

object; hence deiire, affeeUon, deUght, there is. completely hid from the view, 

Tlie combined force of i^ fcn, bent on and cannot in any way affect us. Instead 

kindness, is inimitable, the primary idea of 0(Mn, their sins, Ave MSS. read 

of ^n being that of eager desire or love ^rrtth^, our sins, which is the reading 

towards an object. It is the term which of tlie LXX., Syr., Vulg., and Arab, 

is so often rendered loving-kindness in It may, however, only be a correctioo ; 

our common version. the change of person we have frequently 

19. This verse may be regarded as had occasion to notice, 

containing a beautiful epiphonema, in 20. The return from captivity, while it 

which the people of the Jews exultingly furnished a striking specimen of the 

avow their full confidence in tiie for- covenanted fidelity and kindness of 

giving mercy and subduing power of Jehovah, was only preliminary to Uie 

their God* an), to turn, in vorrr 3^3^, is, infinitely greater dbplay of these attri- 

as usual before another verb, employed bntes hi the mission of the Messiah, the 

adverbially to signify o^oss. God had Seedof Abraham in whom all the families 

often pitied and delivered his people. It of the earth were to be blessed. The 

is here intimated that his compassion words of this verse are quoted, with 

was not exliausted, but should be exer- scarcely any variation, in the inspired 

cised towards them anew. All the song of Zacharias, with direct applica- 

meaningfoundbyRo8enmuller,Gesenius tion to Him of whom his son had just 

and Maurer, in ^yv^, ^, is that of dis- been bom to be the forerunner, Luke 

regarding or not avenging, but there is i. 72, 73. Before the names of the 

no ground for rejecting the radical idea patriarchs, a verb signifying to declare, 

of irampUmi underfoot as enenUes, Sin promise, or the like, is understood, 
must ever be regarded as hostile to man. 

N A H U M. 


Owing to the paucity of information respecting the prophet 
Nahum, little can be said in regard to his life and times. All that 
we know of him personally is, that he was the native of a town or 
village called Elkosh, chap. i. 1. 

The onlj historical data furnished by the book itself with respect 
to the period at which he flourished, are the following: the 
humiliation of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, by the Assyrian 
power, chap. ii. 3 ; the final invasion of Judah by that power, 
i. 9, 11 ; and the conquest of Thebes in Upper Egypt, iii. 8—10. 
But the removal of the glory of the Hebrew kingdoms, to which 
reference is made, could only be that which was effected by 
Tiglath-pileser and Shalmaneser, by whom the Israelites were 
carried into captivity ; when the Jews also were harassed and 
spoiled by the Syrians, as well as impoverished by the large sum of 
money paid by Ahaz to tlie former of these monarchs. See Is. 
vii. — Lx. ; 2 Chron. xxviii. Sargon, who appears to have succeeded 
Shalmaneser, not satisfied with the reduction of Phcenicia by that 
king, and fearing lest Egypt should prevail upon the conquered 
provinces of the west to join her in a confederacy against him, 
undertook an expedition into Africa ; and, though history is silent 
as to the event, it would appear from chap. iii. 8 — 10, that the 
expedition proved so far successful, that he took Thebes, the 


celebrated metropolis of Upper Egypt. It was by his successor, 
Sennacherib, that the last attempt was made by the Assyrians to 
crush the Jewish people, which issued in the total defeat of their 

Now, since the last of these events took place in the fourteenth 
year of Hezekiah, and the circumstances connected with it are 
clearly referred to by Nahum, partly prophetically, and partly as 
matter of historical notoriety, chap. i. 9 — 13, it follows that he 
must have lived in, or about the year B.C. 714. Jarchi, Abarbanel, 
Grotius, Junius and Tremelius, and Justi, place him in the reign 
of Manasseh, and some, as Ewald, would make him contemporary 
with Josiah ; but Bp. Newton, Eichhom, Bertholdt, Rosenmiiller, 
Newcome, Home, Gesenius, de Wette, Jahn, Grramberg, Winer, 
Maurer, and Knobel, unanimously agree with Jerome in referring 
his ministry to the latter half of the reign of Hezekiah. Neither 
the opinion of Josephus, that he foretold the destruction of Nineveh 
in the reign of Jotham, nor that of Clement of Alexandria, that he 
lived between Daniel and Ezekiel, has met with any supporters^ 
But if, as is highly probable, he flourished in one of the latter years 
of Hezekiah, his prophecy must have been delivered nearly one 
hundred years before its accomplishment ; for Nineveh was over- 
thrown, and the Assyrian power destroyed, by the joint forces of 
Cyaxeres and Nabopolassar, in the reign of Chyniladanus, B.C. 625. 

Considerable difference of opinion obtains with respect to the 
birth-place of the prophet. That ^Itfp^XH, the EVtoahite, was 
designed to point out the place of his nativity, and not his paternity, 
as the Targumist interprets, is evident from a comparison of the 
form with similar instances of the Yod affixed, 1 Kings xvii. 1 ; 
Jer. xxix. 27 ; Micah i. 1. There are two cities of the name of 
Elkosh, each of which has had its advocates, as that which may lay 
claim to the honour of having given birth to Nahum. The one, 

^^\y Elkosh, is situated in Koordistan, on the east side of the 

Tigris, about three hours' journey to the north of Mosul, which 
lies on the same side of the river, opposite to Nunia, supposed 
to be the site of ancient Nineveh. It is inhabited by Chaldean 
or Nestorian Christians, and is a place of great resort by Jewish 


pilgrims, who firmly believe it to be the birth-place and the burial- 
place of the prophet, to whose tomb they pay special respect. It is, 
however, generally thought that the tradition which connects this 
place with his name is of later date ; and that it owes its origin to 
the Jews or the Nestorians, who imagined that he must have lived 
near the principal scene of his prophecy ; and that the name had 
been transferred to the place from a town so called in Palestine, 
just as our colonists have given the n^mes of towns in Britain to 
those which they have erected in America and Australia. The 
other place is JSlcesi, or Mkesi, a village in Galilee, which was 
pointed out to Jerome as a place of note among the Jews, and 
which, though small, still exhibited some slight vestiges of more 
ancient buildings.* Eusebius mentions it in his account of Hebrew 
places; and Cyrill (ad cap. i. 1,) is positive as to its situation being 
in Palestine.f It has been thought, and not without reason, by 
some, that Capernaum, Heb. Dinj HM, most properly rendered ths 
milage of Nahum^ derived its name from our prophet having resided 
in it, though he may have been bom elsewhere in the vicinity, just 
as it is said to have been 1} iSfa ir6\ig of our Lord, though he was 
bom at Bethlehem. 

Where the prophet was when he delivered his predictions, is not 
specified ; but, from his familiar reference to Lebanon, Carmel, and 
Bashan, it may be inferred that he prophesied in Palestine ; whUe 
the very graphic manner in which he describes the appearance of 
Sennacherib and his army, chap. i. 9 — 12, would seem to indicate 
that he was either in, or very near to Jerusalem at the time. What 
goes to confirm this supposition, is the number of terms, plira»ses, 
&c., which he evidently borrowed from the lips of Isaiah. Comp. 
nfefy? n^3 nsjr t)ptC^, i. 8, and n0 Wn n^3, ver. 9, with ^3!^ c^cjttf. 
Is. viii. 8, and H^ H^^S, Is. x. 23; r^pi^V^ HiJ^D ni>i:a,'ii. 11, 

with r^y\y\ Ylijn pi?^n, is. xxiv. i ; D:3np-'?3n n^nt^m, ii. ii, with 

* '^Porro quod additur, iVavnt Elcesai^ qtiidam patant Elcesseum patrem esse Nanm, 
et secunduin Hebrseam traditionem etiam ipsom prophetam fuisse; qnnm Elcesi usque 
hodie in GaliUea Ticulus sit, paryns qaidem et yix rainisveterum sedificiormn indicans 
▼estigia, sed tamen notns Jndeeis, et mihi quoqae a circomdacente monstratns." — 
Hieron, Prof, in Naum, 

t — rov diri tijj 'E\icc<7^' ko^/ut; Zk afrni wivr^s woO Trjs 'lovSaW x^P^* 


rbtiTi ^ajTo ^u, is. xxi.3; m^J!>t«^"«^3p*?r» u f " u.i 'jy nii. 
ii. 1, with rt'78^ yoitto l9^ ^ji uuu ' j y wirrio, is. Hi. 7, &c. 

The subject of the prophecy is the destruction of Nineveh, whkh 
Micah introduces, after having in the first chapter, and at tlie 
beginning of the second, depicted the desolate condition to whicli, 
in the righteous providence of God, the country of the ten tribes 
had been reduced by the Assyrian power ; the invasion of Judah 
by Sennacherib, whose destruction, and that of his army, he pre- 
dicts ; and the joyful restoration of both the captivities to their 
own land, and the enjoyment of their former privileges. His 
object obviously was, to inspire his countrymen with the assurance, 
that, however alarming their circumstances might appear, exposed 
as they were to the formidable army of the great eastern conqueror, 
not only should his attempt fail, and his forces be entirely de- 
stroyed, but his capital itself should be taken, and his empire 
overturned. The book is not to be divided into three separate 
parts, or prophecies, composed at diflferent times, as some have 
imagined, but is to be regarded as one entire poem, the unity of 
which is plainly discoverable throughout. 

The style of Nahum is of a very high order. He is inferior to 
none of the minor prophets, and scarcely to Isaiah himself, in 
animation, boldness, and sublimity; or, to the extent and pro- 
portion of his book, in the variety, fireshness, richness, el^iance, 
and force of his imagery. The rhythm is regular and singularly 
beautiful ; and with the exception of a few foreign or provincial 
words, his language possesses the highest degree of classical purity. 
His description of the Divine character at the commencement is 
truly majestic ; that of the siege and fall of Nineveh inimitably 
graphic, vivid, and impressive. 


The prophet opens with a sublime description of the attributes and operations 
of Jehovah, with a view to inspire his people with confidence in his protection, 
2 — 8. The Assyrians are then unexpectedly addressed and described, 9—11 ; 
and their destruction, together with the deliverance of the Jews connected with 
that event, are set forth in the language of triumph and exultation, 12 — 15. 

1 The Sentence of Nineveh: 

The Book of the Vision of Nahum the Elkoshite. 

2 Jehovah is a jealous and avenging God ; 
Jehovah is an avenger and furious ; 

Jehovah is an avenger with respect to his adversaries ; 
He keepeth his anger for his enemies. 

1. For the meaning of vtf^t see on rectitude, irresistible power and bound- 
Is. xiii. 1 ; and for the historical circum- less goodness, set forth and illustrated 
stances connected with Nineveh^ see on by images borrowed from the history of 
Jonah i. 2. Between the time of the the Hebrews, the scenery of Palestine, 
prophet just referred to and that of and the more astounding phenomena of 
Nahum, there elapsed a period of about nature, present to view a God worthy 
one hundred and fifty years. The in- of the profoundest reverence, the most 
scription consists of two parts; the unboimded confidence, and the most 
former of which is supposed by some intensive love. How inferior the other- 
to be from a later hand. If genuine, wise sublime description given of the 
we should rather expect the order to anger of Jove by ^schylus: 

have been reversed. ^a\„ ^*^/\^.-«.. 

2. The exordium, which begins here ^ ' v - ^ . 

and reaches to ver 8, is highly magnifi- "aT '^ - J>f^ *• » \ ' 

cent, ihe repeated use of the Incom- '^'^ - >•/ ' r> a^ ' 

municable rvame, and of the participle ,^ / ' * '^ I j. s v'^ 

t3g3, avenging or avenger, gives great , » '^ ^ , *x\ > 

force to the commencement. Nothing « ^ « / « i^ '/ 

can exceed in grandeur and sublimity ^ _ . . J;, .. , «qo 

.ij .^. ^i.i..i. V. *. r From. viHctus, 1089. 

the description which the prophet fur- 
nishes of the Divine character. The M^sg, jVafow*, from H3p., /o 6e wffr»i, ftXoa, 
attributes of infinite purity, inflexible burn with xeal, anger, jealouay. The 

N N 


274 NAHUM. [chap- i. 

3 Jehovah is long-suffering, but great in power, 
He will by no means treat theno as innocent : 
Jehovah hath his waj in the whirlwind and in the storm. 
And the clouds are the dust of his feet. 

4 He rebuketh the sea, and maketh it dry, 
He parcheth up all the rivers : 
Bashan languisheth, and Carmel, 

And the bloom of Lebanon languisheth. 

5 The mountains quake at him. 
And the hills are melted ; 

The earth heaves at his presence. 
The world and all that inhabit it. 

6 Before his indignation who can stand ? 

And who can subsist in the heat of his anger ? 

term is here used ayOpmvonaBm, princi- sublime. Large and majestic as the 

pally in the last of these acceptations, clouds may he, in reference to God, they 

though not to the entire exclusion of are but as the most minute particles of 

the others. The term describes a keen dust raised by the feet in walking, ^^v, 

feeling of injured right, coupled with a signifies light duMt or powder, what is 

strong inclination to see justice done to easily raised. 

the parties concerned, rr^^^^ lit. a 4. What is here predicated of Jebov^ah 
/or(^, or m(u/«r q/yf^ry, an idiom by which is attributed to our Saviour, Luke 
the possession of an attribute or quality viii. 24 : cVtrtfii^o-e — r^ icXvdtfyt rov 
is frequently expressed. Comp.n\&bnrib^|, vbaros. The action involves omiiipo- 
a master of dreams, i.e. a dreamer ; V9|, tence. vi^^!] is a contracted form of the 
]T«5Jn, a master of the tongue, i.e. eloquent Piel, for vr^^"^ as na?] for nrn, Lam- 
In these verses the prophet appears to iii. 33, in both of which the radical 
have an eye specially to the judgments Yod gives its vowel to the preformative 
which God had brought upon his country letter. 

by means of the Assyrians, both when 5. There is no authority for render- 

they carried away the ten tribes, and ing Hi^n?, to be burnt up : none of the 

now when they had again rushed into MSS. or ancient versions directing us to 

the land, and taken the fortified cities of any root signifying to burn, Tiie verb 

Judah. tc^, properly signifies to watch, is likewise thus rendered in our common 

observe, in a bad sense, to mark for version, 2 Sam. v. 21, but the marginal 

punishment Arab. ia>, oculoe can. reading is, took them away. The Tai^. 
^ ' J mdeed has nartrr, vaatata est, but the 

veriU ad rem ; ij, cmtodem et observor LXX. render^ovearaXi;. Symm. eViinf^. 

torem egit, Comp. Ps. ciii. 9 ; Jer. iii. '^^'^ ^yr. J^J, shaketk. Vulg. co«- 

5, 12; andTO^, Ps. cxxx. 3. tremuU, The root is wtoa, to raise, lift 

3. n^T, >^ ng3, holding pure wiU not up ; intransitively, to lift up oneself; and 

Jiold pure, i.e. will not treat as innocent appropriately expresses here the raising 

those who are guilty, but, on the con- or heaving of the ground by an earth- 

trary, punish them according to their quake. 

demerit. LXX. aBoȴ ovk dBot^i, 6. The pouring out of wrath, like fire, 

Comp. Exod. XX. 7, xxxiv. 7. The idea would seem to be a comparison taken 

conveyed by the metaphor, the clouds from volcanoes, which pour out furiously 

are the dust of his feet, is exceedingly their streams of liquid fire over the 

CHAP. I.] NAHUM. 275 

His fury is poured out like fire, 
And the rocks are overthrown by him. 

7 Jehovah is good, a fortress in the day of distress ; 
And knoweth those that trust in him. 

8 But with an overflowing inundation 

He will effect a consummation of her place, 
And darkness shall pursue his enemies. 

9 What devise ye against Jehovah ? 
He will effect a consummation ; 
Distress shall not twice arise. 

circumjacent regions. The breaking in heimer's Hcb. Gram., § 867* They, 
pieces of the rocks, in the following as it were, take it for granted, that every 
hemistich, confirms this idea. Comp. one must, like themselves, clearly perceive 
Jer. li. 25, 26. the reference. On this principle tnere can 
7, 8. There is a marked antithesis in be no difficulty in accounting for the 
these two verses, in the course of which feminine pronominal affix in 7i^V?« ^* her 
the prophet arrives at his main topic, the place," i.e. the place of Nineveh, the 
destruction of Nineveh. Ver. 7 oeauti- TT, cittff or metropolis of Assyria, the 
fully depicts the safety and happiness of overthrow of which the prophet was 
those who make God their refuge, how afterwards to describe, and which he 
severe soever may be the calamity which here merely touches upon by way of 
threatens or may have overtaken them ; anticipation. The use of D^po, pface^ is 
and was primarily intended to administer not without emphasis. Comp. chap, 
comfort to the pious Jews in the prospect iii. 17. Those who desire to see the 
of the Assyrian attack by Sennacherib, difference ofopinion existing both among 
V^ to knowy is here, as frequently, taken ancient and modern writers respecting 
in the sense of knowing with regard^ the actual site of Nineveh, may consult 
kindness, or love. Comp. Ps. i. 6, Bochart, Phaleg. lib. iv. cap. xx. Lucian, 
cxiiv. 3 ; Amos iii. 2. In "^ ^Wfh ^^^ speaking of it, f>ays, if Nti^or filv dnoXoi' 
metaphor of a river impetuously over- \tvPjif}, Ka\ ovbhtxPos7Ti\(nr6vavTfjs, 
flowing its banks, rustling into the ovd' dv (Xvris onov nor ijv. Dialog, 
adjacent country, and passing through, entitled 'Eirio-jcoTrovvrcr. Bochart, re- 
carrying all before it, is employed to ferrmg to the city of the name mentioned 
denote the rtithless invasion of a country by Ammianus, expresses himself thus : 
by a hostile and powerful army. It ''Meritodubitaturanrestauratafueriteo 
is used by Isaiah, chap. viii. 8, to de- in loco, in quo prius condita." In the 
scribe the resistless entrance of the Hebrew MSS. there is no various reading 
Assyrian army into Palestine ; and here of sroVo ; but the rendering of the LXX., 
Nahum appropriates the language for roOrcircyctpoficvovf, andof Aq ,aVr(ara- 
the purpose of describing the triumphant fievap, supported by Theod. and the 
progress of the Medo-Babylonian troops fifth Greek version, would indicate, that 
when advancing towards Nineveh. He their authors read n^ or rrocrtps^io, in 
not only beholds, in prophetic vision, favour of which i^^ in the following 
their approach to the devoted city, but hemistich might be adduced. The 
announces its complete destruction. It Syriac, however, Vulg., and Symm., 
is usual with the prophets, as it is with read with the received text 
the Oriental poets, when powerfully 9. By a sudden apostrophe Nahum 
affected, to introduce into their discourse here turns to the invaders, and boldly 
persons or objects as acting, without challenges them to account for their 
having previously named them. See temerity in daring to oppose themselves 
on Is. xiii. 2 ; and comp. ^|9P, ver. 11 to Jehovah. On which lie repeats what 
of the present -chapter. See Nord- he had declared in the preceding verse 

276 NAHUM. [chap. i. 

10 For though they are closely interwoven as thorns, 
And thoroughly soaked with their wine. 

They shall be consumed like stubble fully dry, 

11 From thee he came forth, 

The deviser of mischief against Jehovah, 
The wicked counsellor. 

12 Thus saith Jehovah : 

Though they are complete and so very numerous, 
Yet in this state they shall be cut down, 
And he shall pass away : 

respecting the total destruction of the which Newcome adopts from the Targ. 
Assyrian power, and adds, for the special and Syr* It is found in no Heb. MS. 
encoiiragementofthe Jews, that it should V3M, to eaU is often used to express 
never annoy them again. Tlie parallel consumption by fire. The application 
to»this brief apostrophe we have more of the Language of this and the preceding 
at length. Is. xxxvii. 23 — 29. For the verse to the literal inundation of the 
force of m^^i twice, comp. kiVinriMDrB Tigris, the drunkenness of the Assyrian 
^b n:^, 1 Sam. xxvt. 8. That the renewal camp, and the burning of the palace, 
of the affliction does not refer to any &c., at Nineveh by Sardanapalus, as 
supposable future overthrow of the related by Diodorus Siculus, lib. ii., is 
Assyrians, as Michaelis, Rosenmuller, not justified either by the import and 
Hitzig, Ewald, and others maintain, usage of the terms, or by chronology, 
but to any further calamity to be appre- the catastrophe described by Nahum^not 
bended from them by the Jews, appears having taken place till long after the 
from ver. 12 to be the true construction time of that monarch, 
of the meaning. 11. '^fiSfPifrom thee, O Nineveh ! in the 

10. However strong and vigorous the feminine. Sennacherib, whose machina- 
Assyrian army might be, its complete tions against Jehovah had been adverted 
destruction would easily be efiected by to ver. 9, is here intended. The Heb, 
Jehovali. iv, to, even to, is here used as ^^, frequently rendered in our common 
a comparative particle of degree : to the, version Bella/, properly signifies worth- 
same degree as, or H&e thorns. Comp. lessness, inutility, and by implication, 
1 Chron. iv. 27. Briers and thorns badness in a moral sense, wickedness. 
are employed by the prophets to denote Hence the idiomatic combinations, dih 
the soldiers composing a hostile army. *^)% a man of Belial, a wicked man ; 
See Is. X. 17, xxvii. 4. The metaphor VJT^^ a son of Belial, a bad man; 
is here taken from a thicket of thorns, ^!^iiTi^, a daughter of Belial, a wicked 
the prickly branches of which are so woman. The word is compounded of 
closely intertwined as to present an ^^|i, without, and ^l, profit. 
impenetrable front to those who would 12. Another description of the for- 
enter it. Such were the celebrated midable appearance of the hostile army, 
military phalanxes of antiquity, con- accompanied with a prediction of its 
sisting of bodies of troops armed with sudden and complete annihilation, the 
long spears, and arranged in the form flight of Sennacherib, and the future 
of a square. The other metaphor is immunity of the Jews from an invasion 
taken from drunkards who drench or on the part of the Assyrians. Q^!^, 
saturate themselves with wine, and complete, expresses the unbroken con- 
denotes the degree of moisture which diiion of the army of the enemy, and 
those thorny warriors possessed, and their being fully provided with every 
by which they were prepared to resist thing requisite for the successful siege 
the action of fire. No account is to of Jerusalem. The word may also be 
be made of the reading D*?^, princes, des'gned to convey the idea of mental 

CHAP. I.] NAHUM. 277 

Though I have afflicted thee, 
I will afflict thee no more. 

13 For now I will break his yoke from off thee, 
And burst thy bands asunder. 

14 And with respect to thee, Jehovah hath commanded : 
There shall no more be sown any of thy name ; 

From the house of thy gods I will cut off the graven and the molten 
image ; 

completeness, f. e, in this connexion, a defective reading of Trwy, which is 
Mecurity, martial courage. Thus Kimchi, found in a number of MSS., and in some 
iffiQD rrerwrT ta 'D d"mo ninD* rf?, they are editions. The object of the verb is 
not afraid ofman^for they have subdued Judah, understood, which Jehovah here 
aU the countries. {^, as used the second kindly addresses, and not Nineveh, as 
time, signifies thus^ sOy in this state^ as Michaelis and Hitzig suppose. The 
thus constituted. The change of number Jews are addressed as a female, as tliey 
from the plural ^3, " they are, or shall are in the words ^73 ^^t Tan rrv^^ ^|rr, 
be cut down," to "Q», " he passeth away, " Celebrate thy festivals, JuJah ! perform 
is obviously intended to distinguish thy vows. Chap. ii. 1. On the introduc- 
between the overthrow of the Assyrian tionofa predicate without previous men- 
army, and the immediate departure of tion of the subject, see on ver. 8. The 
Sennacherib to his own land. The meaning is, that the Jews were to be no 
nominative to "W is "J??)? ^* in the more afflicted by the Assyrians, and not 
preceding verse. T^, to cut, or mow that Divine judgments were never after- 
down, is a metaphor derived from the wards to be inflicted upon them by others, 
hay harvest, and forcibly sets forth the 13. The suffix ^ has here the same 
sudden and entire destruction of an reference as in the preceding verse, and 
army. See for the historical facts, vr in ^rrot), *' his yoke," to the king of 
2 Kings xix. 35 ; Is. xxxvii. 36, 37. At Assyria. Comp. Is. x. 27 ; Jer. ii. 20. 
the close of the verse, Jehovah directs For m^t), some think the LXX. and 
the discourse to his people, graciously Vulg. read v^o, which is the reading 
assuring them that, though he had of several MSS. ; but they both signify 
employed the Assyrian power to punish a staff ox pole ; only the former denotes 
them, he would do so no more. New- what is placed on the neck, in order to 
come, almost entirely on the authority of bear a burden. 

the LXX., improperly changes Dn?^ aj 14. We have here another apostrophe 

"xm «'03 pj ir?n pi into ]3 craT on? btfo dh to the Assyrian monarch, announcing 

nn^ p} '^, *' Though the Ruler of many to him, that his dynasty should not be 

waters has thus ravaged, and thus perpetuated, that his favourite idols 

passed through." That these ancient should be destroyed, and that the very 

translators did, from hearing D^^ OM temple in which he worshipped them 

read as D^ ^i^, render, Karapx^v should become his grave. When it is 

vbartcv iroXXttv, there can be no doubt ; said, that '* no more of thy name shall 

but then, they place the words in apposi- be sown," the meaning is not, that none 

tion with rdbt Xc'yei Kvpiot ; and make of his sons should succeed him in the 

the Lord, and not the king of Assyria, government, but that his dynasty should 

to be " the ruler of many waters." The cease on the arrival of the event pre- 

Syr. following the LXX., only changing dieted by Nahum, the destruction of 

, . , . .,,,., ^ Nineveh. The Medes being great ene- 

the smgular mto the plural, has ^^5^ mies to idolatry, those of them who 

n - ^ o V V ^^ composed the army of Cyaxeres would 

P*y.ffl 1^2^ » »A aV " respecting the take singular pleasure in destroying the 

*^^ * idols which they found in the chief 

heads of many waters." ^9? U merely temple at Nineveh. No mention is made 

278 NAHUM. [chap. ii. 

I will make it thy grave, 
Because thou art worthless. 

in history of the sepulture of Senna- in the same sense in which the Chaldee 

cherib, but we are expressly told, ^^ is used Dan. v. 27, but without 

2 Kings xix. 37, Is: xxxvii. 38, that he sufficient ground in Hebrew usage, 

was slain by two of his sons while in the In application to persons it always sig- 

act of worship in the temple of Nisroch nifies to be the object of shame or dia- 

his god ; and there can be no doubt that grace. Though to be buried in a temple 

it is to this event reference is here made, naturally conveys to our minds the iaea 

□^ stands elliptically for ^9^, 1 wiU of honourable interment, it is otherwise 

make ii, i.e. the temple of thy gods, thy here, owing to the peculiar circumstances 

grave. Some take p^, thou art light, of the case. 


After prophetically describing the joyful announcement of the overthrow of the 
Assyrian power, 1; and calling upon the Jews manfully to defend Jerusalem 
against the attack of Sennacherib, in the assurance that there would be a glorious 
restoration of the whole Hebrew people, 2, 3 ; the prophet arrives at his main 
subject, the destruction of Nineveh, the siege and capture of which he portrays 
with graphic minuteness, and in the most sublime and vivid manner, 4—11. In 
a beautiful allegory he then, with triumphant sarcasm, asks where was now the 
residence of the once conquering and rapacious monarch ? 12, 13 ; after which, 
Jehovah is introduced, expressly declaring that he would assuredly perform what 
he had inspired his servant to predict. 

1 Behold ! upon the mountains are the feet of liim that announceth 
That publisheth peace : 

Celebrate thy feasts, O Judah ! perform thy vows, 
For the wicked shall no more pass through thee ; 
He is entirely cut off. 

1. Some interpreters refer these words to what took place on the miraculous 

to the messengers which should arrive deliverance of Jerusalem, recorded Is. 

from the East, announcing to the in- xxxvii. 36. They are almost identical, 

habitants of Judah the joyful intelligence so far as they go, with the language of 

of the destruction of Nineveh, which had Isaiah, chap. hi. 7, relative to the return 

been briefly hinted at in the course of from Babylon. During the Assyrian 

the preceding chapter ; but it better invasion, the inhabitants of Judah were 

accords with the spirit and bearing of cut off from all access to the metropolis ; 

the immediate connexion to apply them now, they would be at liberty to proceed 

CHAP. II.] NAHUM. 279 

2 The dispereer hath come up before thee ; 
Keep the fortress, watch the way, 

Make fast the loins, 

Strengthen thee with power to the utmost. 

3 For Jehovah will restore the excellency of Jacob, 
As he will the excellency of Israel ; 

Though the emptiers have emptied them, 
And destroyed their branches. 

4 The shield of his heroes is dyed red. 
The warriors are clothed with scarlet ; 

thither aa usual, in order to observe ' 3. Further to encourage the inha- 

their religious rites, ^f , Belial, doubt- bitants of Jerusalem, a promise is here 

less means the same as ^^T^ Y^, wicked given of the restoration of the Hebrew 

counsellor^ chap. i. 1 1 ; i. e, as there people to their former independence and 

explained, Sennacherib. Restricted as glory. 3^9! ]^, &c., is not to be in- 

the declaration here made must neces- terpreted of the pride of the Hebrews, 

sarily be to this monarch, the passage nor of the proud and insulting conduct 

is nowise at variance with the fact, that of their enemies towards them ; but, as 

Manasseh was for a time in the power in Ps. xlvii. 5 ; Amos vi. 8, it means the 

of the Assj'rians, 2 Chron. xxxiii. 1 1 . land of Canaan, as distinguished above 

2. Most moderns adopt the in terpreta- all other countries. This land, as the 

tion of Jerome, who is of opinion, that prophet immediately adds, had been 

the prophet here turns to Nineveh, and spoiled by the Assyrians, who had not 

directs the attention of her monarch to only carried away the ten tribes into 

the approach of the Medo-Babylonish captivity, but taken the fortified cities 

army. I rather think with Abarbanel, of Judah ; but it was ag^in to be 

Kimchi,Jarchi,Hezel,Dathe, and others, restored, partly on the destruction of 

that the words are addressed to Hezekiah, the Assyrians, and completely on the 

and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for return from Babylon. 3^, to return^ 

the purpose of inspiring them with has here the force of the Hiphil l^, to 

courage to hold out during the Assyrian restore, as in Numb. x. 36 ; I's. Ixxxv. 5. 

Ai. L , ^^n. r .*••• A u • Connected as this verb is with the future, 

attack, m from p?. ArA. ,jc{t, implied in the abbreviated form "rtsj, &c., 

abutf peregrinatuMfuitf to scatter , disperse, in the preceding verse, it is to be rendered 

properly signifies the Disperser, and is in this tense. Jacob and Israel are, aa 

appropriately applied to the king of frequently, put for the people of the two 

Assyria, by whose army the inhabitants kingdoms. The devastation effected by 

of the different countries which it invaded the Assyrians is described by a metaphor 

were scattered from their abodes. Some taken from the pruning of vines, or the 

prefer rendering the word by hammer, cutting off of the young twigs or shoots, 

and compare Prov. xxv. 18, and Jer. Parallel to the promise made in this 

li. 20, in the latter of which passages verse is that given by Isaiah, chap, 

we have y^ from fp), to break m pieces, xxxvii. 31, 32. 

disperse, &c., rendered in our common 4. The prophet now proceeds to de- 
version battle-axe. The address is beauti- scribe the siege and capture of Nineveh, 
fully abrupt, and derives great force which involved the downfal of the 
from the use of the Infinitive instead of Assyrian empire. The formidable, ter* 
the Imperative of all the four verbs rific, and invincible appearance of the 
which here occur. The fuller forms Medo- Babylonish army is first noticed, 
would be "isn "t^JM, n^sp ng^, &c., '^'^^ *r!^M, his heroes, i. e. the mighty men 
rrn^ form a paronomasia. of Cyaxeres. The suffix is the less fre- 

280 NAHUM. [chap, ii. 

The chariots are furnished with fiery scythes, 
In the day of his preparation ; 
And the cypresses are brandished. 

quent fomii instead of T, but represents east of the Caucasus have long been 

more of the primitive pronoun mn, of celebrated ; and that this compound 

which both are fragments. D^wp is the metal is of high antiquity, is universally 

Pual participle of cn^, to be red; and is allowed. Its name, Chalyht, is derived 

applied to the shields, to intimate that from the Chalybes, a people bordering 

they were dyed red. The bull's hide on the Euxine sea. It is doubtless what 

vixui which they were commonly covered the prophet Jeremiah means by forabra, 

was easily susceptible of this 'process ; iron from the North, and which he du- 

and, on being anointed with oil, would tlnguishes from ^i, common iron, chap. 

shine brightly. See on Is. xxi. 6. Tliis xv. 12. Now there appears to be no 

interpretation of the word, which is con- part of the war-chariots entitled to the 

firmed by the meaning of the corre- character of irons flashing with fire, but 

spending participle, in the following the falces or scythes, which were ^^ fixed 

hemistich, is preferable to that which at right angles to the axle, and turned 

would make it express the idea of Jiery, downwards, or inserted parallel to the 

sparkling, or the like. " Bloodstained" axle into the fellv of the wheel, so as to 

is altogether to be rejected. The LXX. revolve, when the chariot was put in 

mistaking o^ for D'Jf?, preposterously motion, with thrice the velocity of the 

render onka bvyaoTtiav avT&v€^dy$p€a' chariot itself ; and sometimes also pro- 

fr«>y. 0*^7) lit. are crimsoned, is a jecting from the extremities of the axle." 

ana^ Xcy., but is the Pual participial Dr. William Smith's Diet, of Greek and 

form, and is evidently derived from ^fen, Roman Antiquities, art, Faix, The 

the name specially used to denote the ^/taradpcTray^^opa were justly reckonec 

coccus, or uform which was used in among the most terrific implements o 

dying, to give to cloth a deep scarlet ancient warfare, as they mowed dovi 

colour. The manufacture of such stuffs all that came in their way. The t^ ^n 

was chiefly carried on by the Tyrians and of these scythes was the coruscations 

Lydians. The LXX. have also mis- produced by their excessive brightness 

taken this word for tr^iip, ifkiral^ovTai, and the rapidity of their motion. Instead 

in which they are followed by the Syr. of «5«a, *^with fire," seven MSS., ori- 

PoUux describes the Medes as wearing ginally one more, and the Soncin. edition 

a cloth called Sarages, which was of of the Prophets, read tf|<9, **like fire." 

scarlet colour, striped with white ; The sufiix in ^^pn may either form an 

l^apayri^f Mrjdcuv rt (fioprjfia, irop<fivpovs, accusative to 33xt, or the genitive of an 

^€0-oXfvicoff YiTfloi^. Lib. i. cap. 13. agent not mentioned — the hostile com- 

htJb «5«|i, with fiery scythes. That n*T^ mander. The latter construction is pre- 

stands here by transposition of the two ferable, as it refers the day of his pre- 

first letters for rhB), cannot be admitted ; par at ion to the period fixed upon by the 

the plural of Tpb, a lamp, or torch, being general for commencing the attack. It 

always o*TP^, in the masculine, so that would only be then that the scythes 

the Syr., Targ., &c., give an erroneous would be fixed in the chariots : it being 

interpretation, rn^, iron, steel. Syr. not only useless but dangerous to have 

,'t ' , ^ n A »- them attached at other times. By 

}f^ the same. Comp. the Arab, q,^^ cypresses, are meant spean or 

• 1. ., . . ..., ;„ . /ancM, the staves of which were made of 

OA^, secuit, m paries cofictdtL Jjly, ^^^ branches of the cypress. The LXX, 

ferrum durum, chalyls, 3^, e chalyU J^^^^rl^^^^ ^^^ ^^T^lJZ, 

aonfectus, de gladio. For the manufac- rendering it o2 lirittli, which Michaelis 

ture of swords of the finest steel, not is inclined to prefer, and Newcoine has 

only Damascus but certain towns on the actually adopted. There is, howerefi 

CHAP. II.] NAHUM. 281 

5 The chariots dash madly on the commons. 
They run furiously in the open places ; 
Their appearance is like that of torches, 
They flash like lightnings. 

6 He remembers his nobles; 
They stumble in their march ; 

no just cause for stumbling at the bold- it run 4tp and down is too weak. I have 

ness of the figure. Homer, describing added Vvrtotiir/]^, which makes this hemi- 

the spear of Achilles, calls it an ask : stich better agree with the preceding. 

» ^ » , f- ^ I , Noris the reduplication of the third radi- 

Ejc ff apa (rvpiyyos varp^iov tanaaar ^al of fn, to run, in Piel, iMVin, without 

•yXf *» , » * I * * corresponding degree of "energy. It 

BpiBxi^iuya ariPapow to ^h ov dvtfar expresses the rapid zig-zag course of the 

dXKot Ayamp chariots, resembling the quick ;flashing 

na'XXciv, 5XXa /i€v ofoff cfr/crraro irr)\ai ^f lightning. As 3^ is masculine, the 

AxtAAcvcy feminine suffix in ]Jt>?7P must be taken 

UfjKiada MEAIHN, K. r.A. for a neuter, or regarded as an instance 

lUad. XIX. 387-390. ^f neglected gender. 

Hesiod also designates the lance iUrv. ^1 Jhe king of Nineveh is hererepre- 

a pine. Scut. Here. 188 ; and Virg^ aented as roused from a profound stupor; 

^x. J! c Ai, r^ -11 A'ld, contrivmg the necessary means of 

uses Aefr for the spear ofCamilla: j^j.^„^, „ g^, ^^ j, j„^.„| ^^^^ ^j^^^. 

« CUIUS apertum ^i^^ ^ his principal officers, whom he 

Adversi long& transverberat abieU pec- Bummons to their nosts. Michaelis, 

tus." JEneid. xi. 667. Maurer, and others, think that by these 

officers, the generals commanding in 

^^P7?» a Siira^ Xry., from the root Vyi), tl)e provinces are intended ; but it is more 

„ .. * , , likely the prophet means the military 

Syr. ^^5.,, fremuU, to move iretnulout^, i^^ders within the city, since it is repre- 

wave, ihake; hence ^ and ^i^SH^, trem' sented in the preceding verses as already 
bUng, Zech. xii. 2 ; Ps. Ix. 5. The refer- invested by the enemy ; and they are 
ence seems to be to the custom of the spoken of as hastening to the wall, and 
spear-men to wave their lances before not to the city, which the former inter- 
engaging in battle, for the purpose of pretation would require. *Qa is here used, 
evincing their eagerness for the contest not in the sense of simply recollecting, 
5. This verse £wald explains of the or calling to mind, but with the acces- 
preparations made by ihe Ninevites for sory idea of canrying out or giving effect 
the defence of the ci^ ; but the war- to the reooUection, in regard to the object 
chariots could not be used within the of remembrance. H tberefone implies, 
walls: they could only be effective in that the monarch .ordered them to occupy 
the open field. n\3VT signifies not merely each his place in the defence of Nineveh, 
streets, as being without the houses of a On recetvinff the.orders, they make such 
city, but also the ouijieldi or ^ommont haste, that they and their troops stumble 
without the city itself. Comp.Jobv. JO; while marching to the walls. Instead 
Ps. cxliv. 13 ; Prov. viii. 26. In like of n in virtfm, eight of De Rossi's MSS., 
manner ttom, as its parallel, denotes another originuly, the Brixian, and 
any wide or open spaces in the suburbs another ancient edition, exhibit the local 
without the gates. Comp. 2 Chron. n, which is supported by the Targ., Syr., 
xxxii. 6; Ps. cxliv. 14. ^"nin signifies and Arab. By the ^, protector, or 
to act the part of a madman, to show protection, here mentioned, some under- 
one'e self violentt rage^ and the like. The stand the vinea, or the tettudo, military 
reduplicate form )|^Pf^2^ is obviously coverings used by the besiegers of a city, 
intended to give great force to the under Uie shelter of which they might 
expression; on which account, to render safely cany on their operations in under- 

O O 

282 NAHUM. [chap. ii. 

They hasten to her wall. 
And the defence is prepared. 

7 The flood-gates are opened, 
And the palace is dissolved, 
Though firmly established. 

8 She is made bare ; she is carried up. 
While her handmaids moan like doves, 
And smite upon their hearts. 

mining, or otherwise destroying the Hophal of 33), to fiace^ Meitie^ fix^ has 

walls. As, however, the term is here recourse to a new root, 33S, which he bor- 
applied to something employed by those * ^ 

WDo acted on the defensive, it cannot be rows from the Arab, ^^^r^y fiuxil^ siU- 
so interpreted. In all probability, some « «^ 

kind of breastwork, composed of the in- ^„^ g^^oA, C-a^, fudit, efudit; and, 
terwoven boughs and branches of trees, . • j ^ . 

erected between the towers upon the ^^en removmg the word to the end o f the 

walls, is intended. According to Dio- preceding verse, reads thus, ate; Jarri 

dorus Siculus, Nhieveh had fifieen bun- 5?v!?» '^« P^^^^^^ " dmolved and made to 

dred towers, each of which was two ft*>^ owau. That the verb is to be 

hundred feet high. TO) signifies to w^ar^, connected with the preceding aio^, the 

intertwine, fence, and the like, and so to gender at once shows; but there u no 

protect, iheUer, LXX. ical iroi^aova* necewity of departmg from the usu^ 

p signification of asQ, to place, fix, etand 

rdf irpo^vXaKOff ai/Vwv. Syr. liOAii, firndy ; in HX^h, to caute to itand, eston 

blish. However strongly the palace 

fortifications. Targ. ^fiipp, towers. might have been constructed, it would 

7. Though it is not unusual in Hebrew not be able to resist the fury of the water, 
to represent invading armies or mul- ^ has here the force of though, and 
titudes of people under the image of though. Comp. ^fni^n M<rn, MaL iii. 14. 
floods or waters, an interpretation adopted The nominative to the feminines nnVs and 
here by Rosenmiiller, De Wette, and nr ^h is Nineveh understood. The first 
others, there does not appear to be suf- of these verbs some render, is carried 
ficient ground to depart from the literal into captivity ; but this signification is 
meaning. By nV«^, rivers, or streams, confined to the Kal and Hiphil conju- 
are meant the canals dug from the Tigris, gations. It here describes the ignominy 
which intersected the city, and more with which the Ninevites were treated, 
especially those which afibrded a supply when, stripped of everything, they were 
of water for the defence of the palace, forced from their capital. Comp. Is. 
The gates or sluices of these canals were xlvii. 3. Nineveh is represented as a 
doubtless strongly constructed, to prevent queen degraded from her dignity, and 
a greater influx of water than wnat was led away captive by the enemy ; her 
required ; but having upon the present female slaves following and deploring 
occasion been burst open by the be- her fate. That the queen of Nineveh her- 
siegers, the waters of the Tigris rushed self, supposed to be here called Husxab, is 
in, and, completely inundating the royal intendeo, is a position which cannot be 
residence, dissolved and ruin^ it. The sustained, though adopted by several in- 
verb 3to3 describes the physical effects of terpreters, and recently by Ewald. Per- 
the inundation, not metaphorically those sons are never introduced by name into 
produced by the event upon the minds prophecy, except for some important 
of the inhabitants. purpose, as in tne case of Cyrus. For 

8. 3Sn has occasioned a great diversity rr^, to pant, sigh, moan, comp. the Arab. 
of interpretations. Gesenius, dissatisfied . . . x. ? -^ • 
with all those derived from its being the ^i gravtter, contmuo ankelavU, r« 


9 Though Nineveh hath been like a pool of water, 
From the most ancient time, 
Yet they are fleeing : 
" Stop ! stop I" but none looketh back. 

10 Plunder the silver, plunder the gold ; 
There is no end to the store ; 

There is abundance of all covetable vessels^ 

11 Emptiness and emptiedness and void, 
Heart-melting and tottering of knees v 
There is intense pain in all loins. 
And all faces withdraw their colour* 

12 Where is the den of the lionesses ? 
And the feeding-place of the young lions ? 
Where the lion and the lioness walked, 

The lion's cub also, and none disturbed them. 

, . ., e. ^ J -4 11' The three synonymes twsq nna 

mterrupto ipmtu ; Syr. ,^. elamavU,. ^^^ ^jj ^^^^ ^^^ J sipiifyinp to empty, 

ruffiil. empty out, are exquisitely choseiii and 

9. The compariflon of the population from their increase in length, as well as 
of Nineveh to a collection of water is from their similarity hoth in sound and 
here appropriate, vtr) "rpv is an anti- meaning, [^ve great force to the expre»- 
quated mode of expressing the feminine sion of total desolation — the idea here 
pronominal affix — the absolute form of intended to be conveyed. Gesenius 
the pronoun being retained instead of considers them to be onomatopoetici imi- 
the fragmental n being attached to the tating the sound of emptymg out a 
noun, M*n 'onp^nvp ; lit. from her dayf, bottle. Comp. Is. xxiv. 1, for the cty- 
i,e, during the whole period of her ex- mology of the verbs pi?\— p« and p^ ; and 
istence, or, from the most ancient time, for a similar use of words varied in form, 
The prophet compares the royal city to but nearly alike in sound, Is. xxiv. 3, 4, 
a reservoir of water, on account of the xxix. 2 ; £zek. xxxiii. 29; Zeph. i. 15. 
confluence of people from the surround- rMn^ an intensive form, from Vvr, fo' be 
ing provinces. All who could make in pain. For *vnH^ see on Joel ii. 6. 
their escape, now took to flight, and no 12 — 14. A beautiful allegory, setting 
entreaties could induce them to remain, forth the rapacious, irresistible, and lux- 

10. Nahum here apostrophizes the urious character of the king of Assyria, 
victorious enemy. They had now only and the destruction of Nineveh, the 
to possess themselves of the immense seat of his empire, with all his armies, 
riches which had been abandoned by the and their means of supply. In the last 
inhabitants, or which they might plunder verse, the literal is intermixed with the 
at pleasure. The repetition of the verb figurative. Comp. for the metaphor. Is. 
^t^ gives force to the diction. n|^, from v. 29 ; Jer. ii. 15. vm, in ver. 12, has 
X^, in Hiphil, to tet up, prepare; anv- the force of Ma^foAicA; ^, ver. 13, asuffi- 
thing laia up, prepared, ana ready for dency, eupply, &c. vp^ and r^^np are 
uee, as costly garments, ornaments, &c. employed idiomatically in the two gen- 
Comp. Jobxxvii. 16. LXX. rev K6a'fiov ders to express difierent kinds of prey. 
aviijf, Vulg. divitiarum, Targ. h;?!^, Comp. Is. iii. 1. For \ff} the Targ. has 
treasures, "1% followed by p, is here a m^)i^^, with fire. The meaning is, that 
nominative absolute : as for the abund- such should be the number of chariots 
ance, it consists of, &c. con»iuned, that the smoke arising from 

28i NAHUM. [chap. in. 

13 The lion tore for the supply of his cubs. 
And strangled for his lionesses ; 

He filled his dens with prey, 
And his habitations with rapine. 

14 Behold ! I am against thee, saith Jehovah of hosts ; 
I will bum her chariots into smoke ; 

The sword shall devour thy young lions, 

And I will cut off thy prey from the land : 

The voice of thy messengers shall be heard no more. 

the fire in which they were to be burnt, can be little doubt that it is a defective 

should be visible to all. Comp. Ps. reading, *^^o^f for n^pp^. Comp. ^^^Qty 

xxxvii. 20. The MSS. and editions differ Ps. cxxxix. 5. The Syr. and LXX. 

in their punctuation of TTSxho, but there have- read TpFOMl^, " thy works." 


The prophet, resuming his description of the siege of Nineveh, 1 — 3, traces it to 
her idolatry as its cause, 4, and repeats the divine denunciations which he had 
introduced chap. ii. 13, ver. 5 — 7. He then, to aggravate her misery, points 
her to the once formidable and celebrated, but now conquered and deso- 
late Thebes, 8 — ^10, declaring that such should likewise be her fate, 11 — 13 ; 
calls upon her sarcastically to make every preparation for her defence, but 
assuring her that it would be of no avail, 14, 15 ; and concludes by contrasting 
with the number of merchants, princes, and generals, which she once 
possessed, the miserable, remediless state of luin to which she was to be 
reduced, 16 — 19. 

1 Wo to the city of blood ! 

She is wholly filled with deceit and violence ; 
The prey is not removed. 

2 The sound of the whip, and the sound of the rattling of the wheels. 
The horses prancing, and the chariots bounding ; 

I. A portraiture of the atrocious cha- 2, 3. The description which the pro- 

racter of the Ninevites. pna xdm form phet here gives of the approach of the 

an asyndeton. The non-removal of the en em v, his attack on the city, and the 

prey refers to the fact, that the Assyrians slaughter of the besieged, is exquisitely 

had not restored the ten tribes. graphic. Every translator must acknow- 


3 The mounting of horsemen, the gleaming of swords, 
And the lightning of spears ; 

The multitude of slain, 
And the mass of corpses ; 
There is no end to the carcasses ; 
They stumble over their carcasses : 

4 Because of the multitude of the whoredoms of the harlot, 
The very graceful mistress of enchantments ; 

Who sold nations through her fornications. 
And tribes through her enchantments. 

5 Behold ! I am against thee, saith Jehovah of hosts ;. 
I will throw up thy skirts upon thy fece. 

And show the nations thy nakedness, 
And the kingdoms thy shame. 

6 I will cast abominable things upon thee. 
And disgrace thee ^ 

And will make thee a gazing-stock* 

ledge with Jerome : " Tam pulchra which is favoured by the reDderings of 

juxta Hebraicum et pictura similis ad the LXX. and Vulg. 

proelium se preparantia exercitus de- 4. The idolatrous practices of the Nine- 

Bcriptio est, ut omnia meus sermo sit yites, and the means which they employed 

vilior." The passage is unrivalled by toseduceotherstoworship their gods, are 

any other, either in sacred or profane here represented as the principal cause 

literature. Comp. however Jer.xlvii.3. of their destruction. At the same time, 

nE[i^ occurs only here, but in Judges V. 22, the commerce, luxury, &c. which they 

we find TT^iy irtti.n, ike charget of his carried to the greatest height, are not to 

miffhtif warriors, in connexion with DC, be excluded; for in making contracts and 

the war-horte. It would seem to have treaties with the more powerful of their 

^ X ^ X neighbours, they not only employed these 

some affinity to the Arab. ^^^JbJ,ctffcn7<?r as inducements, but did not scruple to 

Jz^" deliver into their power, nations and 

- , . tribes that were unaole to defend them- 

meesnf, and expresses the coursmg or ^i^^^ Comp. Joel iv. 3, 6—8; Amos 

prancii^ of the cavalry, when rapidly j.e. The metaphor of an unchaste female, 

advancing to the attack. Their eager- ^^d the seductive arts which she employs, 

ness the LXX. expresses by render- is not unfrequent in the prophets. 

;«- :* > ' o ' * r »f .* 5, 6. The laneuae e of commination 

ing It «M.«oi^o». Syr. jai, eiua,vU. ^^^ ^^ 5, ,ug|e,7ed by th« metaphor 

of an harlot, employed in the preceding 

onhela viL D. Kimchi : ntej wen np*w verse. It woula seem to refer to an 
Vrgini, the powerful trampling or prancing ancient mode of punishing strumpeU, by 
of the horse and his eowrse. The col- stripping them of all their gaudy attire, 
lectives require to be rendered in the and exposing them, covered with mud 
plural. ^ is not to be nnderstood as and filth, to the gaze of insulting spec- 
repeated before WD and the following tators. The abhorrent character of the 
substantives. Instead of ^^^ or ^^% figure constitutes the very reason of its 
as it is read in some of the old editions, selection. Comp. Ezek. xvi. 37—41. 
the Keri, many MSS., and the Soncin., The ?in ^13 is the Caph veritatis. LXX. 
Brix., and Complut. editions, read ^^^, tU wapddf lyfm. 

286 NAHUM. [chap. hi. 

7 And every one that sectli thee shall flee from thee, 
And shall say, Nineveh is destroyed ! 

Who will commiserate her ? 

Whence shall I seek comforters for thee ? 

8 Art thou better than No-Ammon,. 
That dwelt in the rivers, 

That had water around her ; 

7. ^p^ carries out the idea implied in At B* (jtarofAirvXoi ciot, dtiyicoo-ioi ^ or' 
^>^, ver. 6. It is in the plural, but is fol- cJtaori^ir 

lowed by a singular verb, to agree with 'Ay«per c^ixycvcri irvv hnroio'tv koI 

%. Comp. for the sentiment Is. li. 19. ot^^co^iir* liiad. is. 3S1. 

8. |taM «S, No Amon, Egyp. ffOZ 

K AA^AAM ji 7' A' r ^ Of the maeiiificent ruins, the most re- 

A^lAOVIt, the line, or porim of Afnon, ^^^Me afe the templerof Luxor and 

thus etymologically the LXX. fupida Kamac, on the eastern side of the river. 

Afi^ir, though m Exek. xxx. 15, they The architecture is of the most gigantic 

render AMHnroXir. i.<?. the residence or and superior description. Fragments of 

possession of the Egyptian deity known colossal obelisks and sUtues are found 

by the name of Juptter Ammon. The !„ every direction. The stupendous 

statement of MMrobius, that he wasjhe colonnade at Luxor is in the highest 

g; but the grand hall of 
Kamac is of surpassing 

. . - - . _ Wilkinson, in his Thebes, 

tian inscriptions. On Egyptian monu- p. 174^ describes it as " one hundred and 
raenta this god w represented by the seventy feet by three hundred and twenty- 
figure of a man sitUng upon a chair,, ^ine, supported by a central avenue of 
with a ram s head, or by that of an twelve massive columns, sixty-six feet 
entire ram. In Jer. xlvi. 25, we have i^jgh, (witliout the pedestal and abacus.) 
ApitaM.^i«oiio/iVo, where, as well asm a„d twelve in diameter, besides one 
the presentpassaceinNahum, our trans- hundred and twenty-two of smaller or 
lators have regarded^ as equivalent to rather less gigantic dimensions, forty- 
•to^, a mulUtude. Bochart, Schroeder, one feet nine inches in height, and 
and some others, have contended that twenty-seven feet six inches in circum- 
AuJcnroXiff, near Mendes, in Lower Egypt, ference, distributed in seven lines on 
IS intended, but all the later com njen- either side of the former." The walls 
tators are m favour of TTiebes. Tlie of the temples are covered with hiero- 
Targum preposterously renders, M^^nsc?^* glyphics, chiefly representing the vic- 
Hp?^ Alexandria the Oreat, which Je- tories gained by the Egyptian kings over 
rome, defernng to his Rabbi, has adopted their enemies. One of the walls exhibits 
in the Vulg. The city, which from its the result of the expedition of Shishak 
being the principal seat of his worship, against Jerusalem, 1 Kings xiv. 25, &c; 
was called by the Greeks A^ocnroXtr. is 2 Chron. xii. 2—9, in the leading away 
the celebrated Thebes, the ancient capital of the Jewish captives. 
^i yPKf ^^^ situated on both sides Of the conquest of this famous dty, 
of the Nile, about two hundred and sixty here referred to by Nahum, no roentimi 
miles south of Cairo. It was renowned i. made in profane history, but it not 
for Its hundred gates, and was of such improbably took place on the advance 
extent, that its remaining rums stdl de- of the Assyrian army under Sargon, in 
scnbe a circuit of twenty-seven miles : the year b.c. 714. See on Is.xx. It was 

oiJd' oaa Oi^fiat afterwards taken by Cambyses, b.c. 525, 

Aiyvwriast 061 nXuara dofioii Iv Kriffiara and its ruin completed by Ptolemy 

Kfiraif Lathyrua, b. c. 81 . According to the 

CHAP. iiL] NAHUM. 281 

Whose strength was in the sea ; 
Her wall was on the sea ? 
9 Cush strengthened her, and Egypt, 
With countless hosts ; 

Put and the Lybians were thine auxiliaries. 

10 Yet she became an exile, 
She went into captivity ; 

Her young children also were dashed in pieces. 

At the top of all the streets ; 

They cast lots for her honorable men, 

And all her great men were bound with chains. 

1 1 Thou also shalt be drunken, 

representation of our prophet, Nineveh being expert as archers. That they 

could not vie with it either in point of were descended from Ham, see Gen. 

grandeur or of strength. They both x. 6. Josephus speaks of them as 

possessed the advantage of mighty rivers Mauritanians, Antiqq. i. 6, 2; and the 

for their defence — a circumstance to river of the same name, which he de- 

which he gives a special prominence, as scribes as flowing through their country, 

It was that on which the inhabitants is called Ftf< by Plinyi v. 1, and Phtuth 

placed great dependence. By o;, «ea, b by Ptolemy, iv. 1. They are spoken of 

meant the Nile; see on Is. xix. 5; by as forming part of the Egvptian army, 

Dnir, streams, the same as ninn^. Nab. Jer. xlvi. 9, and as being in the Syrian 

ii. 7, viz. the canals bv which the water marine, Ezek. xxvii. 10. Winer's Real 

of the river was carried round or through W. B. ii. p. 308. .0*^^^ Lybians, the 

the principal parts of the city. Ewald inhabitants of Africa to the south and 

proposes to connect ir with Dy?, thus, west ef the former country, stretching 

D^ rr, and renders ^om sea to sea, which as far as Numidia. Hkzig, on Is. Ixvi. 1 9, 

he attempts to justify by appealing to has endeavoured in vain to establish the 

Micah vii. 12, but the cases a re no t ja- hypothesis that the people of Nubia are 

rallel. Vfi stands elliptically for ^sh*n. The meant. Comp. 2 Chron. xii. 3, xvi. 8. 

preposition P in D^ expresses the mate- p^isp, Egypty is here taken for Lower 

rial out of which the defence was made ; Egypt, as distinguished from -the Upper, 

and the triple reference to the Nile as a of wnich Thebes was itself the capital, 

sea, in this verse, indicates the great There is no reason, with some, to change 

importance which attached to it as a the "^ in ^|rc^^ into si, though the LXX. 

means of protecting the city. and Syr. have the ^ird person. The 

9. Not only was Thebes strong by prophet concludes his description by 

nature and art, and in the number apostrophizing Thebes, f is the Beik 

of her native troops; she also pos- essentia, 

sessed immense military resources in her 10,11. If the celebrated metropolis 

African auxiliaries. For t)43, Cush, of Egypt, with all its means of defence, 

see on Is. xi. 11. M, Put, Egypt, was captured, and its inhabitants sub- 

d>A.IA.T". tlie region immediately to jected to all the^cruelties and indignities 

t'*^**^ • _ _ ^ - . ^ iimiaHv infl filed hv the v cton. what 

^ »7 

, prophets, denoting participation in severe 

from niT or <|>ITi « 6ofc»,and thinks punishment, Newcome, without autho- 
the people were so called from their rity, reads t?^, to hire, and renders, thou 

288 NAHUM. [chap. m. 

Thou shalt hide thyself, 

Thou also shalt seek a refuge from the enemy. 

12 All thy fortresses are like fig-trees with early figs ; 

If they shake them, they fall into the mouth of the eater. 

13 Behold ! thy people are as women in the midst of thee ; 

The gates of thy land shall be thrown wide open to thine enemies ; 
Fire shall consume thy barriers. 

14 Draw water for the siege ; 
Strengthen thy fortifications; 
Enter the mire, and tread the clay ; 
Repair the bric4c-kiln. 

15 There shall the fire consume thee. 
The sword shall cut thee oflF; 

Itehall consume thee like tlie licking locust; 
Be thou numerous as the licking locusts ; 
Be thou numerous as the swarming locusts. 

16 Thou hast increased thy merchants more than the stars of beaten ; 
The licking locusts spread themselves out. 

And took their flight 

17 Thy princes were as the swarming locusts. 
And thy satraps as the largest locusts; 
That encamp in the hedges in the cold day : 

ihalt become an hireling. In 1 Sam. cisterns, &c., were well filled. They 

ii. 5, to which he refers, the latter, and were also to put the fortifications in a 

not the former verb, occurs. perfect state. 

12, 13. Two figures strikingly expres- 15 — 17. D^, there, points emphatically 

sive of the extreme ease with which the to the fortiGed city. The nominative to 

Assyrians should foe subdued. For the ^fSarn is the masculine noun P^, people, 

former, see on Is. xxviii. 4 ; and comp. t.^. the inhabitants ; that to 'n^ani^ the 

Rev. vi. 13; for the latter, Is. xix. 16; feminine *tTf city, understood. Instead, 

Jer. 1. 37. c», with, in the phrase D*^^ however, of "©inrT, six MSS., ori^nallj 

Dn^3^ D9, denotes accompanment, &c. ; four more, and one by correction, read 

the phrase itself is equivalent to d^^mi^ np"?* For the names of the locoats 

onoa urfi T^. Thus the LXX. trvKal which here occur, see on Joel L 4, and 

o-KOfroi}ff «x<"^^^* Comp. for this rare Amos vii. 1. The reduplication ''Oil a^ 

use of the preposition, 1 Sam. xvii. 42. locutt of loeutts, is [designed to express 

yf!^T^ Michaelis translates thy fugitives, the largest or most formidable of that 

but as fugitives are always represented kind of insect For the plural form 

as perishing b^ the sword, and never by 7^, see on Amos vii. 1. oni^ is a avaf 

fire, the signification harriers must l>e Xcy., derived from '%t to coms^craiet 

retained. eeparate and devote to a high or noble 

14. The prophet ironically summons office ; hence "H), prince^ "^ con^ecra- 

the Ninevites to make every efibrt in Hon, diadem. It denotes here the princes, 

the way of preparing for a long and crowned with diadems, who formed the 

vigorous defence of the metropolis itself, glory of the Assyrian court. Thus 

Kimchi : c 

As water is one of the first necessaries, Kimchi : bTO^n ^ rrncflJi 112 *tVM 

it behoved them to see to it, that the " Princes with diadems and crowns on 

CHAP. Ill,] NAHUM. 289 

The san ariseth, then they flee, 

And the place where they are is unknown.^ 

18 Thy shepherds slumber, O king of Assyria ! 
Thy nobles have lain down ; 

Thy people are dispersed upon the mountains. 
And there is none that coUecteth them. 

19 There is no alleviation of thy ruin ; 
Thy wound is grievous ; 

All that hear the report of thee 

Shall clap their hands at thee. 

For upon whom did not thy wickedness unceasingly pass ? 

their heads." The Arah.^jJ^, inofi.7or. J^^^^^^e^^^^ 

i.e. counsellor, is less apt, as the com- the ,fW. were the nobles, who, as 

parison to the locuste shows. Six of De parallel with the 07^, are to he regarded 

Rossi's MSS. and three ancient editions under the same image. See Jer. xxv. 34, 

omit the Da«esh in the Nun. The where prmctpalt would have heen hetter 

parallel term onpro occurs only here, than prtnc$pal in our common version, 

knd in Jer. IL 27,' in the singular -sofi^, P*. corresponding to ^;, they dumber, 

Is is ohviously a foreign worS, and is in " a «/» preanans, implying, not only 

all prohability compounded of what we that theyliad lam down, hut that the;r 

, ^ , . - _^ . 1.. jM were taking rest or were asleep. «w is 

still find m the Persic, ^b, or *-JU, cognate with yw, to tcaiier, disperse, 

strength, power, and yw, chief, certain, Arab. \jLi,propagataetmvlHplicatasunt 

.^ • av rr ^r pecora, but is not to be substituted for 

prtnce. It occurs m the Targum of V ^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

Jonathan, Deut. xxviu. 12, as the name ^ . . ^ '^ ^ 

of a superior angel. For other deriva- y^^^ pastum noctu incesserunt cameh 

tions see Gesen. Thesaur. m voc. Dr. aut oves tine pastor e. The figure is 

Lee prefers deriving it from the Chald. carried on throughout the verse, 

ap, egregius, and "inp, dux» Whatever 19. rro p<, lit. nothing of infirmity, 

might be the power of these princes and by litotes, for powerful, great is thy 

eenerals, and whatever number of troops breach. The deliverance of the king 

Uiey might have at their command, they of Nineveh was utterly hopeless. Nothing 

would, on the approach of the enemy, remained butfor the propnet to announce 

betake themselves to flight, and leave his end, and the joy which the surround- 

Nineveh to her own defence. No trace ing states would express at the irre- 

of them would be found. trievable ruin of an empire, whose iron 

18. The masculine suffixes in this and sway had been so extended, and whose 

the following verse, refer to the king of cruel oppressions had been uninter- 

Assyria. The OT*^, shepherds, were the mitting. 




Of the prophet Habakkuk, we possess no information but what 
is purely apocryphal. The position of Delitzsch, founded upon 
the subscription, chap. iii. 19, that he was of the tribe of Levi, and 
engaged in the temple service, is too precarious to warrant its 
adoption. The statement made in the inscription to Bel and the 
Dragon in the LXX.^ which has been preserved from the Tetrapla 
of Origen, in the Codex Chisianus, fie wpo^tirda^ 'A/Lcj3aKov/u v!ov 
'Itltrov Ik r^c ^vXijfc Acvf, may be nothing more than conjecture. 
Considerable difference of opinion obtains respecting the time at 
which he flourished — the Rabbins ; Grotius, Kalinsky, Kofod, Jahn, 
and Wahl, placing him in the first years of Manasseh ; Friedrich, 
De Wette, Bertholdt, Justi, and Wolf, in the period of the exile ; 
while Usher, Newcome, Eichhom, Home, Winer, Maurer, and 
Ewald, are of opinion that he prophesied in the reign of Jehoiachin, 
about 608—601 before Christ. This last hypothesis seems best 
supported, since the Chaldeans are spoken of chap» i. 5, 6, as being 
upon the point of invading Judah, but not as having actually entered 
it. The position of Rosenmiiller, that chap. i. was composed under 
Jehoiakim, chap. ii» under Jehoiachin, and chap* iii. under Zede- 
kiah, is altogether gratuitous. The whole forms one prophecy, 
and does not admit of being thus dissected* 


The book embraces the wickedness of the Jews which demanded 
the infliction of punishment^ the infliction of this punishment by 
the Chaldeans, the destruction of the latter in their turn, and an 
ode composed by the prophet in anticipation of the consequent 
deliverance of his people. Its position immediately after Nahum 
is most appropriate, setting forth the judgments of God inflicted by 
and upon the Chaldeans, just as the latter treated of those to be 
inflicted upon the Assyrians. The two prophets take up separately 
what Isaiah had expatiated upon at large. 

In point of general style, Habakkuk is universally allowed to 
occupy a very distinguished place among the Hebrew prophets, and 
is surpassed by none of them in dignity and sublimity. Whatever 
he may occasionally have in common with previous writers, he 
works up in his own peculiar manner, and is evidently no servile 
copyist or imitator. His figures are well chosen, and fully carried 
out. His expressions are bold and animated ; his descriptions graphic 
and pointed. The parallelisms are for the most part regular and 
complete. The l3rric ode contained in chap. iii. is justly esteemed 
one of the most splendid and magnificent within the whole compass 
of Hebrew poetry. See the introduction to that chapter. 

The words HDiD, i. 9, lO^^y, ii. 6, and l^^jj*^, ii. 16, are peculiar 
to this prophet. 


The prophet commences by briefly, yet emphatically and pathetically, setting forth 
the cause of the Chaldean invasion^ which was to form the burden of his 
prophecy — the great wickedness which abounded in the Jewish nation at the 
time he flourished, 2 — 4. He then introduces Jehovah summoning attention 
to that invasion as the awful punishment of such wickedness, 5 ; describes, in a 
very graphic manner, the appearance, character, and operations of the invaders, 
6— >1] ; and then, by a sudden transition, expostulates with God, on account 
of the severity of the judgment, which threatened the annihilation of the Jewish 
people, 12 — 17. 

1 The Sentence, which Habakkuk the prophet saw* 

2 How long shall I cry, O Jehovah ! and thou hearest not ? 
How long shall I cry to thee of violence, and thou savest not ? 

1. For the signification of MTop, see on in favour of the contrary hypothesis, 
Is. xiii. I ; and for the form P^^, com- derived from the recurrence of the words 
pare "W'^^, Jer. v. 30, xxiii. 14. Don, ^, &c., and the phrase T^Hflfo m£, 

2. The evils complained of in this and &c., in the following part of the chapter, 
the two following verses, are, by many with undoubted apphcation to the Chal- 
interpreters, considered to be those con- deans, is of no weight, since they are 
sequent upon the invasion of Judea by rather to be regarded as modes of 
the Chalaeans. Such a construction, expression familiar to the prophet, than, 
however, breaks up the symmetery of inaicative of identity of subject. The 
the connexion, as marked by ver. 5, and influence of n|Mn9, hotv Umg^ upon the 
leaves out of view the wickedness of Preterite and Future tenses in this verse, 
the Jews as the cause of the calamity, so modifies them as to give them the 
contrary to the universal custom of the force of a present time, though the one 
Hebrew prophets. They were the in- includes what had taken place down to 
testine broils, litigations, and acts of such time, and the other, the possibility 
oppression, which sprang up in the of its being still carried forward into the 
kingdom of Judah, after the death of future. Because opn, violence^ occurs 
the pious reformer Josiah, and had been without a preposition, Hitzig thinks it 
long the subject of complaint on the was what was done to the prophet him- 
part of Habakkuk. That such was the self; but it is better, with Kimchi, to 
state of things at that time is evident suppose an ellipsis of *^3, or, to supply 
from Jer. xxii. 2, 13. The argument ^, on account off because of with the 

294 HABAKKUK. [chap. i. 

3 Why dost thou permit me to see wickedness, 
And beholdest misery ? 

4 On this account the law faileth. 
And true judgment goeth not forth ; 
Because the wicked circumvent the righteous, 
Therefore perverted judgment goeth forth. 

Tai^m. Comp. Job xix. 7 ; Jer. xx. 8. his rights. What was not seized upon 

v?^ and pv| are synonymes, but the latter by main force, was obtained by perver- 

is the more expressive of the two. sion of law. 

3. Some, regarding ^7^ and V^ as 4. p^, therefore, on thit aceomU^ 

strictly paralleTy understand the suffix ^? refers not to the state of things set forth 

to be omitted in the latter verb, and in the verse immediately preceding, but 

render: Why dost thou cause me to see to Jehovah's forbearing to punish, spoken 

wickedness, and make me look upon of ver. 2. Of the law, which ought to 

wrong? but io>7, though the Hiphil have been maintained in all its vital 

conjugation, is never used in a causative energy, it is said 3«^^ t^ chitieth, gronceik 

sense. Besides, njij^, and not iD^in, is the frigid^ langtusheth, faUeth ; by which is 

proper synonyme, corresponding to ^^M^n. meant, that it was not enforced, but left. 

Between the two clauses, the prophet as it were, to grow stiff and torpid, fronti 

introduces Jehovah, with whom he ex- want of 'use. The words, nssj HS!">ftj 

postulates, as an inactive spectator cMp, may either be rendered, ^«4^m<«^ 

of the evil, because his providence did t.f., what is strictly and properly such, 

not interfere for its removal, and it was righteous judgment, never goeth forth ; 

allowed, unavenged, to take its course, or, judgment goeth not forth according to 

The expostulation thus gains in force, truth; ^il, signifying to perpetuity, for 

and scope is afforded for the striking ever, and, with a negative, never, like 

contrast, ver. 5, in which the Most High D^ ri^, and trtdy, according to Imih, 

is represented as interposing for the Comp. the Arab. ^^, sincems Jideiie 
punishment of the wicked. Mte? firo has C^ 

been variously explained. The LXX , fyu. and the Eth. IJtih : purtu, 

takine fiTO for J'TO, render it o Koirrfs mundusfuit. The latter signification of 

>iafi^pti', which the Syr. explains, the word is that adopted by the Syr. 

|yikCU.^riO ]juf, the judge taketh a |^q^^ ]1^, .r.o.% ^q, and judy- 

bribe, Abenezra translates thus : vm ment goeth not forth in purity ; and ia 

ufih ^Mtej -vjM frra\ an 'tfaw, and there are approved by Scheltinga, Hesselberg, 

men of strife and contention who lift up Wolf, Rosenmiiller, De Wette, Winer, 

their head. The structure of the sentence, Gesenius, Lee, and Ewald, chiefly on 

however, obliges us to regard vec^. as the ground of ^^^ ^P^^» wrong or per^ 

parallel to *rn, so that it stands in the verted judgment, occurring, as a con- 

same relation to JnOj that the substantive trasted formula, at the close of the verse, 

verb does to an. The nouns in both By the going forth of judgment is meant 

cases are nominatives to the verbs, and the publication of legal decisions delivered 

H^3 is hereto be taken intransitively in by a judge. In the time of the prophet, 

the sense of exalting or raising oneself up, justice was utterly corrupted, in oon- 

Comp. p5. Ixxxix. 10; Hos. xiii. 1 ; Nah. sequence of which there was no security 

i. 5. Thus Dahl, combining the two either for person or property. "^'^9, 

nouns, Und Hader, und Gezank erheben from vi3, to surround, is here used in a 

sich ; and Perschke, Es gibt streit, und bad sense, to express the ensnaring of a 

zwist erhebet sich. The language is person by fraud and artifice ; it depicts 

descriptive ofthe prevalence of a litigious the windings of intrigue, and is best 

spirit, in consequence of which no one rendered by circumvent. Thus Datlie : 

was permitted quietly to possess or enjoy cum iwpius pium circumvenit, ^^, dis- 


5 Look among the nations, and behold ! 
Be ye greatly astonished ; 

For I will perform a work in your days. 

Which ye will not believe, though it should be told you. 

6 For, behold ! I will raise up the Chaldeans, 
That bitter and impetuous nation ; 

Which traverseth the wide regions of the earth. 
To seize upon habitations belonging not to it. 

torUd, perverteywrotiff, from the root ^. the verse, Acts xiii. 41. On the other 

Cou.p.tbe Syr.<^per.ertU, Arab. K'rJ|;fe^.5^1%fe: 

AiCf eonttrinxU, distorios hahuit pedes ; which is sustained by all the Heb!^SS. 
^^ that have been collated, except five of 

jiS£„dutortio lingua mloquendo, LXX. Kcnnicotfs, which have D^a, nathru, 

Kpifta bitorpafifjifvov. without the preposition. To account for 

5. By a sudden apostrophe Jehovah the rendering of the LXX., some are of 

calls upon the Jews, in anticipation of the opinion that instead of oils, they must 

punishment which their sins deserved, have read on^, errata, or D^a ; others, 

and which should assuredly be inflicted with Pococke, in his Porta|Mosis, chap, iii., 

upon them, to direct their attention to suggest a supposititious root, Ma|, the cor- 

the '^,^i^^^^°^&,!T,^ responding Arab. Uj, .ignifying, i^uttut 
had already destroyed the mighty empire fuit, superbe, maolenter te getsU ; most 
of Assyria and founded the Chalaeo- unjustinably insisting on the preference 
Babylonian rule ; he had made himself of some such reading to that of the 
so formidable, that Necho found it Hebrew text. With respect to the quota- 
necessary to march an army against tion. Acts xiii. 41, it was obviously made 
him, in order to check his progress ; by the apostle on account of the exact 
and, though defeated at Megiddo, he had, similarity of the case of the Jews in his 
in conjunction with his son Nebuchad- day, both as regards the destruction of 
nezzar, gained a complete victory over Jerusalem by the Romans, and the 
the E^ptians at Carchemish. These incredulity of the nation in reference to 
events were calculated to alarm the Jews, thatevent. " Paulus fideliter accommodat 
whose country laybetween the dominions in usum suum Prophets verba, quia 
of the two contending powers; but, sicuti semel minatus fuerat Deus per 
accustomed as they were to confide in prophetam suam Habacuc, ita etiam 
Egypt, and in the sacred localities of semperfuitsuisimilis." Calvin, tn^. The 
their own capital, Is. xxxi. 1 ; Jer. vii. 4, double form, viDn Vf^psi, b used for in- 
aud being in alliance with the Chaldeans, tensity, ^rnpnn is the Hithpael for vn^n. 
they were indisposed to listen to, and Comp. vip^ vitpnonrr, Is. xxix.9, and my 
treated with the utmost incredulity, any note on that verse. Before Vpb suband. '^, 
predictions which described their over- 6. Now follows a lenffthened and 
throw by that people. Such overthrow fearful description of the cnaracter and 
God claims as his work, though he might operations of the instrument which Je- 
employ men as his instruments in effect- hovah would employ in executing his 
ing it. Hkn and io>7 are frequently work, ovo ^^^^i which has unquestion* 
combined as here for the sake of effect ably the force of the future, must be 
The phrase Diaa, among the naiionSf is referred to the special raising up of the 
translated by the LXX., o2 Karafbovrfralf Chaldeans to undertake the expedition 
ve despiserSi in which they are followed against Judea, and not to their orga- 
by the Syr. and Arab.; and this rendering nization as a political power, since they 
is adopted by Paul in his quotation of had already oeen upwards of twenty 

296 HABAKKUK. [chap. i. 

7 It is terrible and dreadful ; 

Its judgment and its dignity are from itself. 

8 Swifter than leopards are its horses. 
And lighter than evening wolves ; 
Its horse spread proudly along ; 
Yea, its horse that come from afar : 
They fly like an eagle hastening to devour. 

9 It cometh entirely for violence ; 

The aspect of their faces is like the east wind ; 
It coUecteth the captives as sand. 
10 It maketh a mockery of kings, 
And princes are a laughter to it ; 

yean in possession of such power under Scripture to the " evening wolves," od 

Nabopolassar. On this account, some account of the sudden ravages which, 

prefer rendering the phrase, Behold! I in the keenness of their hunger, they 

will excite. For an account of this commit on the flocks at that time 

people, see on Is. xxiii. 13. In'inpaJT','*?'? of the dav. See Gen. xlix.27; Jer. 

IS a paronomasia. By to, bitter, the v. 6 ; Zeph. iii. 3 ; and comp. Virgirs 

fierce and cruel disposition of the Chal- Georg. iii. 537, iv. 431 ; and the i£neid, 

deans is expressed ; comp. Jer. 1. 42 ; by ii. 355, ix. 59. The LXX. render im- 

■rirp?, rtuhf hatty, the rapidity or im- properly, Xvkov; rfjs 'Apa^iat, ^, 

petuosity of their operations. In the from the root «)«, having here the sign!- 

latter nart of the verse, their widely ex- flection of the Arab. , *li, mperlmnt, 

tended conquests under Nebuchadnezzar , w^ ^ ' 

are clearly predicted. gloriatus fuitf describes the proud and 

7. nsrtp, the LXX. render X^/i^ia, apirited mien of the horses composing 

p ^ the Chaldean cavalry. Comp. the inimi- 

Symm. d<Sy/ia, Vulg. ontu, Syr. \o\Mk, **^^® description of the Arabian war- 

. . ^ , „ horse, Job xxxix. 19— 24. The meaning 

vmon, Targ. rria, decree or sentence, all of the two last lines of the verse is, that 

deriving it from Kto;, in the sense of the eagerness of the cavalry to plunder 

^p K^3, to lift up, or utter anything with the Jews should be so great, that they 

the voice, and regarding it as e<jpivalent would make no account of the fatigue 

to MipD, from the same root. The sig- occasioned by the length of their march, 

nification decree, though approved by 9, 10. Tf» is the less correct ortho- 

Hesselberg, De Wette, Winer, and Ge- graphy of tta, which occurs several tiroes 

senius, is less appropriate than that of 5i the couree of the Hebrew Bible. The 

di^ityj which is that of our common affix refers to % ver. 6. So great was 

version, and is adopted by Hitzig.Maurer, to be the invading army, that it would 

and Ewald. Comp. Gen. xlix. 3 ; Job seem as if it were composed of the 

xiii. 11; Ps.lxii.5. nfcJte nowhere occurs entire nation. Considerable difficulty 

in reference to a judicial decree. What has been experienced in the interprets- 

the prophet has in view appears to be tion of the words, n^nj^ Dn>» no». By 

the self-assumed political superiority of the LXX. the &ira$ Xcy' n^DoJa ren- 

the Chaldeans in the Babylonian empire, dered dve«<mfKOTas ; by Symm. frp6<ro- 

As they had raised themselves to this 1. 1. « ^ "^ 

dignity, so they would permit none to Y*^5 ^y *°« ^yr. |o^ atpeci; by 

share in their counsels and determi- the Targ. ^3i7p, yron/, what is opposite to 

nations, but would act in the most arbi- anything. The Vulg. omits tne word 

trary manner. altogether, obviously on the principle of 

8. Frequent reference is made in its being sufficiently expressed by /acte* 


It smileth at every fortress ; 
It heapetli up earth and taketh it. 
11 Then it gaineth fresh spirit ; 

It passeth onward, and contracteth guilt, [s&ying,] 
Is this his power through his God ? 

ixnnradiately following. With these 7i3ta$, ^\, ^i the pximitive forms of 

Abenezra and Kimchi agree; and thus which are t^» 3Jji % In some instances, 

also generally, Munsler, Vatablus, Pag- indeed, it is the rr directive, indicating 

niiras, Castalio, Calvin, and others. On motion towards the quarter specified, 

the other hand, Gesenius derives the but in others it has lost all such power, 

word from the supposititious root Dps, For the east wind, or samoom, see on 

. , . ^ - J Is. xxvii. 8. Nothing could more ap- 

Arab. ^. fo congregate, heap up, and proprfately describe the terrific appear- 

renders it ho$h troop; but, as Lee ance of the destructive Chaldean army, 

observes, the hott of their Juces is any than this phenomenon, which occasions 

thing but Hebrew phraseology. Rosen- a^H devastation in the re^ons over 

miiUer, Lee, Maurer, Hitrig, and Ewald, ^*>»ch it passes. The collecting of the 

derive it from the same root in the signifi- captives Itketand, which the prophet im - 

cations, impetus, detke, a strivif^ after ; mediately adds, corroborates the opinion 

Gex.ttreben: while our own, and some ™* ***«, samoom is intended, as it is 

other modern translators, adopt the idea itequently accompanied with whirlwinds 

of absorption, supping up, Ac, from the of sand, which is collected and carried 

signification of vig^,«fi. Considering J^^ ,«^^^^ rapidity across the desert, 

the marked and independent coincidence pe 10th verse sets forth the haughty. 

of the ancient versions above quoted, {?^'h«*> *"^ HT',"**^'^ character of the 

borne out, as they are, by the Arab. Chaldeans. The last clause of the verse 

, . . describes the throwing up of walls or 

i^,adparutt; guod de re quavis ex- batteries before fortified cities, from which 

triusicus apparet; corpus rei, seu res to attack them. "^ seldom signifies 

individua existans et conspicua, I cannot fine dust ; it is more commonly used of 

but regard aspect or appearance as the earth generally, including clav, mire, &c. 

term bestadapted to convey the meaning 11. "^j rorc, usuallv rendered then, 

of the prophet. ^^r% in eveir other has here the force of thereupon^ marking 

passaee in which it occurs, has the the transition from what had just been 

signification of eastward^ and it is taken described to what immediately follows, 

in this acceptation by Abarbanel, Park- and their intimate connexion with each 

hurst, Dahi, Wolff, and Hitzig, who other, nn is the accusative to f^, which 

explain it either of the direction in which denoting to succeed, exchange, change, 

the Chaldeans would return home with renew, £c., the phrase means, to assume, 

their booty, or oftheir first coming down or gain a fresh accession of courage or 

along the coast of the Mediterranean, military spirit. For this signification of 

and then turning direct east upon the nr% comp. Josh. ii. 11, v. 1. Elated by 

Jews. Both constructions are forced, the fortresses they had taken, and the 

Gesenius renders forwards, and gives victories they had won in heathen 

the whole sentence thus : the host cf their countries, the Chaldeans are represented 

faces is forwards. Here again I prefer as passing onwards into Judea; and 

the rendering of Symm. av^fUK Kovotow ; treating with contempt the puny re- 

the l^arg. vi^pps;/ on^ ^vri^, the Vulg. ventus sistance made to them by the Jews, 

urens, wnich, or east wind, its equivalent, asking sarcastically, " Is this all your 

is the rendering of many of the moderns, boasted power conceded to you by the 

It is true, that the east wind is elsewhere God in whom you confide? " Comp. Is. 

uniformly expressed by cr^ without the x. 10, 11, xxxvi. 19, 20 ; Ps. Ixxix. 10, 

n ; but this letter seems clearly to be cxv. 2. The aggravated guilt which they 

here used paragogically, just as it is in contracted (p^) lay in their vilifying 


298 HABAKKUK. [chap. i. 

12 Art not Thou from eternity, 

O Jehovah ! my God, my Holy One ? 

We shall not die : 

O Jehovah ! thou hast appointed it for judgment, 

O Rock ! thou hast ordained it for correction. 

13 Thou art of purer eyes than to regard evil; 
Thou canst not behold injustice. 

Why dost thou behold the plunderers ? 

Why art thou silent when the wicked destroyeth 

Him that is more righteous than he ? 

14 And makest men as the fishes of the sea, 
As the reptiles which have no ruler ? 

15 It bringeth up all with its hook, 
It gathereth them into its net, 
It coUecteth them into its drag ; 
Therefore it rejoiceth and exulteth. 

Jehovah, by speaking of him as in- employed, verses 2, 3. The onfa^ ptwt' 

capable of protecting his people. This derers, were the Chaldeans who had been 

simple construction of the verse at once the allies of the Jews, but now treated 

frees it from the numerous diiSculties them with violence. Comp. Is. xxi. 2, 

with which it has been clogged by in- and xxiv. 16. The LXX., Syr., and 

terpreters, and gives peculiar force to Arab, have nothing corresponding to 

the interrogatory appeal in that which vi^, but it is expressed in Aquil.,Symm., 

follows. The ellipsis of irt^ is of frequent Theod., the Targ., and Vulg. Wicked 

occurrence in Hebrew. The absence of as the Jews were, they were righteous 

the interrogative n is more seldom ; but in comparison of the Babylonians. Comp. 

comp. Gen. xxvii. 24, rn rr^ forrn n^wn; for the sentiment, Ezek. xvi. 51, 52. 
2 Sam. vii. 19, TMh, this w, for n^, u 14. God is ofUn said to do what he 

this; and xvi. 17, 'JTrrw J??'? nj, «' This permits to be done by others, to^j is 

is thy kindness to thy friend," for. Is used of aquatic animals, such as crabs 

thiSf &C. and other shell-fish, Ps. civ. 25, a senae 

12. The contemptuous manner in which the parallelism and connexioB 
which the enemy had treated the Most here require. 

High calls forth an impassioned appeal 15 — 17. n^ is allowed by all to be 

from the prophet, in which he vindicates here the accusative, though it was, in 

the eternal existence and purity of the same position, the nominative, ver. 9. 

Jehovah, as that God who had formerly Converting the simile employed in the 

wrought deliverance for his people, and preceding verse into a metaphor, the 

who was now employing the Chaldeans, prophet describes the rapacity of the 

not for their annihilation, but only for Chaldeans, the indiscriminate and uni- 

their punishment and correction. Since versal havoc which they would efifect, 

i^s, Rod, is elsewhere used metapho- and their proud confidence in their own 

rically of God, I have retained it in the prowess, n^, an unusual punctuation 

translation. See on Is. xxvi. 4. It is here for P^. The hook, the net, and the 

parallel to nMr. The Tikkun Sopherim drag, are separately mentioned, to in- 

mnn vh is unsupported by any autliority. dicate that every means would be 

13. Habakkuk resumes the exnostula- employed in taking captives, and what- 
tery mode of address which lie had ever else came in their way. To their 


16 Therefore it sacrificeth to its net, 
And burneth incense to its drag ; 
Because through them its portion is fat, 
And its food fattened meat. 

17 Is it for this it emptieth its net, 

And spareth not to slay the nations continually ? 

arms, signified by these implements of meant the depositing of the captives, 

fishers, they rendered divine honours, &c., in Babylon, in order to go forth to 

ascribing to them solely the success ft: esh conquest and plunder. It is strongly 

which they had in war. Comp. Justin, implied in the questions with which the 

43.3. ''Aborigine rerumprodiisimmor- chapter concludes, that God would not 

talibus veteres hastas coluere." Lucian permit the Chaldeans to proceed in their 

in Trag. ^kvBm fuv aKiyoBjf dvovin. By selfish conquests without a check, but 

the emptying of the net, ver. 17, is the answer is reserved for the sequel. 


This chapter contains an introductory statement respecting the waiting posture in 
which the prophet placed himself, in order to obtain a divine revelation in refer- 
ence to the fate of his people and of the Chaldeans, their oppresssors, 1 ; a 
command which he received to commit legibly to writing the revelation which 
was about to be made to him, 2 ; an assurance, that tliough the prophecy should 
not be fulfilled immediately, yet it would certainly be at length accomplished, 3; 
and a contrasted description of the two different classes of the Jews to whom it 
was to be communicated, 4. The insolence of the Chaldeans, and their insa- 
tiable lust of conquest, are next set forth, 5 ; on which the proper Ktop, sentence, 
or prophetical denunciation, commences, in the form of a taunt on the part of 
the nations, in which they anticipate the downfal of that hostile power, 6—8 ; 
and the punishment of its rapacity, 9 — 1 1 ; of its cruelty and injustice, with a 
special view to the universal spread of true religion, 12 — 14 ; of its wanton and 
sanguinary wars, 15—17, and of its absurd and fruitless idolatry, 18, 19. The 
last verse of the chapter beautifully contrasts with the two preceding, by repre- 
senting Jehovah as the only God, entitled to universal submission and homage. 

1 I WILL stand upon my watch-post. 
And station myself upon the fortress. 

1. rno^ properly signifies observance, the place, or poti of observation. Comp. 
guard, watch, from tp^, to watch, observe, Is. xxi. 8, where it is similarly used, 
preserve, &c., but here, as a concrete, with npsp for its parallel. Thus the 

300 HABAKKUK. [cmaf. ii. 

And will look out to see what he will say to me, ' 
And what I shall reply in regard to my argument* 
2 And Jehovah answered me and said : 

Write the vision, and make it plain on tablets. 
That he who readeth it may run. 

^trr h^l «.« •»/— v^^ ♦I.* .,— ^^ Bpake m me," 2 Sam. xxiii. 2 ; Kum. 
^y^» ^^Li>^Oyt ^!f P*oce. Jrrom the use •• /»^ j <.* i i rr « • #> lo 
•^ •-fcww^* 9 r -^^ Q^ 2LTka particularly Zech. i. 9, 13, 

of TtaW in the corresponding hemistich, ^1' ^' ^\ '^*}^' '' \ ^' ^* ^*}\ ^- ?' 

it is obvions that thrpost 6f a sentinel where the interpretmg angel that ad- 

or watchman appointea to keep an eye ^"^^ ^ m vision is uniformly styled 

upon what may transpire without a for- "^J^ ^^; theAngelihU spake m me, 

fified city, is that from which the idea Y^»*^^ .'*^^ ^?^; as uniformly render 

is here borrowed. It has been ques- » XoX^ir iv e/uu. This view was an- 

tioned whether our prophet has any real f"*"*^^ expressed by Jerome, who sap, 

locality in view, or whether the words '^^^^ ^\ *»<?« notandum, ex eo quod dix- 

are to be understood metaphorically. ^"^^""^ ^*^^^"l ^^^ loquatur m me. 

The former is advocated by Hitzig, who P«>P^etica°! visionem et eloquium Dci 

after describing it as a high and steep ?on extrmsicus ad Prophetaa fieri, sed 

point, such as a tower, and comparing !r*"""'''*Ai.*' '"*^^" '*^"^*?" "^^P**"" 

2 Kings ix. 17, 2 Sam. xviii. 24,Mys, ^^'«- ^ ^he same construcUon is not 

" Here, in a soUtary position, far from T°" ^^^ P^"""® ^y Dehtasch, m liis 

the bustle and noise of men, with his ^r^ commentary on our prophet But 

eye directed towards heaven, and his col- »* "eems after all more than doubtful 

tion, however, of Wolff, who preceded X % *'"""6^". "' 7'"^" « uccum, x" 

him, the hypothesis has met with no i ^*'?- *^,*"*- ? ^* "1*7 be admitted, 

approbation. All that the passage seems ^^""''S^ thromh or hy will equaDj 

to teach is, that Habaktuk, anxious ^t^" "™*: P^f ^*«/ declarations made 

to ascertain the Divine purpose relative ?"™- *"' ?» ^^^^, *°*' ,*^ cannot there 

to the enemies of his people, brought ^ ^"^ understood, while what Moses 

his mind into such a state of holylx- »tote8, taken in connexion with 1 Sam. 

pectancy as was favourable to the recep- *^^- ^^» ^^^ '^® passages in Zechanah, 

tion of supernatural communications, goes to prove that if any stress at all is 

nra. to hoi about, from which nofer, a *^ ^ ^"^^ T*" *^® prep^ition, i] nrnit 

Vecii/«/or,««i/cA»iafi, is derived, as'like- \^ regarded as conveying the idea of 

wise n|sp, a watch-tower, is employed, •&'* V "*«*"?'' communication. In 

as here in Piel, to express the fooking ^^' ?t «"** ,» »°' ^ ^t ^1^ ^^ 

out for an answer to prayer, Ps. v. 4. "^^^^^ ^"* '^^y^}y ? '• ^; ^? '^^ ^ 

The paragogic n of the Futures, marks ii'«««»^coTO;>fain/,r€pf«o/,oriiiwhatway 

the fntensity of his desire. The foi- **»«^" **>« word may he rendered, was 

mula? -Bi, which the Syr. and Targ. not any employed bv others, but what the 

^ ^ ^ ° prophethimself had employed in the pre- 

render . ^Vr.v ^ VO^Vr W ^&on^, in ceding chapter. What he was desirous 

' of obtaining, was an answer to the state- 

the sense of speaking or conversing tciVA ment which he had there made respect- 

a person, the LXX. give bv XoXi/'o-ct cv ing the Divine conduct in permitting 

«/ioi, "will speak in me. That the theChaldeanstomuUiply their conquests 

preposition a is here purposely used, in without end. Maurer: "causa queri- 

preference to ^ ^, t», or hm, to denote monies meae." 

the internal mode of the Divine com- 2. |^Tn, the vision^ or prophetic matter 

munication which the prophet received, which was about to be communicated to 

has been maintained by some who com- the prophet. That the idea of digging, 

pare T^V\ rrjrrm-j, «' the Spirit of Jeho- boring, or graving, is to be- attached to 


3 For the vision is still for an appointed time, 
But it shall speak at the end, and not lie ; 
Though it should delay, wait for it, 

For it vrill surely come, and not tarry. 

yfi^, the position of the yerh in such con- the times and events to which they 

nexion clearly forhids. Had the cha- refer are totally different Comp. also 

meter of the writing heen durability, Rev. zxii. 17» Ka\ 6 dKov»y cTn-arc* 

such an idea might ntly have been ex- "Epxov I fT% to rtm, js equivalent to 

pressed by a word signifying to grave or h^, to prophesy , Jer. xxiii. 21, obviously 

dig deepf into a hard substance, but as it on the principle that those who were 

is unquestionably legibility that is in- charged with a divine message were to 

tended, we are compelled to understand use all despatch in making it known, 

the verb as relative to 3h^, and that either The common interpretation, indeed, re- 

as a new Imperative, or as an adverbial presents the meaning to consist in the 

Infinitive qualifying it. In the latter writing being so large as to be easily 

case the clause should be rendered, read even by persons who were hasting 

Write the visioih and that clearly. Thus past it But in order to bear this con- 

the LXX. : Tpi^v Spaa-iVf koI (ratf^St. struction, the words must read thus : 

The Targ. has ^^frf^ H^Mup vart^, with fn ih tr^ ^0), that the runner, or, he 

which the Syr. so far agrees, rendering that runneth, mau read it. Besides, such 

the verb by ^ J,, to explain. Comp. «" "^^1**°° ^""'f scarcely be requisite 

^ •■^t-^' ^ r after >9, and certamly would not corre- 

— ^awi "nja — ^S?ODf ftfrite — very plainly, spend to the force of ]?d^, m order that, 

Deut xxvii. 8. The command, there- with which the hemistich commences. 

fore, has respect to the size, and not to 3. The particles % and i, in ncn, are 

the depth of the writing. nWn, tabUi, correlative, "ijto, from t?;, toflxt appoint, 

having the article, Ewald thmks the denotes, in such connexion, a season or 

prophet refers to the tables which were period of time definitely fixed in the 

openly exhibited in the market-place, purpose of Ood for the occurrence of 

on which public announcements were the predicted events. It is frequently 

graven in large and clear characters, in employed by Daniel in this acceptation, 

common use among the people. The along with yi2, the end, or termination 

article, however, may only designate the of the state of the things comprehended 

tables which were to be employed for in the prophecy. Comp. Dan. viii. 17, 

the purpose. It may merely indicate 19, xi. 27, 35 ; and somewhat similar 

these as definite in the mind of the phraseolo^, chap. viii. 26, x. 14. The 

speaker. This is often the case in term obviously implies that the period 

Hebrew, when it cannot be rendered by was still future, which is also expressed 

the definite article in other languages, by the use of i^, still, yet. This adverb 

For the writing tablets of the ancients, is too closely connected in sense with 

see on Is. viii. 1 . The LXX. have '^, to admit of the rendering of Mi- 

irv((oy, boxwood. The reason why the chaelis: '* There will still come a vision, 

prophecy should be easily legible, is which shall determine the time; "which 

stated to be, that whosoever read it he refers to Jeremiah's prophecy of the 

might run and publish it to all within seventy years. nEr has been variously 

Srn;'; iJir^j Wdr/3d^ ^^^^ Lxx..i.a„x«,syr.fzi. 

struction of their oppressor, and their to come; Vnlg. apparebit ; Targ. ]grA|>y 

own consequent deliverance. Compare pre